Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Human Geography: Nature and Scope. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Important Extra Questions Human Geography: Nature and Scope
Human Geography: Nature and Scope Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Name two major components of earth.
Physical environment and life forms.
What is the core concern of Geography as a discipline ?
To understand the earth as home of man.
Who first used the term Geography ?
Eratosthenes a Greek geographer who lived in Alexandria during 276-192 B.C.E.
What does world idiographic mean ?
Name the elements of physical environment.
Landforms, soils, climate, water, natural vegetation, flora and fauna.
Name the elements of human (cultural) environment.
Houses, villages, cities, rail-road net works, industries, farms, ports.
Why is physical environment called ‘Mother Nature’ ?
In primitive societies, nature is a powerful force, worshipped, revered and conserved. People depend on nature for resources which sustain them.
Analyse the ‘behavioural’ school of thought. (Outside Delhi 2019)
This is an approach to human geography that examines human’s behaviour by using a disaggregate approach. This is a branch of human science.
Human Geography: Nature and Scope Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What is Geography ? State three characteristics of study of Geography.
(1) Geography is an areal or spatial science.
(2) The word geography is derived from two Greek words (Ge = earth and graphe ~ description).
(3) Hence Geography is the description of earth’s surface.
Why is Geography often called the ‘mother of all Sciences’ ? Give three reasons.
An inter-disciplinary subject. Geography is truly global in nature. It studies all the natural and human phenomena. So it has to gather knowledge from all other subjects. So it is called ‘mother of all Sciences’.
Why is Geography known as ‘body of knowledge’ ? Give three aspects.
(i) In ancient times, the aim of geography was to collect all general information concerning the earth. This knowledge was based on travels by traders, travellers, settlers and conquerors.
(ii) Geography included the knowledge about the shape and size of earth, latitude, longitude, solar system etc.
(iii) The subject of Geography gathered much knowledge from other subjects. Therefore, it is known as body of knowledge.
‘Geography is a physical science as well as a social science.’ Discuss.
Geography is a science of synthesis. It represents the total picture of an area by studying the physical and human aspects of an area. Physics, chemistry, botany etc. (Physical sciences) are used to study the natural environment. The social science helps to study the human activities such as agriculture, settlements etc. Therefore, Geography like the physical sciences and social sciences is included in both the groups.
Explain the aim of Human Geography. Explain its three aspects.
(i) Human Geography aims at the study of human and natural resources of a region so that these resources can be used for the progress and welfare of the people.
(ii) It studies the effects of environment on human groups.
(iii) It studies the modifications made by man in Environment. In this way, the main aim of Human Geography is to study the interactive relationship between man, environment and economic activities.
“Man occupies the central position in Human Geography.” Discuss.
The set of surroundings in which man lives and works is called environment.
(i) Man is an active geographical agent.
(ii) Man uses soil resources to produce food for himself. He also gets food from fishing, cattle rearing, sheep rearing.
(iii) He develops water power from waterfalls along rivers. Coal is used to generate power for industries. So man occupies the central position. All the physical and cultural activities revolve around man.
‘Man is a slave of nature.’ I Discuss with two examples.
There is a close relationship between man and nature. Physical elements of nature such as land, climate, soil, minerals, water and vegetation influence mode of life of human groups, economic activities and social life of people. Nature determines the work and life of man. This concept is called Determinism.
(i) According to Ratzal, ‘Man is the product of environment’ or it can be said, ‘Man is a slave of nature. ’
Man and nature work together. So it has been rightly said, Man in nature.’
(ii) According to Vidal de la Blache, ‘Nature provides the stage and it is for man to act on it. ’
What do you mean by Neo-.determinism ? (C.B.S.E 2011)
Neo-determinism. Although the nature has offered humans a lot of scope for development, it does also set the ultimate limits, crossing of which would mean a point of no return. Hence, the possibilistic approach invited criticism from many of the contemporary thinkers. Griffith Taylor, while criticizing the possibilism, put forward the concept of neo-determinism.
