Class 8 History Chapter 10 Extra Questions and Answers The Changing World of Visual Arts

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The Changing World of Visual Arts Class 8 Extra Questions History Chapter 10

Question 1.
What was the population of India in 1947?
Almost 345 million.

Question 2.
Who said, “India could not and must not become a Hindu Pakistan ?”
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.

Question 3.
Had the franchise in U.K. or U.S.A. been granted all their citizens at the same time like India?
No, this right had been granted in stages there.

Question 4.
Explain the term, Union List.
A Union List with subjects such as taxes, defence and foreign affairs is the exclusive responsibility of the centre.

Question 5.
What is meant by a State List?
A State List of subjects such as education and health which would be taken care of principally by the states.

Question 6.
Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?
Dr. B.R. Amhedkar.

Question 7.
Why was Nehru met with black flags and slogans during the election campaign in Telugu-speaking districts in 1952?
Telugu-speakers were demanding a separate Andhra Pradesh while the government was reluctant on this issue.

Class 8 History Chapter 10 Extra Questions and Answers The Changing World of Visual Arts

Question 8.
Who was Potti Sriramulu ?
He was the Gandhian leader who died fasting for a separate state for Telugu- speakers.

Question 9.
When has Andhra Pradesh come into existence?
1 October 1953.

Question 10.
When was Bombay divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat?
1 May 1960.

Question 11.
When was Punjab divided into Punjab and Haryana?
1 November 1966.

Question 12.
When was a Planning Commission set up in India?
In 1950.

Question 13.
What was the focus of the Second Five Year Plan?
The plan focused strongly on the development of heavy industries such as steel, and on the building of large dams.

Question 14.
When was the Bhilai Steel Plant set up? Which country helped in setting up the Bhilai Steel Plant?

  • In 1959.
  • The former Soviet Union.

Question 15.
Which international body was formed in 1945?
The United Nations.

Question 16.
What is a Concurrent List?
A Concurrent List, under which would come subjects such as forests and agriculture, in which the centre and the states would have joint responsibility.

Question 17.
State about the compromise in the Constituent Assembly regarding Hindi and English as an official language of India?
A compromise was finally arrived at – while Hindi would be the “official language” of India, English would be used in the courts, the services and communications between one state and another.

Class 8 History Chapter 10 Extra Questions and Answers The Changing World of Visual Arts

Question 18.
What do you mean by the Cold War?
The Cold War referred to the power rivalries and ideological conflicts between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. during 1950s to 1980s. Both countries were creating military alliances.

Question 19.
What was the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)?
Led by statesmen from Egypt, Yugoslavia, Indonesia, Ghana and India, NAM was the movement which urged countries not to join either of the two major alliances.

Question 20.
Who was H. J. Khandekar ? What he said about Harijan candidates to get into the prestigious Indian Administrative Service?

  • He was a member of the Constituent Assembly.
  • He argued, it was the upper castes who were responsible for the Harijans “being unfit today”.

Question 21.
What role did India play during the Cold War?

  • Being a leader of NAM, India played an active role in mediating between the American and Soviet alliances.
  • It tried to prevent war by taking often a humanitarian and moral stand against war.

Question 22.
When was Sinhala recognised as the sole official language of Sri Lanka (then Ceylon)? Why has a civil war raged in the country?

  • In 1956.
  • A civil war raged in Sri Lanka due to the imposition of the Sinhala language on the Tamil-speaking minority.

Question 23.
Why was a States Reorganisation Commission set up? What did it recommend?

  • After the creation of Andhra Pradesh in 1 October 1953, other linguistic communities also demanded their own separate states. That was why a States Reorganisation Commission was set up.
  • It submitted its report in 1956, recommending the redrawing of district and provincial boundaries to form compact provinces of Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu speakers respectively.

Question 24.
State any three problems that the newly independent Indian faced.

  1. As a result of partition, 8 million refugees had come into the country from what was now Pakistan. These people had to be found homes and jobs.
  2. There was the problem of the princely states almost 500 of them, each ruled by a maharaja or a nawab. Each of whom had to be persuaded to join the new Nation.
  3. The new nation had also to adopt a political system that would best serve the hope and expectations of its population.

Question 25.
Name the various divisions in which the population of India was divided in 1947.
There were divisions between :

  • high castes and low castes.
  • Hindu community and other religious communities.
  • the citizens spoke different languages.
  • the people eating different kinds of food.
  • the people having different professions.

Class 8 History Chapter 10 Extra Questions and Answers The Changing World of Visual Arts

Question 26.
Discuss the problems related to development in India at Independence?

  • At Independence, the vast majority of Indians lived in the villages. While farmers and peasants depended on the monsoon for their survival.
  • In the case of non-farm sector, if the crops failed, barbers, carpenters, weave-s and other service groups would not get paid for their services either.
  • Factory workers lived in crowded slams with little access to education or health care.
  • There was urgent need to reduce poverty by increasing the productivity of agriculture and by promoting new jobs creating industries.

