Online Education for Democratic Rights Class 9 Extra Questions Civics Chapter 6
How many fundamental rights have given to the Indians by the Constitution?
How many rights are there in the Right to Freedom?
Is an Indian state allowed to discriminate against a citizen on the basis of place of birth?
In which form does the Indian Constitution provides for special provisions while guaranteeing the right to equality?
The Indian Constitution provides for special provisions in the form of reserve posts while guaranteeing right to equality.
To whom the reserved posts have been provided?
The reserved posts have been provided to the scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and to the backward classes.
Which of the fundamental rights has abolished untouchability?
Right to equality.
What will be done to a person practising untouchability?
A person practising untouchability would be punished by law.
What kind of titles have not been abolished by the constitution?
The Constitution has not abolished two types of the titles
- Military titles
- Academic titles.
On what basis the government can restrict the fundamental rights?
The government can restrict the fundamental rights in the interest of the independence, sovereignty and integrity of the nation.
Name the various kinds of the writs.
- Habeas Corpus
- Quo Warranto
Who can issue the writs?
During an emergency who is allowed to suspend the Right to Constitutional Remedies?
The Central Government.
Under which of the Fundamental rights the titles have been abolished by the government?
Right to Equality.
By whom a citizen can be denied his life and liberty?
With do you think that the constitutions of different countries have sections on rights?
It is so only to emphasise that such rights are fundamental for the development of human personality.
Do the citizens of all the countries have rights ensured to them?
No, really Until recently, the people of South Africa (under white minority rule) had no rights ensured, to them.
Do all the countries have their rights codified?
No. the rights given to the people of United Kingdom are based on common law.
Suppose there are no traffic rules in our country, what would have happened?
Either accidents or traffic jams.
What is meant by rights?
Rights are reasonable claims of the individual recognised by society and sanctioned by law.
What type of right to earn a reasonable wage is?
Right to work.
Whom are political rights available to?
Political rights are available only to the citizens, and not to the foreigners.
What would happen to democracy if there are no rights?
Democracy becomes meaningless if we do not have rights and the means to secure them.
When do we celebrate Human Rights Day?
December 10, every year.
How are the rights in France described as?
Rights of Man.
Mention anyone right as incorporated in the US Bill of Rights.
Freedom of speech.
Where did the US forces put about 600,to people in 2002?
In a prison in Guantanamo Bay.
When did the terrorist attack on USA?
September 11, 2001.
In which country, the non-Muslims can follow their religions, but only in private.
What did the Serbs demand of Kosovo Albanian in April 1999?
Either the Kosovo Albanians leave the country or accept the dominance of the Serbs.
When was the National Human Rights Commission set up in India?
Rights are those conditions of social life without which no man can seek to be his best self. They are claims recognised by society and protected by law.
Mention some qualities of rights.
Some .qualities of rights are as follows:
- Right is claim which has to be recognised by others. My right should be respected as should be yours.
- Right is recognised by society. It is social in nature. What is against society is not.a right. What is against the interest of society is also not a right.
- Right has to be protected and Sanctioned by law.
Mention some types of rights with example.
Rights are of different types. They may be classified as civil, political, economic and social and cultural rights: Right to life, to equality, to family, right to freedoms, to acquire and own property, etc. are civil rights. Right to vote, to contest elections, and to seek any political office are political rights.
Right to work, to earn a reasonable wage, and to fulfil basic needs are economic rights. Right to culture, to religion, to speak in one’s own language, to get education, and to lead a decent life are social and cultural rights. However, all these rights are interconnected. These days we call all of them together as human rights.
Are all types of rights available to all the people? State with examples.
Some of the rights are available to citizens as individuals. For example, the right to life is one such a right. Some rights are available to persons as members of a community. For example, the right to culture or language. Some rights are available to all persons residing in a country, whether one is a citizen or not.
For example, European or the refugees from Bangladesh or Sri Lanka living in India have certain rights along with Indian citizens. Similarly, Indians living in the United States too have some rights like that of the American citizens. Some right are available to citizens of a specific age. For example, the right to vote or to contest in elections only when one grows up.
Discuss the relationship between rights and democracy.
Rights are necessary for the development of society, individual personality and for the realisation of human potential. Democracy becomes meaningless if we do not have rights and the means to secure them. It is the availability of these rights that make any political system democratic.