He stressed that a geographer’s role is essentially that of an advisor and not to interpret the nature’s plans. It is a Madhyam Marg between determinism and possibilism. It is called stop and go determinism. It means that possibilities can be created within the limits which do not damage the environment.
How has the free run developed economies damaged the environment ? Give five examples. .
Possibilism means that there is a condition of absolute freedom. It means human beings can conquer nature freely for their development purposes. Thus there is a free run without accidents. But the free run developed economies has damaged the environment in the following ways :—
- Green house effect
- Ozone layer depletion
- Global warming
- Receding glaciers
- Degrading lands.
Which are the three core points of the definition of human geography given by Ellen C. Semple ?
According to Ellen C. Semple, “Human geography is the study of the changing relationship between unresting man and the unstable earth.”
Three core points :
The three core points in this definition are :
- Inter-relationship of human societies and earth surfaces.
- Human-environment relationship is dynamic.
- Human progress is adopted to nature.
Explain the concept of environmental determinism with suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2009, Delhi 2019)
Determinism. It refers to the point of view supporting environmental control on human action. Accordingly, history, culture, life-style and stage of development of a social group, society or nation are largely governed by the physical factors, (like terrain, climate, fauna and flora) of environment. The determinists generally consider human as a passive agent.
Different views :
(i) Thus attempt was made by the Greek and Roman scholars including Hippocrates, Aristotle, Herodotus and Starabo.
(ii) The works of scholars, such as Al-Masudi, Al-Idrisi and Ibn-Khaldun, Kant, Humbolt, Ritter and Ratzel continued upto the early 20th century
(iii) This concept grew widespread particularly in the United States from the writing of E.C. Semple and Ellsworth Huntington.
Explain the concept of possibilism with suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2009, 2013, Delhi 2019) I
Possibilism. The idea that human beings are controlled by nature was rejected and other geographers who stressed the fact that human beings were free to choose. When humans are seen as an active force rather than a passive being, the approach is that of possibilism.
Different Views :
(i) Lucian Febvre, the first to use the world possibilism, wrote that “There are no necessities, but everywhere possibilities; and man as master of these possibilities is the judge of their use.”
(ii) It was Vidal de la Blache who advocated and developed systematically the school of possibilism. He opined that the life-styles of people are the product of physical, historical and social influences. This concept became the basic philosophy of the school of possibilism.
(iii) It was realized that the cultural context and technological advancement of humans determined how they will use the environment.
What do you mean by Dualism in Geography ? Give three examples. What is the meaning of words nomothetic and ideographic ?
- There is a wide-range debate whether geography should be studied with a regional or systematic approach. This is called dualism. Nomothetic means law making while ideographic means descriptive.
- Whether geographical phenomena be interpreted theoretically or through historic institutional approach.
- There exists dichotomy between physical and human geography.
“Physical environment has been greatly modified by human beings, it has also, in turn impacted human lives.” Explain the statement. (Delhi 2019)
Physical environment consists of the physical or material phenomena such as climate, surface configuration and drainage and natural resources such as soils/minerals/water and forests. Physical environment has been greatly modified by humans and has also in trun impacted human fives.
Humans modify the environment ot suit their different needs to meet fife’s necessities. In the process, the bring technology and knowledge to bear on physical environment. Because of this alteretions of humans have brought economic prosperity to some areas and at some other areas created environmental crisis.
Who gave the term stop and go determinism.
Griffith Taylor gave the term stop and go determinism which reflects a middle path between ideas of environmental determinism and possibilism.
Define Human Geography according to Paul Vidal de la Blache. Which new idea is contained in it ?
According to Paul de la Blache “Human Geography is a conception resulting from a more synthetic knowledge of the physical laws governing our earth and of the relations between the living things which inhibit it.” This definition offers a new conception. It studies the relationship between earth and human beings. Elements of Physical environment and elements of cultural environment interact with each other.
