Coal and Petroleum

Coal and petroleum were formed from the degradation of bio-mass millions of years ago and hence these are resources that will be exhausted in the future no matter how carefully we use them.

Since coal and petroleum have been formed from bio¬mass, in addition to carbon, these contain hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. When these are burnt, the products are carbon dioxide, water, oxides of nitrogen and oxides of sulphur. When combustion takes place in insufficient air (oxygen), then carbon monoxide is formed instead of carbon dioxide.

The oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and carbon monoxide are poisonous at high concentrations and carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas.

Coal and petroleum are huge reservoirs of carbon and if all of this carbon is converted to carbon dioxide, then the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is going to increase leading to intense global warming. Thus, we need to use these resources judiciously.

Coal and Petroleum Definitions, Equations and Examples

Example 1.
Coal is used in thermal power stations and petroleum products like petrol and diesel are used in means of transport like motor vehicles, ships and aeroplanes. We cannot really imagine life without a number of electrical appliances and constant use of transportation. So can you think of ways in which our consumption of coal and petroleum products be reduced?
You must have heard of the Euro I and Euro II norms for emission from vehicles. Find out how these norms work towards reducing air pollution
(A) Which of the following ways can help in reducing the consumption of coal and petroleum?
(I) Using filament type bulbs instead of Com-pact Fluorescent Lamps and LEDs.
(II) Avoid using the stairs.
(III) Wearing an extra sweater on cold days
(IV) Using pressure cookers for cooking food
(a) Both (I) and (il)
(b) Both (II) and (III)
(c) Both (III) and (IV)
(d) Both (I) and (IV)
(c) Both (III) and (IV)

Explanation: Wearing an extra sweater on cold days will help in reducing the need for a heater and similarly using pressure cookers for cooking food will reduce the need for fuel. However, we should use energy efficient devices such as CFLs and LEDs instead of filament-type bulbs and use stairs instead of lifts to save energy and hence consumption of coal and petroleum.

(B) Coal and petroleum should be used judiciously to reduce:
(a) Floods
(b) Draughts
(c) Desertification
(d) Global warming
(d) Global warming

Explanation: Burning of fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum produces carbon dioxide, among other harmful gases such as oxides of sulphur and nitrogen. As carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas, it leads to global warming.

(C) Why is it important to increase efficiency of machines used for transportation?
Fuel is most commonly used in internal combustion engines for transportation. Efficiency of these machines should be increased by ensuring complete combustion in these engines in order to reduce air pollution.

(D) What are Euro I and Euro II norms?
Euro norms refer to the permissible emission levels, for both petrol and diesel vehicles, which have been implemented in Europe. The Euro norms require manufacturers to reduce the existing polluting emission levels in a more efficient manner by making certain technical changes in their vehicles.

(E) Assertion (A): Management and conservation of coal and petroleum is different from management of water, forests and wildlife.
Reason (R): Burning of coal and petroleum produces pollution.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of the assertion.
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of the assertion.
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of the assertion

Coal and Petroleum Definitions, Equations and Examples

Energy Conservation

Some simple choices can make a difference in our en¬ergy consumption patterns.

  1. Taking a bus, using your personal vehicle or walk¬ing/cycling.
  2. Using bulbs or fluorescent tubes in your homes.
  3. Using the lift or taking the stairs.
  4. Wearing an extra sweater or using a heating device (heater or ‘sign) on cold days.

Class 10 Science Notes