Online Education for Nazism and the Rise of Hitler Class 9 Extra Questions History Chapter 3
Who were ‘Nazis’?
Persons who had no faith in democracy and socialism and believed in dictatorship. They were very brutal.
Who was the leader of ‘Nazis’?
Name the party which was founded by Hitler.
National Socialist German Worker’s Party (for short, Nazi Party).
When the Nazi Party was founded?
In which year Hitler was appointed as the Chancellor of Germany?
Hitler was appointed as the Chancellor of Germany by the President of Germany on 30 January 1933.
What is meant by ‘Reichstag’?
The German Parliament was known as ‘Reichstag’.
In which year Hitler became the President of Germany?
Mention the countries and places Nazi Germany occupied between 1937 and 1939.
(i) Rhineland. (March. 1936)
(ii) Austria (March 1938)
(iii) Switzerland (September 1938)
(iv) Czechoslovakia (March, 1939)
(v) Poland (September ,1939).
Name the axis pówers during the World War-II.
Germany, Italy and Japan.
Name the Allied Powers of the World War II.
France, Great Britain and later joined by the USSR and the USA and other friendly nations.
What is genocidal war?
The Wr Germany had waged agaInst the selected groups and the civilians of Europe.
Name the treaty signed after the World War-I between and victorious countries.
The Treaty of Versailles.
Why is called the German Republic called as the Weimer Republic?
A national assembly had met at a place called Weimer to establish a democratic polity. That is why it is called the Weimer Republic.
Who are called the November Criminals?
The supporters of the Weimer Republic were called the November Criminals.
Explain the rise of Nazism in Germany.
Germany had imperial ambitions and thus had sought to satisfy her imperial ambitions through war but she had suffered defeat. The outbreak of revolution in Germany towards the end of the First World War led to the collapse of the German monarchy.
However, even though Germany became a republic, the forces behind the monarchy – the industrialists, the big landowners and the officers of the army remained quite powerful.
The government of the German republic was not able to destroy their power. These forces began to turn to the anti-democratic forces represented by Nazism to extend their power and to check the power of the socialist movement. By 1933, Nazis became the ruler of Germany’.
Discuss the reasons that motivated Hitler to conquer Czechoslovakia in violation of the Munich Pact
Germany coveted Czechoslovakia because it was very important due to her industries. The area also had strategic importance of the expansion of Germany in the east towards the Soviet Union. Sudetenland, which was, a part of Czechoslovakia, had substantial German population.
This area formed about one-fifth of the area of Czechoslovakia and had one of the largest ammunition factories in the world. As per the Munich Pact, Britain and France had agreed to Hitler’s occupation only of Sudetenland arid not the whole of Czechoslovakia.
Briefly describe the characteristics of the Weiner Constitution.
- A German Republic Federation was to be established in the country which was to be called ‘Reich’.
- The Federal government would have the right to look after the safety; education, cinema, transport and some other subjects.
- The fundamental rights Were given to the citizens.
- The men and women of more than twenty years of age were granted the right of voting.
- The real power of the executive was vested in the Council of Ministers which was responsible to the Parliament.
- There were arrangements for referendum, initiative and. recall in this constitution.
Give an account of the genocide committed by the Nazis.
The genocide committed by the Nazis had no parallel in the history of the world. During Hitler’s regime, the number of people killed included 6 million Jews, 200,000 Gypsies, 1 million Polish civilians, 70,000 Germans who were considered mentally and physically disabled, besides innumerable political opponents. Putting to death such a large number of people had required the mass-scale gassing of humans in various killing centres like Auschwitz.
Evaluate the Treaty of Versailles of 1919.
The Treaty of Versailles also called peace treaty 1919, was signed between Germany on the one hand, and the Allied powers on the other. The peace treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating peace. Germany lost its overseas colonies, a tenth of its population, 13 per cent of its territories, 75 per net of its iron and 26 per cent of its coal to France, Poland, Denmark and Lithuania.
The Allied Powers demilitarised Germany to weaken its power. The War Guilt Clause held Germany responsible for the war and damages the Allied countries suffered. Germany was forced to pay compensation amounting’ to £ 6 billion. The Allied armies also occupied the resource-rich Rhinelarid for much of the 1920s.
What was the impact of the World War I on Europe, and especially on Germany?
The war had a devastating impact on the entire continent both psychologically and financially. From a continent of creditors, Europe turned into one of debtors. Unfortunately, the infant Weimar Republic was being made to pay for the sins of the old. empire. The republic carried the burden of war guilt and national humiliation and was financially crippled by being forced to pay compensation.
State the two major defects of the Weimer constitution and its effects.
The Weimer constitution had some inherent defects, which made it unstable and vulnerable to dictatorship. One was proportional representation. This made achieving a majority by any one party a near-impossible task, leading to a rule by coalitions. Another defect was Article 48, which gave the President the powers to’ impose emergency, suspend civil rights and rule by decree.
How did the common people react to Nazism?
Many common people saw Nazism through Nazi eyes and spoke their language. They had hatred for the Jews, marking their Jews neighbours as suspicious ones. But every German was not a Nazi. Many organised active resistance to Nazism. The large majority of the Germans were passive onlookers and apathetic witnesses. They were too scared to act, to differ, to protest.
Who was Hitler? How could he rise to power?
Born in 1889 in Austria, Hitler, called as Fuhrer; spent his youth in poverty. When the First World War broke out, he enrolled for the army, acted as a messenger in the front, became a corporal, and earned medals for bravery. The German defeat horrified him and the Versailles Treaty made him furious, In 1919, he joined a small group called the German Workers Party.
He subsequently took over the organisation arid renamed it the National Socialist German Workers Party. This party came to be known as the Nazi Party. Hitler was a powerful speaker. His. passion and his words moved people. He promised to build a strong nation, undo the injustice of the Versailles Treaty and restore the dignity of the German people.
Hitler devised a new style of politics. He understood the significance of rituals and spectacles in mobilising people. Nazis held massive rallies and public meetings to demonstrate the support for Hitler and instil a sense of unity among the people.
The Red banners with the Swastika, the Nazi salute, and the ritualized rounds of applause after the speeches were all part of this spectacle of power. Nazi propaganda skillfully projected Hitler as a messiah, a saviour, as someone who had arrived to deliver people from their distress. It is an image that captured the imagination of a people whose sense of dignity and pride had been shattered, and who were living in a time of acute economic and political crises.
Describe briefly the policies and programmes of the Nazi Party.
The programme and policies of Nazi Party was:
- To establish a vast German empire.
- To end up the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles.
- To increase the economic and military power of Germany.
- To ban the coming of the foreign influence on Germany.
- To recapture the lost colonies of Germany in the first world war.
- Not to recognise jews as the citizens of Germany and to boycott them and not to give them important posts.
- To put an end to those parties which propagated against nationalism.
- To oppose communism.
- Not to set up parliamentary system of Government that was detrimental to the interest of country.
Give a brief account of Hitler’s foreign policy. How did he launch his offences?
In foreign policy, Hitler did acquire a measure of success. He left the League of Nations in 1933; reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936; arid integrated Austria arid Germany in 1938 under the slogan, one people, one empire, one leader. He then went on to wrest German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia and gobbled up the entire country.
In all of this he had the unspoken support of England, which had considered the Versailles verdict too harsh. These quick successes at home and abroad seemed to reverse the destiny of the country. Hitler chose war as the way out of approaching economic crisis. Resources were to be accumulated through expansion of territory. In September 1939, Germany invaded Poland. He started a war with France and England.
In September 1940, a Tripartite Pact was signed between Germany, Italy, and japan, strengthening Hitler’s claim to international power. Puppet regimes, supportive of Nazi Germany, were installed in a large part of Europe. By the end of 1940, Hitler was at the pinnacle of his power.
Hitler now moved to achieve his long term aim of conquering Eastern Europe. He wanted to ensure food supplies and living space for Germans. He attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941. In this historic blunder, Hitler exposed the German western front to British aerial bombing and the eastern front to the powerful Soviet armies.
‘With Hitler coming to the power, democracy in Germany was systematically destroyed’. Explain the statement.
On 30 January 1933, President Hindenburg offered the chancellorship, the highest position in the cabinet of ministers, to Hitler. Having acquired power, Hitler set out to dismantle the structures of democratic rule. A mysterious fire broke out in the German Parliament building. Hitler held the communists responsible for it, repressing them severely.
On 3 March 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed This Act established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Hitler all powers to sideline Parliament and rule by decree. All political; parties and trade unions were harmed except for the Nazi Party and its affiliates. The state established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
Apart from the already existing regular police in green uniform and the SA or. the Storm Troopers, these included the Gestapo (secret state police), the SS (the protection squads), criminal police and the Security Service (SD). It was the extra-constitutional powers of these newly organised forces that gave the Nazi state its reputation as the most dreaded criminal state.
Objective Type Questions
1. Choose the correct (✓) and the wrong (✗) from the following:
Germany fought the World War I as one the central powers.
The defeated Germany signed the peace treaty at London.
The Weimer Republic belongs to France.
Hitler was born in 1889 in Germany.
The name of the party founded by Hitler was popularly known as the Fascist Party.
2. Fill in the blanks from the words given in the brackets:
……………………………… was a nation fought as the allied power. (Britain, Germany)
Adolf Hitler wrote the book, called ……………………… . (Doctrine of Fascism, Mein Kampf)
The Nazi party was opposed to the ……………………… . (Jews, Aryans)
Reichstag was the name of the …………….. parliament (French, German)
The Treaty of Versailles was signed in …………………….. . (1918,1919)
3. Select the correct answer from the four alternatives given below:
Sudetenland, a part of the following, was taken away by Germany through the Munich Pact:
Germany attacked the USSR in the following year:
(a) May 1941
(b) June 1941
(c) July 1941
(d) August 1941.
(b) June, 1941
The USA had bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki which are the two cities of the following:
Hitler was a racist and was influenced by:
The war criminals were tried at the following place:
(d) None of these.
Hitler became chancellor of Germany in:
According to the. Nazi propaganda, one of the dangers was the German capitalism, the following was the other:
(d) None of the these