Even among democracies, we can know how democratic a country is by looking at the kind of rights available to its people and to what extent they are effective. So the expansion of democracy in any country is closely linked to the expansion of citizens’ rights. Democracy and citizens’ rights are therefore mutually complementary.
Explain briefly the evolution of rights.
Rights did not emerge all of a sudden. They had evolved over a long time. They are a result of struggles of people. They change with changes in society. New rights emerge as societies develop. Over the last two hundred years, most democracies have adopted basic rights as essential ingredients of their constitutions and government.
The French National Assembly recognized certain rights of the citizens. It was called the Declaration of the Rights of Man. It proclaimed that all citizens are ‘equal in the eyes of the law. All have an equal right to all public places and employment according to their capacity and talent. In the same year, a Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution of the United States, of America. It gave to American citizens rights such as freedom of speech press, religion, assembly and to petition the government.
Write is short note on Human Rights.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations in 1948 was an important milestone in the long struggle for rights in the world. It recognized certain rights as fundamental to human life. They are the right to life, liberty and security of person; the right to freedom of opinion and expression: the right to freedom of throughout, conscience and religion: and the right to own property.
Point out some aspects of the Rights to equality enjoyed by the citizens of India.
Right to equality is one of the most important fundamental rights provided by the Constitution.
These rights have been given in the Articles 14 to 18 of the Indian Constitution.
- Article 14 establishes equality before the law, It says the state shall not deny to any person equality before the law or equal protec¬tion of the laws within the territory of India.
- Article 15 prohibits any sort of discrimination among the citizens of the Republic on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
- Article 16 of the Constitution of India provides equal opportunities in all fields of public employment.
- Article 17 has erased the age-long slur on the face of the Indian social order. Practising of. untouchability in any form has been made an offence punishable by law.
- Article 18 puts an end to all the titles other than educational and military.
Thus, the Indian citizens have been provided the right to equality to enjoy their lives.
Describe special provisions which are provided for the advancement of the backward classes.
Special provisions are also provided for the advancement of backward classes of citizens and those of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Equality does not mean that everyone gets, the same treatment, no matter what they need. Right to equality allows special treatment in favour of persons who belong to the weaker sections. For example, government reserves some seats in public educational institutions, or provide stipends to such persons. Similarly, government reserves some posts in favour of backward classes of citizens who are not adequately represented in government services.
But for such special provisions, it would not be possible for the boys and girls of these groups to get admission in premier educational institutions or to get good jobs. These special provisions and reservations are aimed at promoting socio-economic equality. For promoting social equality, the Constitution forbids the practice of untouchability in any form. Untouchability refers hr any belief or social practice which looks down upon people on account of their birth with certain caste labels. Such practice denies them interaction with others or access to public places as equal citizens. So the Constitution made untouchability a punishable offence.
“The right to freedom is a cluster of six freedoms.” Explain.
The right to freedom given by the constitution to its citizens includes six freedom rights. Hence the right to freedom is called a cluster of six freedoms.
These rights are the following;
- Freedom of speech and expression.
- Freedom to assemble peacefully and without arms.
- Freedom to form associations and unions.
- Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.
- Freedom to reside and settle and
- Freedom to adopt in any profession or the right to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
Every citizen has the right to all these freedoms. That means you cannot exercise your freedom in such a manner that violates others’ right to freedom. Your freedoms should not cause public nuisance or disorder. You are free to do everything which injures no one else. Freedom is the absence of interference by other’s in our affairs, so far as such affairs do not adversely affect other’s lives.
So our freedoms have some limitations. However, such restrictions have to be reasonable. They should be as per the law. Accordingly, the government imposes certain restrictions on our freedoms in the larger interests of the society.
The Constitution ensures protection of individual life and personal liberty. It says that no person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. That means no government or police officer can interfere with the life and liberty of a citizen unless his action is supported by some provision of law.
Write short notes on:
(i) Right Against Exploitation: This is a very important fundamental right. Earlier people were made to do work free of charge for landlords or the wealthy persons. This was known as beggar or forced labour.
It was the kind of labour which was done without any wage in return. Begar is now a crime and punishable by law.
