On this page, you will find NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 9 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes History Chapter 9 SST Women, Caste and Reform will seemingly, help them to revise the important concepts in less time.
Women, Caste and Reform Class 8 Notes Social Science History Chapter 9
CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 9 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. 200 years ago things and conditions of the country were very different from that of today’s. Today’s society is far better from that of 200 years ago.
2. There was injustice done to women in past society.
3. Society was divided into castes.
4. Over time many of these social evils got extinct or on the verge of getting extinct.
5. Reasons behind the slow and gradual social change in society and getting it transformed includes the development of the new forms of communication.
6. Social evils were often taken as debates by Indian reformers and the reform groups in an attempt to change the society of that time practiced the debate with conclusion for the improvement of the society.
7. Raja Rammohan Roy (1772 – 1833) found reform association known as Brahmo Sabha and later it was known as Brahmo Samaj in Calcutta.
8. Reformers were the ones who felt that the changes were necessary in society and unjust practices needed to be done away with. This can be done according to them only by giving up old practices and orthodoxy and adopting a new way of life.
9. Raja Rammohan Roy was keen to spread western education in the country and bring freedom and equality for women.
10. Roy began campaigning against the ill practices of sati and was particularly moved by the problems faced by widows in their lives.
11. Roy’s writings showed that ancient texts do not sanction any widow burning.
12. Even the Britishers also criticised Indian traditions and customs.
13. In 1829, sati was banned.
14. The later reformers also adopted the way Raja Rammohan Roy had adopted. They used to find a verse or sentence in the ancient texts supporting their point of view as challenging a practice seemed harmful.
15. In 1856, widow remarriage law was passed by the Britishers after the suggestion by famous reformer Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar who claimed that ancient texts suggested that widow could remarry.
16. In south Veerasalingam Pantulu formed an association for widow remarriage.
17. Intellectuals and reformers in Bombay pledged themselves to working for the same cause.
18. Founder of reform association Arya Samaj, Swami Dayanand Saraswati also supported widow remarriage.
19. Conservatives continued opposing the new law.
20. Many reformers thought that education for girls was necessary in order to improve their condition.
21. Schools for girls were set up in Calcutta and Bombay.
22. Most of educated women were taught at home only by their liberal fathers or husbands. Some educated themselves for eg. Rashsundari Debi who secretly learned to read and write in the flickering light of candles at night.
23. School for girls in Punjab by Arya Samaj and in Maharashtra by Jyotirao Phule were set up.
24. Women of aristocratic Muslim households in North India read the Koran in Arabic. Some interpreted verses from Koran to argue for women’s education. This was in regard to encourage women to read about religion and domestic management in language they could understand.
25. By the 1880’s, women began entering the universities.
26. Many started writing critical views about the women in society.
27. example, Tarabai Shinde published a book – Stripurushtulna, criticising the social differences between men and women.
28. Pandita Ramabai (Sanskrit scholar) wrote book on miserable lives of upper caste Hindu women and founded widows home at Poona providing shelter for widows. Women there were trained to support themselves economically.
29. Some women not only limited themselves to writing books and all but also joined various nationalist and socialist movements from 1920’s.
30. After independence full suffrage was promised to women and men by nationalist leaders.
31. Reforms and social reformers also criticized caste inequalities.
32. In an effort to get rid of caste prejudices, many reformers violated caste taboos.
33. Christian missionaries began setting up schools for tribal groups and lower-caste children equipped with some resources to make their way into this changing world.
34. Poor people began leaving villages looking up for jobs in the cities.
35. Some also went out of country.
36. They all saw this as an opportunity to get away from the oppressive hold that upper caste landowners exercised over their lives and the daily humiliation they suffered.
37. By the 2nd half of the 19th century, people within the non-Brahmin caste began organising movements against caste discrimination and demanded social equality and justice.
38. The sects and movement were formed to go against the ill caste practices with their leaders from NonBrahman castes trying to change the habits and practices which provoked the contempt of dominant castes. They tried creating sense of self-esteem among the subordinate castes.
39. Jyotirao Phule, one of the most vocal leaders among the “low castes’ people who was born in 1827 and studied in school set up by the Christian missionaries, carried many reforms.
40. He attacked Brahmans who were claiming their supremacy since they were Aryans.
41. He claimed that before the rule of the Aryans, there existed a golden age when warrior-peasants tilled land and ruled the Maratha countryside in just and fair ways.
42. The Satyashodhak Samaj was founded by him, propagating caste equality.
43. In 1873, Phule wrote a book named Gulamgiri (Slavery).
44. He established link between the conditions of the lower castes in India with the black slaves in America.
45. The movement of caste reform continued in the 20th century by the other leaders like Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, E.V. Ramaswamy etc.
46. Dr Ambedkar, born in Mahar family, experienced caste discrimination in every day life.
47. After finishing school, Dr Ambedkar went to the U.S. for highers studies after getting a fellowship.
48. After his arrival back to India, he wrote extensively about the upper caste power in contemporary society.
49. In 1927 Dr Ambedkar started temple entry movement and Mahar caste followers participated in it.
50. Three such movements were led by Dr Ambedkar for temple entry between 1927 and 1935. He aimed at making everyone see the power of caste prejudices within the society.
51. Early 20th century experienced the Non-Brahman movement.
52. Non-Brahman caste was getting access to education, wealth and influence.
53. Brahmanical claim to power was challenged extensively.
54. Ramaswamy Naicker or Periyar who became Congress member left Congress in disgust when he found that at a feast organised by the Nationalists, seating arrangements followed caste distinctions, lower castes were made to sit at a distance from the upper castes.
55. Periyar founded the self-respect movement.
56. He believed that untouchables had to free themselves, from all religions in order to achieve social equality.
57. Periyar was an outspoken critique of Hindu scripture, especially the codes of Manu, the Bhagavad Gita and the Ramayana.
58. The forceful speeches, writing and movement of lower caste leaders did lead to rethinking and some self criticism among the upper caste Nationalist leaders.
59. The debates and struggles over the caste continued even beyond the colonial period and are still going on in present time.
Women, Caste and Reform Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Suffrage: Right to vote.
Stripurushtulna: A book of comparison between men and women, published by Tarabai Shinde.
Indigenous: Originating or occurring naturally in a particular place; Native.
Aryan: Term meaning noble used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.
Gulamgiri: Means slavery – book written by Phule in 1873.
Notes of History Class 8 Chapter 9 Time Period
1772-1833: Period of Raja Rammohan Roy.
1827: Jyotirao Phule was bom.
1829: Sati was banned.
1830: The BrahmoSamaj formed.
1856: Permitting widow remarriage.
1864: The Veda Samaj established in Madras (Chennai).
1867: The PrarthanaSamaj established at Bombay by Swami Vivekananda.
1873: Phule wrote a book named Gulamgiri.
1875: (i) Swami Dayanand founded the AryaSamaj.
(ii) The Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College founded by Sayyid Ahmed Khan at Aligarh later became the Aligharh Muslim University.
1927-35: Ambedkar started a temple entry movement.
1929: A Law preventing child marriage called Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed.