On this page, you will find NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 5 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes History Chapter 5 SST When People Rebel will seemingly, help them to revise the important concepts in less time.
NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 5 Notes When People Rebel
CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 5 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. Mid 18th Century saw the erosion of power of Nawabs and Rajas.
- Loss of their authority and honour.
2. Residents and rulers lost freedom and their revenues and territories were taken away.
3. Many ruling families tried negotiation with the Company in the manner to protect their interests.
4. For example Rani Jhansi, Nana Saheb, and many more.
5. The Company rejected their negotiation pleas.
6. Awadh was the last territory that was annexed by the imposition of subsidiary Alliance 1856.
7. The Company even planned to end Mughal rule and Bahadur Shah Zafar was decided as the last Mughal Ruler in 1856 by Canning (Governor-General).
8. His descendants would be just recognized as Princes.
9. Peasants and zamindars in countryside were resented with high taxes and rigid methods of revenue collection and found themselves under a huge financial debt.
10. Discontent of Indian sepoys employed with the Company.
11. They were unhappy about pay, allowances, and conditions of service.
12. Their religious beliefs were hurt.
13. Sepoys reacted in anger to conditions of countryside also.
14. The British believed that Indian society needed reformation and for that various taxes were passed.
15. English language was promoted.
16. Christian missionaries were allowed to function freely.
17. Indians developed a feeling that the British were destroying their religion, social custom and traditional way of life.
18. Indians rebelled against the policies of the British. They believed in common manner — they all had only an enemy and that was British.
19. People started organising themselves, communication and taking initiative and displaying confidence to turn the situation around.
20. In 1857 after 100 years of conquest and administration, the East India Company (English) faced massive rebellion that was developed as situation in the northern parts of India in 1857.
21. Rebellion was at such great extent that it was said that or regarded by some as the biggest armed resistance to colonialism in the 19th century anywhere in the world.
22. On 29th March 1857, a young soldier was hanged to death named Mangal Pandey.
23. He was hanged for attacking his officers in Barrackpore.
24. Then the refusal on the usage of new cartridge suspected to be greased with fat of cows and pig to protect sepoys religious beliefs.
25. Response of other Indian soldiers in Meerut was quite extraordinary.
26. The Sepoys destructed the British properties and declared war on the Firangi.
27. It was decided to end British rule and setup Bahadur Shah Zafar as ruler of the land.
28. Early morning of next day after 10th May sepoys reached Delhi and as the news spread sepoys in Delhi also rose rebellion.
29. Bahadur Shah Zafar, the ageing emperor had to accept the demand of soldiers forcefully and appoint himself as their leader.
30. Bahadur Shah’s decision of blessing changed the entire rebellion into the mass revolt throughout India as small ruler and Chieftains wanted to regain their control back and this was not even imagined by the British that the small rebellion against the greased cartridges would turn into such a fire.
31. Regiment after Regiment started revolting.
32. People of towns and villages also rose up in rebellion and rallied around local leaders, zamindars and chiefs. They were prepared to establish their authority and fight the British.
- Nana Saheb from Kanpur proclaimed himself Peshwa and governor under Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar.
- Birjis Qadr, son of deposed Nawab Wajid Ali Shah proclaimed himself new Nawab.
- Rani Lakshmibai from Jhansi along with Tantia Tope fought British.
- Rani Avantibai Lodhi of Ramgarh raised and led an army of 4000 against the British.
33. British got defeated in a number of battles.
34. Many new leaders came up eg. Ahmadullah Shah (Maulvi) of Faizabad, Bakht Khan (soldier) took charge of large force of Bareilly who came to Delhi From Bihar and led the joining of Kunwar Singh in the rebel.
35. Leaders and fighters across the Nation joined the fight.
36. The Company fought back, the Company decided to suppress the revolt with all the ways it could adopt.
37. Delhi was recaptured from rebel force on September 1857.
38. Bahadur Shah Zafar was sentenced life imprisonment and was sent with his wife to Rangoon, where he died in Jail on November 1862.
39. The British took two years to completely suppress the rebel.
40. June 1858 – Rani Lakshmibai killed. Similarly, happened to Rani Avantibai.
41. The British tried their best to get the loyalty of the Indians.
- Rewards were announced for the loyal landholders.
- Those who rebelled if surrendered then they were not been killed and their rights to claim over land would not be denied.
42. After suppression of the revolt completely and gaining control of the country at the end of 1859.
- They changed their policies totally.
43. Changes that were introduced by British are as follows:
- Power of British East India Company was transferred to British crown and crown rule was established with passing of New Act in 1858 in the British Parliament.
- Member of British cabinet was appointed as Secretary of State for India.
- Advisory council was set up and named India Council.
- Governor-General India was given title of Viceroy (Representative of Crown).
44. Ruling chiefs of the country were assured that their territory would never be annexed in future.
- Indian rulers were allowed to hold their rule but under the subordination of the crown.
45. It was decided to increase the number of European soldiers and reduce the proportion of Indian soldiers in the army. Even the recruitment process was enhanced.
46. The land and property of the Muslims were confiscated on large scale as they were treated with suspicion and hostility because they were believed to be mainly responsible for the rebel in such a big way.
47. It was decided by the British to respect customary religious and social practices of the people of India.
48. Policies were made for the protection of zamindars and landlords and they were given the security of right over their lands.
49. With this, the rebellion concluded and all over India a new history had begun after 1857.
When People Rebel Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Mutiny: When soldiers as a group disobey their officers in the army.
Firangis: Foreigners, the term reflects an attitude of contempt and is used for Englishmen.
Customary: According to the customs or usual practices associated with particular society, or set of circumstances.
Confiscated: Take or seize (someone’s property) with authority.
Paramount: More important than anything else; supreme.
Notes of History Class 8 Chapter 5 Time Period
1849: Governor-General Dalhousie announced that after the death of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the family of the king would be shifted out of the Red Fort and given another place in Delhi to reside in.
1856: (i) Governor-General Canning decided that Bahadur Shah Zafar would be the last Mughal king and after his death, his descendants would be recognized as princes.
(ii) A new law passed by the Company that every new person who join employment in the Company’s Army had to agree to serve overseas if required.
1857: (i) MangalPandey was hanged to death (29 March, 1857).
(ii) Sepoys mutinied in several places (May, 1857).
(iii) Sepoys rushed to Delhi from Meerut (10 May, 1857).
(iv) Delhi was recaptured from the rebel forces (September, 1857).
1858: (i) The power of the East India Company transferred to the British Crown.
(ii) Bahadur Shah Zafar and his wife were sent to prison in Rangoon.
1862: Bahadur Shah Zafar died in Rangoon jail (November, 1862).