Physical Features of India Class 9 Extra Questions Geography Chapter 2
What is the name of the highest range of the Himalayas?
What is the average altitude of the Himalayas ?
What is the length of the Himalayas?
Nearly 2500 km.
Point out the height of the highest peak of the world.
The highest peak of the world is the Mount Everest. Its height is 8848 mts.
What is meant by an I-shaped valley?
I-shaped valley is meant by the valley having vertical walls on either sides.
Name the state where Sahyadri is located.
What do you know about Ghilka?
Chilka is one of the freshwater lagoons of the eastern coastal plain of India.
By which name the Dihang is famous?
What is a bar?
It is a deposit of sand or mud in a river channel.
Which hills are comprised by the Purvachal?
The Patkai Bum, The Naga hills, The Mizo hills.
How the alluvial fans are formed?
The alluvial fans are formed by the Himalayan rivers which flow down the slopes of the mountains and reach the plains.
What is the famous name of Tsangpo?
Point out the characteristics of I-shaped valleys.
I-shaped valleys have steep vertical’ walls on either side of the river.
In how many directions the Himalayas are divided into east-west direction?
What is the height of Nanda Devi?
Where is the Satpura range located?
- Madhya Pradesh and in
Where is Sh’iwalik?
- Himachal Pradesh and in
In which coast is cochin situated?
Where is New Moor Island?
In the Bay of Bengal.
To which physiographic division of India does the Aravalli belong?
To the Mountainous Range.
Which two forces are responsible for shaping the present landform features of India?
The two forces, mainly responsible for shaping the present landform features of India are the following:
- Internal movements below the earth’s crust.
- External forces operating on the surface of the earth.
What are tectonic plates?
Tectonic plates are also known as the lithospheric plates. These are the plates which are resulted from the internal heat of the earth and the currents of the semi-molten rocks which begin to move towards the crust and tear it apart dividing into large plates.
These are the seven major tectonic plates :
- South America.
- North America,
- Indo- Australian,
Which continents of today were part of the Gondwanaland?
The continents of today which were the part of Ganwanaland are the following:
- South America,
- Parts of Asia including India.
What is the ‘Bhabar’?
Bhabar is one of the most important type of Indian relief. In fact, a narrow belt covered with pebbles lies along the foot of the Shiyaliks from the Indus to the Tista. These are laid down by numerous streams descending the slope of the river bed. This belt is about 80 to 16 km in width and is known as the ‘Bhabar’.
Why is the peninsular massif considered the oldest landmass?
The peninsular massif is considered the oldest landmass because, it is, geologically, one of the ancient landmasses on the earth’s surface. It was once a part of the Gondwanaland till its surface and drifting, laying somewhere near the south pole along with Australia, South Africa and South America.
How are the Himadri Himalayas different from the Himachal Himalayas?
The difference between the Himadri Himalayas and the Himachal Himalayas can’ be stated as under:
- This range of Himalayas is the middle range of the Himalayas.
- It is also known as the middle Himalayas.
- Its average altitude is between 3700 and 4500 metres.
- It contains all the important hill stations, example: Dharamsala, Dalhousie, Shimla.
Distinguish between Island groups of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
|Island Groups of the of Bengal||Island Groups of the Arabian sea|
|1. The Andaman and Nicobar group of lay in the Bay of Bengal.||1. The Lakshadweep group of islands lay in the Arabian Sea.|
|2. This group of islands consists of as many as 200 islands spread Over an area of 350 km.||2. This group- of islands consists of small coral islands. These are 36 in number spread over to a mere 32 sq km.|
|3. The islands are large and numerous.||3. These islands are small and less numerous.|
|4. The islands form a lush green, densely forested and pictures of the archipelago.||4. The islands are characterised by a great diversity in terms of flora and fauna.|
(i) Siwaliks are prone to landslides.
(ii) Eastern coastal plains are more fertile.
(i) As the Siwaliks are made of unconsolidated sediments, they are prone to landslides.
