Here we are providing Online Education for Class 12 Economics Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 10 Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours. Economics Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Online Education for Class 12 Economics Chapter 10 Important Extra Questions Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours
Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Name the largest democracy of the world.
India is the largest democracy of the world.
When did China announce its first Five Year Plan?
China announced its first Five Year Plan in 1953.
What was the objective of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution introduced by Mao?
Under the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, students and professionals were sent to work and learn from the countryside.
What are the government-owned enterprises known in China?
The government owned enterprises are known as State Owned Enterprises SOEs in China.
When were reforms initiated in Pakistan?
Reforms were initiated in 1988 in Pakistan.
Which country is the most populated in the world?
China is the most populated country in the world.
Arrange India, China and Pakistan in terms of their HDI ranks.
The three nations are arranged in terms of their HDI ranks
Which sector contributes the most in the India’s GDP?
Sendee sector contributes the most in the India’s GDP.
What is the density of population in India, Pakistan and China?
The density of population in India, Pakistan and China is 441, 245 and 146 persons per sq. km. respectively.
Which country has largest share of poor among India, China and Pakistan?
India has the largest share of poor among the three countries.
List any two problems which China faced prior to the introduction of reforms in 1978.
Problems faced by China prior to the introduction of reforms in 1978 were:
(i) Slow pace of growth
(ii) Lack of modernisation under the Maoist rule
Where did India borrow from to correct its balance of payments crisis.
India borrowed from the IMF and World Bank to correct its balance of payments crisis.
Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Write a brief note on the commune system in China.
Commune system was started in the rural areas of China, under which people collectively cultivated lands. Commune lands were divided into small plots. These plots were allocated to individual households for cultivation, not ownership. Households were allowed to keep all income from the land after paying specified taxes. In 1958, there were 26,000 communes covering almost all the farm population. The commune system resulted in more equitable distribution of food grains in China.
State the factors which created a conducive environment for new investments in Pakistan.
Following factors created conducive environment for new investments in Pakistan:
(i) Adoption of green revolution
(ii) Shift of the orientation of nationalisation policy to denationalisation and encouragement to private sector
(iii) Financial support from western nations
(iv) Growing remittances from Pakistani workers in the Middle-east
What were the problems faced by the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in China?
GLF campaign faced many problems. These were:
(i) A severe drought caused havoc in China, which killed around 30 million people.
(ii) Russia had conflicts with China. As a result, Russia withdrew its professionals who were sent to China to help in the industrialisation process.
What are special economic zones? Why were these established in China?
Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are regions that are granted special economic policies and flexible governmental measures. Such policies and measures provide special tax incentives to foreign investment institutions. SEZs were created by the People’s Republic of China to attract and utilize foreign capital investments.
Compare China with India and Pakistan on the basis of demographic trends.
The table below shows the comparison of China with India and Pakistan on the basis of demographic trends (2015):
|Country||Estimated Population (in million)||Annual Growth of Population (%)||Density
(per sq. km)
It is clear from the table that although China ranks first in population in the world, its population growth rate is much less than that of India. Density of population in China is also less than India and Pakistan. That day is not far behind when India will overtake China in world population.
Compare the position of India with China and Pakistan on the basis of sectoral development.
Sectoral comparison of India, China and Pakistan is shown in the table below:
|Contribition to GDP (2015-17)|
Sectoral contribution of India and Pakistan stands on the same ground. Service sector contributes significantly towards India’s and Pakistan’s GDP, followed by industrial sector. On the contrary, the industrial and services sectors contribute nearly equally in China’s GDP.
The process of economic growth has led to a tremendous shift in the sectoral share of output and employment. All three nations have undergone structural transformation from primary to industrial and service sectors.
Critically assess pre and post-reform period in China.
(i) There was massive establishment of infrastructure in the areas of education and health
(ii) Extensive land reforms were introduced to bring about changes in the ownership of land holdings and encourage equity.
(iii) Development of small enterprises was promoted on a large scale.
(i) Reforms in agriculture brought about prosperity to a vast number of poor people.
(ii) Reforms created conditions for the subsequent phenomenal growth in rural industries.
(iii) Strong support base was built up for more reforms.
State the outcome of reforms in Pakistan.