Providing this right the Constitution also forbids employing of children below the age of 14 years in dangerous jobs like factories arid mines. This right makes us conscious about the fact that the children are our assets. They must he allowed to get education and lead happy childhood.
In actual practice, it is very easily seen that the children are working in much less wages. This is done because the child labour is much cheap. Children in fact cannot work like an adult hence they are given low wages. This is, however, a gross violation of the spirit and provisions of the constitution. In this situation, the right against exploitation is a legal weapon to protect today’s children. This right is considered a legal weapon because if this right is violated, one can go to the court of law to get justice.
(ii) Right to Freedom of Religion: Ours is a secular country. That means the government of India would not give any undue bias or preference to any religion. Every religion is equal before the state. Citizens of India are free to practise their respective religions. This is one of the fundamental rights of the citizens given by the Constitution. Foremost objective part of this right is to sustain the principle, of secularism in the country. No state-run institutions can give religious education. However, religious communities are free to set up charitable institutions of their own.
(iii) Cultural and Educational Rights: India is a vast country with a number of religions, languages as well as cultures. Hence the Indian Constitution provides special measures to protect the rights of the minorities. Any community which has a language and script of its own has the right to conserve and develop them. No citizen can be discriminated against for, admission in state or state-aided institutions because of religion or language. All minorities, religious or linguistic, can set up their own educational institutions. Thus, they are able to preserve and develop their culture.
How can we secure our fundamental rights?
One important characteristic of the rights in the Constitution is that they are enforceable. We have a right to seek the enforcement of the above-mentioned rights. This is called the Right to Constitutional Remedies. This itself is a Fundamental Right. This right makes other rights effective. It is possible that sometimes our rights may be violated by fellow’ citizens, private bodies or by the government.
When any of our right is violated we can seek remedy through courts. If it is a Fundamental Right we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High Court of a state. That is why, Dr Ambedkar called the Right to Constitutional Remedies as the heart and soul of our Constitution.
Fundamental Rights are guaranteed against the actions of the Legislatures, the Executive, and any other authorities instituted by the government. There can be no law or action that violates the Fundamental Rights. If any act of the Legislature or the Executive takes away or limits any of the Fundamental Rights it will be invalid. We can challenge such law’s of the central and state governments, the policies and actions of the government or the governmental organizations like the nationalized banks.
The Supreme Court and High Courts are empowered to declare such laws or acts as invalid. They also enforce the Fundamental Rights against private individuals and bodies. The Supreme Court and High Courts have tire power to issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights. They award compensation for the violation.
What are the rights guaranteed to the citizens of South Africa?
The Constitution of South Africa guarantees its citizens several kinds of new rights. Some of these are :
- Rights to privacy, so that citizens or their home cannot be searched, their phones cannot be tapped, their communication cannot be opened.
- Right to an. environment that is not harmful to their health or well being
- Rights to have access to adequate housing.
- Right to have access to health care services, sufficient food and water; no one may be refused emergency medical treatment.
Objective Type Questions
1. Put (✓) before right sentences and (✗) before wrong sentences.
(i) Begar is a crime and punishable by law.
(ii) The Constitution never imposes restrictions on the rights of freedom.
(iii) The Constitution provides special measures to protect the rights of the minorities.
(iv) Right to Constitutional Remedies is not as much important as it is considered.
(v) The court of law stands as a guard against the violation of the fundamental rights.
2. Complete the following sentences:
(i) Democracy is not merely a ………………………… term.
(ii) Directive Principles promote an environment to make ………………………… life comfortable.
(iii) The ………………………… provides special measures to protect the rights of the minorities.
(iv) To safeguard public property is a Fundamental ………………………… .
(v) We must cherish and …………………………the noble ideas of freedom struggle.
3. Choose the correct answer from the alternatives given below:
(i) The constitution of India has granted the following number of fundamental rights :
(ii) Our rights are protected by the following right:
(a) Right to Equality
(b) Right to freedom
(c) Right against exploitation
(d) Right to Constitutional Remedies.
(d) Right to Constitutional Remedies.
(iii) Untouchability is a crime against:
(a) Law only
(b) Constitution only
(c) Both law and constitution
(d) None of the above.
(c) Both law and constitution
(iv) Right to equality has the following aspect:
(d) All above.
(d) All above.