(ii) As the eastern coastal plains have thick- alluvial deposits in the delta tracks, they are relatively more fertile.
Explain the characteristic features of the Peninsular Plateau.
The following are the characteristic features of the Peninsular plateau:
- It is a tableland composed of the old crystalline ignores and metamorphic rocks.
- It is the oldest landmass, formed due to the .breaking and drafting of the Gondwanaland.
- It represents a senile topography characterised by broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills.
- It is divided into two broad divisions, the central Highlands and the Deccan plateau.
How are the Arabian sea formed?
During the formation: of the Himalayas, an extensive volcanic eruption took place in the north-western part of the plateau. This part was subsided, the Indian Ocean advanced to occupy- this depression And it resulted into the formation of the Arabian sea.
Write short notes on the following;
(i) The Middle Himalayas.
The MiddleHimalaya is, also Rnwon as Himachal. It lies to the south of the Himadri, It extends over an average width of 50 km and have an altitude of 3700-4500 mtrs.
The main ranges of the MiddleHimalaya are:
- The Pir Panjal,
- The Dhaoladhar,
- The Mahabharat.
The Middle Himalaya is the part of Himalaya which contains all the important hills stations like:
- Darjeeling etc.
(i) A Delta and Estuary.
(ii) A Tributary and A Distributary
(i) A Delta and Estuary:
|A Delta||An Estuary|
|1. It is generally a triangular landform, formed by the deposition of segments at the inouth of river.||1. It is a narrow deep valley at the mouth of a river.|
|2. It is always formed by a river.||2. It is formed where the currents and tides are strong.|
|3. A-delta resembles the Greek letter Δ.||3. This is formed when the sediments are automatically removed before they are deposited. Hence the mouth of the river remains clear.|
(ii) A tributary and a distributary:
|A Tributary||A Distributary|
|1. It is a river or a stream joining a larger river.||1. It is the channel which is formed by a river at its mouth.|
|2. It joins the main river by adding waters from its basin.||2. It carries away a part of the water from the main river.|
|3. Yamuna is an example of a tributary of Ganga.||3. Ganga while entering the bay of Bengal forms’ many distributaries.|
|4. It is responsible for the increase in the volume of water of the main river.||4. It decreases the volume of water of the main river.|
Describe how the Himalayas were formed.
Formation of the Himalayas: The Indo-Australian plate which was separated from the Gondwanaland crafted slowly towards north It collided with the much larger Eurasian plate in the northern hemisphere approximately 5 crores of years ago.
The northern edge of the Indo-Australian plate was pushed beneath the Eurasian plate. Under the impact of this collision, the sedimentary rocks of the enclosed ocean were folded to form the mountain system of central Asia including the Himalayas.
Differentiate between the plateau and the plain.
Plateau is a elevated land which has relatively extensive and levelled surface. A plateau is generally bound by deep slopes on one or more sides. The plateau rises abruptly. Plateau is comparatively cooller than the plains. A plateau is uneven and rocky.
Plain: It is an area which is flat and Law- lying. This area generally does not go above 300 metres from the sea level.
Point out some of the main features of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta.
- Ganga-Brahmaputra Delta is the largest delta in the world.
- It is obviously a well-watered delta.
- It is the most fertile delta of the world.
- The lower part of this delta has become marshy owing to the free mingling of river and sea waters by the high and low tides.
Write down the main features, of the Ganga Basin.
- The Ganga Basin is the largest part, of tire Great Northern Plain.
- The Ganga Basin lies to the south of the Himalayas.
- The Ganga Basin extends from Ambala to Sunder ban.
- It is nearly 1800 Km. long.
- A large number of perennial rivers flow through this plain.
- These rivers are very useful in irrigation.
- It provides a large scope for generating hydel power.
Do you agree that the physiographic divisions of India are complementary to each other?
India is a vast country with lots of variety. These varieties are also seen in the physiographical divisions of India. These diversities and divisions are, however, complementary to each other.