The reform process led to worsening of all the economic indicators as stated below:
(i) The growth rate of GDP and its sectoral constituents have fallen in the 1990s compared to 1980s.
(ii) The official data of Pakistan indicates that the proportion of poor in 1960s was more than 40 per cent. It declined to 25 per cent in 1980s, which again started rising in 1990s.
Discuss the sources of foreign exchange in Pakistan.
The sources of foreign exchange in Pakistan include:
(i) remittances from Pakistani workers in the Middle-east;
(ii) payment in exchange for exports of highly volatile agricultural products; and
(iii) loans from foreign countries.
Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Give a brief account of developmental path of India, China and Pakistan.
India, Pakistan and China have followed almost similar path for development. All the three nations started towards their developmental path at the same time. India and Pakistan became independent nations in 1947 while People’s Republic of China was established in 1949.
India announced its first Five Year Plan for 1951-56, Pakistan announced its first five year plan in 1956 and China announced its First Five Year Plan in 1953. India and Pakistan adopted similar strategies such as creating a large public sector and raising public expenditure on social development.
China was the first among the three nations to adopt reforms in its agricultural and industrial sectors. All the three countries had similar growth rates and per capita incomes till the 1980s.
Bring out the comparison between the economic growth of India, China and Pakistan.
The comparison between the economic growth of India, China and Pakistan is discussed below:
(i) National Income: The national income of China in 2017 was $12,206.5 billion. The national income of India in the same year was $2,597.5 billion and that of Pakistan was only $321.6 billion. Thus, in terms of national income, China’s position is much better than India and Pakistan, In this context, we can say that India’s position in comparison with Pakistan is much better.
(ii) Gross National Income in PPP (Purchasing Power Parity): GNI of China in PPP in the year 2017
(Comparative Development Experiences of India and Its Neighbours ) was $23,241.5 billion. The GNI of India in PPP in the same year was $9,448.7 billion and that of Pakistan was only $1,148.4 billion. Thus, in terms of GNI in PPP also, China’s position is much better than India and Pakistan.
(iii) Per Capita Income: Human Development Report, 2018 depicts that the per capita income of China is $ 15,309 while that of India and Pakistan are $6,427 and $5,035 respectively. Although India and Pakistan are at par in terms of per capita income, China is far ahead of both of these countries.
(iv) Percentage Growth of GDP per Capita: In the year 2017, percentage growth of GDP per capita in China was about 6.3 per cent per annum. In India, it was about 5.4 per cent while that in Pakistan it is only 3.7 per cent. China’s position in terms of per capita growth is much better than India and Pakistan.
Assess the performance of India, China and Pakistan over the last three decades.
The last three decades, have taken India, China and Pakistan to different levels.
(i) India: India’s performance has been moderate with its democratic institutions. However, a majority of India’s population is still dependent on agriculture. Infrastructure lacks in many parts of the country. More than one-fourth of its population lives below the poverty line. The level of living is yet to be raised
(ii) Pakistan: The Pakistan economy has slowed down due to political instability, over-dependence on remittances and foreign aid along with volatile performance of the agriculture sector. The devastating earthquake of 2005 resulted in an enormous loss to life: and property, Recovering from this calamity was a great challenge for Pakistan. However, It is making efforts to improve: the situation by maintaining high rates of GDP growth.
(iii) China: China has been successful in raising the level of growth along with alleviation of poverty. China has used the market system to create additional social and economic opportunities for its people. However, lack of political freedom and its implications for human rights are still major concerns in China.
Comparative Development Experiences of India and its Neighbours Important Extra Questions HOTS
Write a short note on:
(i) ASEAN: The ASEAN – Association of Southeast Asian Nations – was formed in 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand to promote political and economic cooperation and , regional stability. Brunei and Vietnam joined ASEAN in 1984 and 1995 respectively. The ASEAN comprises of three pillars:
- Political-Security Community
- Economic Community
- Socio-Cultural Community
(ii) BRIC: BRIC is an acronym for the economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China. It had been speculated that by 2050, these four economies would be wealthier than most of the current major economic powers. According to the BRIC theory, China and India will become the world’s dominant suppliers of manufactured goods and services, respectively, while Brazil and Russia will become the world’s dominant suppliers of raw materials.