On this page, you will find NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 10 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes History Chapter 10 SST The Changing World of Visual Arts will seemingly, help them to revise the important concepts in less time.
The Changing World of Visual Arts Class 8 Notes Social Science History Chapter 10
CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 10 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. Changes in the world of visual arts during the colonial period are linked to the wider history of colonialism and nationalism.
2. Several new art forms, styles, materials and techniques were creatively adapted by the Indian artists for local patrons and markets, in elite and popular circles during the time period of colonial rule.
3. European artists came to India along with the British traders and rulers and new styles and norms of painting were brought by them. The pictures produced by them became widely popular in Europe and helped shaping up of western perception of India.
4. European artists brought the idea of Realism with them.
5. The artists from Europe used oil paintings that enables artists to produce images that looked real.
6. Subjects painted were varied but invariably they seemed emphasising the superiority of Britain.
7. ‘Picturesque’ landscape painting was a style of painting that depicted India as a quaint land to be explored by travelling British artists. Its landscape was rugged and wild, seemingly untamed by the human hands.
8. Thomas Daniell and William Daniell were the most famous artists who painted within the tradition of ‘Picturesque’.
9. Portrait painting was a tradition of art that become immensely popular in colonial India.
10. Colonial portraits were life-size images that looked lifelike and real.
11. The size itself projected the importance of patrons who commissioned these portraits.
12. This new style of portraiture also served as ideal means displaying the lavish lifestyles, wealth and status that empire generated.
13. In search of profitable commissions, many European painters came to India.
14. Many Indian Nawabs too began commissioning imposing oil portraits by the European painters.
15. Muhammad Ali Khan was a British pensionary who became dependent of the East India and has commissioned to visiting European artists in his court.
16. There was third category of imperial art called History painting that sought to dramatise and recreate
17. various episodes of British imperial history, and enjoyed great prestige and popularity during the late 18th and early 19th century.
18. British victories in India served as rich material for history painters in Britain.
19. One of the Ist victory paintings was produced by Francis Hayman in 1762 and was placed on public display in the Vauxhall gardens in London. It showed how Robert Clive was welcomed by Mir Jafar and his troops after the Battle of Plassey.
20. Then the celebration painting in which British military triumph seen after they defeated Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the most powerful enemy in 1799 at the famous battle of Seringapatam.
- The painting dramatizes the event and glorifies the British triumphs.
21. Imperial Historical paintings sought to create a public memory of imperial triumphs and the victories that had to be remembered implanted in the memories of the people of India and Britain.
22. Tipu continued to encourage the local traditions of art and had his walls of palace painted by the local artists. The walls of his place at Seringapatam were painted with Mural paintings.
23. The local miniature artists at Murshidabad began adopting element of European realism.
24. With the lost of influence and wealth by the local rulers they were unable to support the painters and pay them to paint for the court.
25. In search of earning, the artists turned to the British.
26. The local painters producing a waste number of images of local plants and animals, historical buildings and monuments, festivals and processions, traders and crafts castes and communities were collected eagerly by the East India Company officials and came to be known as company paintings.
27. A whole new world of popular and developed art was seen in many cities of India.
28. In Bengal around the pilgrimage centre of the temple of Kalighat, local village scroll painters and potters began developing a new style of art.
29. Village artists settled in the city at a very exact time when the cities appeared as an opportunity where people could come and make new living.
30. Village Patuas and Kumors, on shifting to Kalighat, continued these works on mythological themes and produced images of gods and goddeses.
31. Kalighat artists, responding to the world around produced painting on social and political themes.
32. Kalighat pictures were painted in large numbers and sold in the market. The images were engraved in wooden blocks. The carved block was inked pressed against paper and then the woodcut paints that were produced were coloured by hand. In this process, many copies could be produced from the same block.
33. The setup of mechanical press in the different parts of India allowed prints to be produced in a larger numbers and sold at cheap price in market.
34. The Calcutta art studio is one of the most successful press set up in late 19th century and produced lifelike images of eminent Bengali personalities as well as mythological pictures.
35. Towards the end of the 19th century, a strong connection has been established between art and nationalism. Raja Ravi Varma from the family of Maharajas of Travapcore in Kerala was the Ist artist who tried creating a style that was both modern and national.
36. From 1880’s Ravi Varma’s mythological paintings became the rage among the Indian princes and art collectors, who filled their palace galleries with his works.
37. Picture production printing press was set up by Ravi Varma responding to huge popularity and appeal of his paintings.
- The picture production team was set up on the outskirts of Bombay.
38. Bengal saw a new group of nationalist artists who gathered around Abanindranath Tagore (1871 – 1951), the nephew of Rabindranath Tagore.
39. The Bengal group reflected art of Raja Ravi Varma by claiming it westernised and declaring that such styles were unsuitable for depicting the nation ancient myths and legends.
40. The Bengal group broke away from the convention of oil paintings and the realistic style and turned for inspiration to the medieval Indian tradition of miniature painting and the ancient art of Mural painting of Ajanta caves.
41. The groups were even influenced with Japanese artists who visited India during that time for developing an Asian art movement.
42. The effort of defining about what ought to be an authentic. Indian style of art continued.
43. After the 1920’s, a new generation of artists broke away from the style popularized by Abanindranath Tagore.
44. As the debate continued, new movements of art grew with the change in the styles of art.
The Changing World of Visual Arts Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Convention: An accepted norm or style
Engraving: A picture printed onto paper from a piece of wood or metal into which the design or drawing has been cut.
Portrait: A picture of a person in which the face and its expression is prominent. Portraiture: The art of making portraits.
Commission: To formally choose someone to do special piece of work usually against payment.
Mural: A wall painting.
Perspective: The way that objects appear smaller when they are further away and the way parallel lines appear to meet each other at a point in the distance.
Life-study: Study of human figures from living models who pose for the artists.
Notes of History Class 8 Chapter 10 Time Period
1762: One of the first history paintings was produced by Francis Hayman.
1770: Muhammad Ali Khan became a dependent pensioner of the East India Company.
1780: Tipu and Hidar Ali defeated the English troops.
1785: Thomas Deniell& William Deniell (famous artists) came in India.
1799: Tipu Sultan was finally defeated at the famous battle of Srirangapatnam.
1904: A famous book called ‘The Ideals of the East’ published in Japan.