For example, all the three major divisions:
- The Great Mountain’ Wall of the North
- The Northern Plains,
- The Great Peninsular Plateau, are complementary to each other.
The Northern Mountains are the major source of water. On the other hand, the Peninsula has provided the stable block which went a long way in building the Northern plains and the Mountains. The Northern plains which provide fertile sites, get the fertility from the Himalayan rivers. The- peninsular plateau is also of equal importance. The western ghats of this part play important role in monsoon rain.
The Himalayas are of great importance to India, Discuss.
The Himalayas are no doubt of great importance for India in physical as Avell as in historical aspects. Physiographical Importance: The Himalayas are the lofty and impassable natural barriers on the northern border of India.
The Himalayas act like a natural wall keeping the fertile Indo Gangetic plains Safe from the cold bleak winds from the North. The Himalayas provide us the water sources like the Ganga flowing throughout the year. The Himalayas also check the rain-bearing monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean which would otherwise blow across the north. The Himalayas cause the monsoon winds to shower on the valleys and the plains to their south. By this, the Himalayas make the Indo-Gangetic plain the most fertile and productive plain in the world.
Natural Beauty: The Himalayan peaks are snow-covered throughout the year. As such they provide attractive natural spots inviting tourists from all over the world.
Historical Importance: In the ancient times the Hitnalayas also, stood as a firm security guard providing safety to the Indian parts from the invading hoards from the North.
Which are the major physiographic divisions of India?
The major physiographic; divisions of Indiaarethe following
1. The Great Himalayan Mountains: These folded mountains extend from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh in northern India. The and these width varies from 230-400 km.
The Himalayas are further divided into three
- is the northernmost range of Himalayas. This range is also known as Great Himalaya or Inner Himalaya. The. average altitude of this range in about 6000 metres. This range contains all the prominent peaks including Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world.
- Himachal: It is the middle Himalaya extended over an average width of 50 km and have an altitude of 3700 to 4500 metres. Pir Panjal, Dholadhar, Mahabharat ranges are the parts of this group. All the important hill stations of North India like Dharmashala, Dalhousie, Shimla, Darjeeling are located on this range.
- Shivalik: This is also known as Outer Himalaya. These ranges extend over the width of 10-50 km and have an altitude between 900 and 1100 metres.
2. The Northern Plains: It is almost a level plain with little variation in relief. The river valley civilizations of the Indus and the Ganga flourished in the region as they were based on the cultivation of crops. This part of the country is almost a level plain with little variation in relief. This part of the plain area extends between the mouths of the Indus and the Ganga-Brahmaputra covering a distance of about 3200 km.
3. The Peninsular Plateau: This is the oldest part of the Country. This is a triangular region with its base towards the Northern plains, between the Delhi ridge and Kajmahal Hills. This part has a general deviation of about 600-900 metres.
This part is again sub-divided into two parts :
- The Central Highlands
- The Deccan Plateau.
4. The Coastal Plains: This part is divided into the eastern and the western coastal plains. The western coastal plain stretches from Gujrat to Kerala.
5. The Islands: The Indian island groups are of different origins. The island of Lakshadweep group are formed of coral deposits. The Andaman Nicobar islands are bigger in size. They are more numerous and scattered.
Point out the general characteristics of the great Northern Plain:
Describe the main features of the Northern Plain.
- The great Northern Plain extends from the Punjab Plain in the west to the Brahmaputra Valley in the east.
- This plain lies to the south of the Himalayas.
- This plain possesses the alluvial deposits of the Ganga, Indus and the Satluj.
- The rivers flowing in this region are perennial.
- The average of this plain is less than 300 metres above sea level.
- The largest part of this area is formed by the Ganga
- This region has rich alluvial soil and abundant Water supply. The means of livelihood are easily available here.
- The density of the population is the highest in this region.
- The other part of the great Northern plain is formed by the Punjab plain.
- The eastern part of the great northern plain.