Question 27.
State the main features of the Constitution of India?

  • It adopted universal adult franchise. All Indians above the age of 21 (presently 18) would be allowed to vote in state and national elections.
  • It guaranteed equality before the law to all citizens regardless of their caste or religious affiliation.
  • It offered special privileges for the poorest and most disadvantaged Indians.
  • The Constitution sought to balance between the powers of the central government and those of the state governments.

This was done by providing three lists of subjects :

  • a Union List;
  • a State List; and
  • a Concurrent List.

Question 28.
What measures or privileges had our Constitution prescribed for the poorest and the most disadvantaged Indians?

  • The practice of untouchability was abolished.
  • Hindu temples, previously open to only the higher castes, were thrown open to all, including the former untouchables.
  • A certain percentage of seats in legislatures, as well as jobs in government, were reserved for the members of the lowest castes.
  • The Adivasis or Scheduled Tribes were also granted reservations in seats and jobs.

Question 29.
On which grounds was the economic policy of India, during the early few decades criticised?
Why was the focus on heavy industry and State regulation of the economy criticised?
The critics had the following points :

  • This approach had put inadequate emphasis on agriculture.
  • It had neglected primary education.
  • It had not taken account of the environmental implications of economic policies.

Question 30.
To what extent has India ful¬filled the ideals set out in its Constitution?
Critically examine how well has the country done in more than sixty years of Independence?
Examine successes and failures of India during more than sixty years of Independence?
Successes :

  • Despite many bad assumptions, India is still united. People speak different languages or practise different faiths but they have not come in the way of national unity.
  • Many foreign observers had felt that India would soon come under military rule. But India is still democratic. There is free press and an independent judiciary. There have been thirteen successful general elections.

Failures :

  • Even today, the untouchables or the Dalits face violence and discrimi¬nation. In many parts of rural India, they are not allowed access to water sources, temples, parks and other public places.
  • Despite the secular ideals in the Constitution, there have been clashes between different religious groups in many states.
  • The gap between the rich and the poor has grown over the years.
  • The Constitution recognises equality before the law, but in real life, some Indians are more equal than others. Thus, India has achieved a mix response.

Question 31.
How did the partition affect life in Delhi?

  • The population of Delhi Swelled.
  • The kinds of jobs people did changed.
  • The culture of city become different.
  • As streams of Muslims left Delhi for Pakistan. Their place was taken by equally large members of Sikh and Hindu refugee from Pakistan.
  • Nearly 5,00,000 people were added to Delhi’s population, which had a little over 8,00,000 people in 1951.

Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

1. After independence, India faced a series of great challenges. One of them was the refugee problem. As a result of
partition,:- million refugees had come into the country.
(a) 8
(b) 10
(c) 5
(d) 15
(a) 8

2. Which of the following statements is not correct?
(a) In independent India, unity and development had to go hand in hand.
(b) One feature of the Constitution was its adoption of universal adult franchise. All Indians above the age of 18 would be allowed to vote in elections.
(c) India choose to grant the right to vote to all its citizens regardless of gender, class or education.
(d) The Indian Constitution also guaranteed equality before the law to all its citizens.
(b) One feature of the Constitution was its adoption of universal adult franchise. All Indians above the age of 18 would be allowed to vote in elections.

3. Who wrote the following in a letter to the Chief Ministers of states “ we have a Muslim minority who are so large in numbers that they cannot, even if they want, go anywhere else We must give them security and the rights of citizens in a democratic State.”
(a) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar
(b) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(c) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru.
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru.

Class 8 History Chapter 10 Extra Questions and Answers The Changing World of Visual Arts

4. Which statement is not correct in the following?
(a) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar is called the father of the Indian Constitution.
(b) The Constitution provided three lists of subjects: a Union List; a State List and a Concurrent List.
(c) A Gandhian leader Potti Sriramulu died fasting for a separate state for Tamil Speakers.
(d) Andhra Pradesh was the first Indian state to be formed in 1953 on linguistic basis.
(c) A Gandhian leader Potti Sriramulu died fasting for a separate state for Tamil Speakers.

5. In addition to statesmen from India, Yugoslavia and Egypt, leaders from- and also urged countries not to join either of the two major alliances.
(а) Indonesia, Ghana
(b) Sri Lanka, Pakistan
(c) Malaysia, Burma
(d) Nigeria, Kenya.
(а) Indonesia, Ghana.

6. Who was the first Prime Minister of India?
(a) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
(b) J.L. Nehru
(c) Dr. B.R. Ambdekar.
(b) J.L. Nehru.


→ Franchise – It refers to the right to vote.

→ Linguistic – Relating to language.

→ State – Concerned with the government.

Extra Questions for Class 8 Social Science