On this page, you will find NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 8 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes History Chapter 8 SST Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation will seemingly, help them to revise the important concepts in less time.
Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation Class 8 Notes Social Science History Chapter 8
CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 8 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. English or British in India also aimed at civilising the natives other than the work of equatorial conquest and control over revenues.
2. Ideas of education which is taken for granted by us evolved in the last two hundred years.
3. Orientalist tradition:
4. In 1783, William Jones, junior judge at Supreme Court of the Company, arrived in Calcutta.
5. He was additionally a linguist who had studied Greek and Latin at Oxford, knew French, English, Arabic, and Persian. He even learnt Sanskrit from a pandit at Calcutta.
6. After he studied ancient India texts, laws, philosophy, religion, politics, morality, arithmetic, medicines and other sciences, he discovered that the interests he had were shared by many British officials in Calcutta.
7. With many officials of same interests Jones set up the Asiatic Society of Bengal and started a journal called Asiatick Researchers.
8. Jones and Colebrooke had shared a deep respect for the ancient cultures both of India and the west.
9. According to them Indian society attained glory in the ancient and had declined subsequently.
10. According to him understanding ancient period would enhance the future development of India.
11. In the process of becoming guardians of the Indian culture and its master the British specially Jones and Colebrooke went about discovering ancient texts; understanding their meaning and translating them in their own way.
12. The need to set up institutions that would encourage the study of ancient Indian text and teach Sanskrit and Persian literature and poetry was felt. It was felt because the British wanted to win a place in hearts of the natives.
13. The objective to set up institutions concluded with the establishment of madrasa set up in Calcutta in 1781, and the Hindu College in Benaras in 1791. These would be useful in the administration of the country – this was the belief of the Britishers.
14. The view of mastering and guardianship of Indian culture was not acceptable by all the Britishers it had seen a strong criticism also.
15. Criticism argued that the eastern literature was non-serious and light hearted and according to criticisms against orientalist it was wrong for British to spend so much effort encouraging the Ancient History.
16. James Mill was one among who attacked and criticized orientalists. According to him aim of education ought to be to teach what was actually useful and practical. So that the Indian would get familiar with the advancements of the west.
17. 1830 saw a great attack on the orientalists and one of the influential critics included Thomas Babington Macaulay who saw India as an uncivilised country. He urged British govt, in India to stop wasting public money in oriental learning.
18. Macaulay emphasised on teaching the English language in manner of civilising, changing the tastes value and cultures of the Indians.
19. The English Education Act 1835 was introduced following the Macaulay’s minute. It decided to make English as the medium of instruction for the higher and stop the oriental institutions promotions.
20. In 1854 educational despatch was sent to the Governor-General in India by the court of Directions of the East India Company in London. Issued by the President of the Board of Control of the Company named Charles Wood the despatch came to be known as Wood’s despatch.
21. Wood’s despatch aimed at emphasizing the practical benefit of the system of European learning.
22. The practical usage of Wood’s despatch pointed to Economic European learning. It was basically aimed at changing taste and desires of Indians and creating demand of the British goods in Indian market.
23. Wood’s despatch even argued that European learning would lead to impersonification of the moral character of the Indians.
24. Several measures introduced following the Wood’s Despatch 1854.
25. Education departments were set up with aim of extending control over matters regarding education.
26. Steps to establish in Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.
27. Universities established a system of university education.
28. Attempts were made in bringing the change within the school education also.
29. Adam report in 1830 found that there were over 1 lakh pathshalas in Bengal and Bihar with the enrollment of not more than 20 students each.
30. Adam discovered that the flexible pathshala system was suited best to local needs.
31. After 1854 interference of the British in local pathshalas brought change within the system, imposing routines, establishing rules, ensuring regular inspections.
32. Teaching was not based on textbooks and learning was to be tested through the system of annual examination.
33. Pathshalas accepting the new rules were supported through government grants.
34. The discipline imposed on Pathshalas resulted in inability to attend school by the children of poor families as during the time of harvest the children of poor families had to work in the fields. This inability was considered as the lack of desire of learning by the British.
35. Some Indians felt that western education would help the country in getting modernised so it was not only the British who were thinking about the education in India.
36. Mahatma Gandhi believed that the English education would enslave Indians. So at the time of national movement he urged students to leave educational institutions in order to show the British that Indians were no longer willing to be enslaved.
37. Mahatma Gandhi argued that education ought to develop a person’s mind and soul. Literacy on simply learning to read and write by itself did not court as education. So according to him in manner of creating capacity to understand one had to develop it with practical practices.
38. Rabindranath Tagore’s childhood experience of school days shaped Tagore’s ideas of education.
39. The manner to make school where child would be happy without any suffocations as he felt in his childhood. Rabindranath Tagore started the institution in 1901.
40. He believed in getting out of the restricting discipline of the schooling system set up by the British. Tagore’s school was set up 100 km away from Calcutta in a rural setting in manner to encourage creative learning.
41. Tagore saw his type of school as an adobe of peace (Santiniketan)
42. In many senses the way Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi thought about education in India was similar. Many individuals and thinkers thought differently about the national education system and its betterment. And this led to debate about this “national education” continuing till after independence.
Civilising the Native, Educating the Nation Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Linguist: Someone who knows and studies several languages.
Madrasa: An Arabic word for a place of learning; any type of school or college.
Orientalists: The one who has scholarly knowledge of the language and culture of Asia.
Munshi: A person who can read, write and teach Persian.
Vernacular: A term generally used to refer to a local language or dialect as distinct from what is seen as the standard language. In colonial countries like India, the Britishers used the term to mark the difference between the local languages of everyday use and English the language of the important masters.
Despatch: A message or report.
Notes of History Class 8 Chapter 8 Time Period
1773: William Jones, a junior judge at the Supreme Court arrived in Calcutta.
1781: A madarasa was set up in Calcutta.
1791: Hindu College was established in Benaras.
1830: William Adam, A Scottish missionary, toured the districts of Bengal and Bihar.
1835: English Education Act was introduced.
1854: The Court of directors of the East India Company in London sent an educational dispatch to the Governor-General of India, known as Wood’s Despatch.