- In the south-eastern side of the Northern plain lies the Ganga Brahmaputra Delta. It is the largest delta in the world.
Write a detailed note on the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.
The Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats mark the western and the eastern edges of the Deccan Plateau respectively. Running parallel to the western coast, the Western Ghats display great structural unity. They are continuous and can be crossed through passes only such as locations of Thai, Bhor and the Pal Ghats. These passes provide passages to the rail and the roads.
The Western Ghats are higher than the Eastern Ghats. Their average elevation is 900-1600 metres as against 600 metres of the Eastern Ghats. The Eastern Ghats stretch from the Mahahadi Valley to the Nilgiris in the south. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and irregular and dissected by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal.
The Western Ghats cause orographic rain by blocking the rain-bearing moist winds along the western; slopes of the Ghats. The Western Ghats are known by different local names. The height of the Western Ghats progressively increases from north to south.
The highest peaks include the Anai Mudi (2,695 metres) and the Doda Betta peak (2,633 metres). Mahendragiri (1,500 metres) is the highest peak in the Eastern Ghats. Sherry Hills and the Javadi Hills are located to the southeast of the Eastern Ghats. All the rivers draining the eastern coastal plains have their sources in the Western Ghats.
Write a note on the Shiwaliks.
The outermost range of the Himalayas is called the Siwaliks. They extend over a width of 10-50 Km and have an altitude varying between 900 and 1100 metres. These ranges are composed of unconsolidated sediments brought down by rivers from the main’ Himalayan ranges located farther north.
The Siwaliks form almost a continuous chain to the south of the Himachal from Jammu and Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh. Flat-bottomed strike valleys separate large portions of Siwaliks, at places. These valleys, covered with thick gravel and alluvium, are called, ‘duns’. The Dehra Dun, Kotli and Patli Duns are some of the dims.
Objective Type Questions
1. Put (✓) before the correct sentences and (✗) before incorrect sentences.
(i) The Peninsular block may be sub-divided into two parts.
(ii) Next to bhabar there is bhangar.
(iii) The Deccan plateau is situated between the Delhi Ridge and Rajmahal Hills.
(iv) The Deccan plateau extends southward from the Satpura.
(v) The southern part the Western Ghats are relatively smaller.
(vi) Atolls in Malayalam refer to die ring.
(vii) There are about 120 islands in the Andaman group.
(viii) Lagoons are the saltwater lakes.
2. Fill up the following blanks:
(i) Atolls are …………………………. or horseshoe-shaped coral reefs.
(ii) Rivers of the western coast form …………………………. .
(iii) Nicobar group has …………………………. islands.
(iv) The …………………………. coastal plain is comparatively much wider.
(v) The coast of southern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu is popularly known as …………………………. .
3. Match out the following two lists.
|List I||List II|
|List I||List II|
4. Answer the following questions in yes or no.
(i) The Mahanadi River flows through Gujrat.
(ii) The Kosi is one of the tributaries of the Ganga.
(iii) The Tropic of |he cancer passes through the Rann of Kachina.
(iv) 10° Channel passes through Madhya Pradesh.
(v) Satpura is a famous river.
(vi) The son river is touched by the Equator.
(vii) Andaman sea is in the western side of India.
(viii) Khasi Hills are in the eastern side of India.
5. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:
(i) The Gondwanaland was in the following part of our ancient supercontinent:
(ii) The following sea was situated between the Angaraland and the Gondwanaland in the geological part:
(a) Arabian Sea
(b) Bay of Bengal
(d) Black Sea.
(iii) The following is not a part of the Purvanchal:
(a) Patkai Bum
(b) Naga Hills
(c) Pir Panjal
(d) Mizo Hills.
(c) Pir Panjal
(iv) The following is a part of the Western Ghats:
(a) Anai Rudi
(d) None of these.
(iv) The following is a part of the Eastern Ghats:
(b) Anai Mudi
(c) Doda Betta
(d) None of these;