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Working of Institutions Class 9 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 5
CBSE Class 9 Civics Chapter 5 Notes Understanding the Lesson
1. In a democracy the rulers have to follow some rules and procedures. They have to work with and within institutions.
2. Three institutions are those that play a key role in major decisions-legislature, executive and judiciary. These institutions together carry on the work of government.
3. A democracy works well when these institutions perform functions assigned to them. The Constitution of any country lays down basic rules on the powers and functions of each institution.
4. In India, a national assembly of elected representatives is called Parliament. At the state level this is called Legislative or Legislative Assembly.
5. Parliament is the final authority for making laws in any country. It is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policy in any country.
6. In our country, the Parliament consists of two houses-The council of states or the Rajya Sabha and the house of the people or the Lok Sabha. The President of India is a part of the Parliament.
7. Our Constitution gives the Rajya Sabha some special powers over the states. But on most matters, the Lok Sabha exercises supreme power.
8. The Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers. Only a person who enjoys the support of the majority of the members in the Lok Sabha is appointed the Prime Minister.
9. The executive execute the policies of the government. In a democratic country, two categories make up the executive-the political executive and the permanent executive or civil services.
10. Persons working in civil services are called civil servants. They remain in office even when the ruling party changes. These officers work under political executive and assist them in carrying out the day to day administration.
11. The political executive has more power than the non-political executive. It means the minister is more powerful than the civil servant. The reason behind this is that the minister is elected by the people and thus empowered to exercise the will of the people on their behalf.
12. Prime Minister is the most important political institution in the country. The President appoints the leader of the majority party or the coalition of parties that commands a majority in the Lok Sabha, as Prime Minister.
13. After the appointment of the Prime Minister, the president appoints other ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. There are about 60 to 80 Ministers of different ranks-Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of State with independent charge and Minister of State.
14. The cabinet works as a team. The ministers may have different views and opinions, but everyone has to own up to every decision of the cabinet. The Cabinet is assisted by the cabinet secretariat.
15. The Prime Minister is the most powerful within the cabinet. He/She chairs cabinet meetings and coordinates the work of different departments. His decisions are final in case of disagreements between departments.
16. In recent years the rise of coalition politics has imposed certain constraints on the power of the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister of a coalition government cannot take decisions as he likes.
17. The President is the head of the state. In our political system the head of the state exercises only nominal powers. His/her functions are to a large extent ceremonial . He supervises the overall functioning of all the political institutions in the country so that they operate in harmony to achieve the objectives of the state.
18. All governmental activities take place in the name of the President. All laws and major policy decisions of the government are issued in his/her name. All major appointments are made in the name of the President.
19. In the last comes the judiciary. It included all the courts at different levels in a country. The Indian judiciary consists of a Supreme Court for the entire nation, High Courts in the states, District Courts and the courts at local level.
20. The Supreme Court controls the judicial administration in the country. Its decisions are binding on all other courts of the country.
21. In India, courts are independent of the legislature and the executive. The judges do not act on the direction of the government or according to the wishes of the party in power.
22. The judiciary in India is one of the most powerful in the world. The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution of the country.
23. The powers and the independence of the Indian judiciary allow it to act as the guardian of the Fundamental Rights.
24. Anyone can approach the courts of public interest is hurt by the actions of government. This is called public interest litigation. The courts intervene to prevent the misuse of the government’s power to make decisions.
Working of Institutions Class 9 CBSE Notes Important Terms
Government: A set of institutions that have the power to make, implement and interpret laws so as to ensure an orderly life. It administers and supervises over citizens and resources of a country.
Office memorandum: A communication issued by an appropriate authority stating the policy or decision of the government.
State: Political association occupying a definite territory, having an organised government and possessing power to make domestic and foreign policies. Governments may change, but the state continues.
Legislature: An assembly of people’s representatives with the power to enact laws for a country.
Executive: A body of persons having the authority to initiate major policies, make decisions and implement them on the basis of the Constitution and laws of the country.
Political institution: A set of procedures for regulating the conduct of government and political life in the country.
Coalition government: A government formed by an alliance of two or more political parties, usually when no single party enjoys majority support of the members in a legislature.
Reservations: A policy that declares some positions in government employment and educational institutions ‘reserved’ for people and communities who have been discriminated against, are disadvantaged and backward.
Judiciary: An institution empowered to administer justice and provide a mechanism for the resolution of legal disputes. All the courts in the country are collectively referred to as judiciary.