Distinguish between Physical environment and Cultural environment. Give three points.
|Physical Environment||Cultural Environment|
|1. Physical environment includes Physical Conditions.
2. It includes soils, minerals, water and forests.
3. It is studied by Physical Sciences.
|1. Cultural environment includes man-made features.
2. It includes population, human settlements, agriculture etc.
3. It is studied by Social Sciences.
Distinguish between Determinism and Possibilism.
|1. It means that environment determines human activities.
2.According to this nature is all powerful and man is the child of environment.
3. Ratzal and Ellsworth Huntington has supported this school of thought.
|1. It means that man can modify environment to his needs.
2. According to this, it is possible to conquer nature.
3. Vidal de la Blache and L. Febvre supported this school of thought.
Distinguish between the Regional Geography and Systematic Geography.
|Regional Geography||Systematic Geography.|
|1. It is an integrated study of geographical features of an area.
2. Each geographical factor of a region is examined separately.
3. Each region is studied in its total setting.
4. This study implies the demarcation of regions.
|1. It is the detailed study of a single geographical factor of an area.
2. The climate of the world is studied an a whole.
3. It studies the geographical facts in an individual manner.
4. The regions are recognised over the whole globe.
Distinguish between Positivism and Humanism.
|1. It is a new approach used in mid-fifties.
2. It leads to Behavioral approach.
3. It includes human powers.
|1. It is a new approach used in mid ninties.
2. It leads to welfare approach.
3. It includes the human agency, consciousness and creativity.
Human Geography: Nature and Scope Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
What do you mean by Human Geography ? Describe the different definitions given by different Geographers.
Man-An active agent. Man is a geographical agent on this earth. Man is an active part of environment. Man utilises the natural resources to meet his basic needs of food, shelter and clothing. Man is not a slave of nature, but modifies it to meet its survival. Sometimes man adjusts himself according to the natural environment.
Due to variation in environment, variations are found in life style of people in different regions. Food, clothing, shelter, customs, traditions, socio-economic conditions, religion, faith, skill, efficiency directly or indirectly influence environment.
Definition of Human Geography : Many cultural features result due to inter-relationship between man and nature. These include settlements, towns, roads, industries, buildings etc. Thus Human Geography deals with the areal differentiation and organisation of human activities within physical environment.
Human Geography thus studies, on regional basis, the different human groups and their influences along with functional relations. The definition of human geography has changed with times. None of the definitions of human geography is universally accepted.
1. The German Geographer, Fredric Ratzal is called the father of modem Human Geography According to Ratzal, ‘ ‘Human Geography is related to Environment which is the sum total of physical conditions. ’ ’
2. According to E.C. Semple, “Human Geography is a study of the changing relationship between the unresting man and the unstable earth. ’’
3. According to Vidal de La Blache, ‘‘Human Geography is a study of inter-relationship of Earth and man. ’’
4. According to Brunhes, “Human Geography is the study of all those facts in which human activity plays a part.”
5. According to Ellseworth Huntington, “Human Geography may be defined as the study of natural distribution of relationships between geographical environment and human activities.”
6. According to D. H. Davis, “Human Geography is a study of the relationship between natural environment and human activities. ’ ’
7. According to White and Renner, “Human Geography is primarily human ecology and the study of human society in relation to the earth background.”
8. According to Dickens and Pits, “Human Geography is looked upon the study of man and his works.”
Describe the nature and scope of Human Geography.
Nature of Human Geography. Human Geography aims to study the regional variations of human life on the earth. Great variations are found in colour, efficiency, livelihood, customs, religions, socio-economic conditions of different human groups living in different regions.
These are directly or indirectly influenced by physical environment. The interactive relationship between man and environment results in a cultural landscape. According to Finch and Trewortha, man and his cultural activities are the subject matter of Human Geography. In this, Human Geography studies the functional relationship between population, natural resources and cultural landscape.
In this context, Vidal de la Blache states, “Human Geography is the study of human influence on his occupation. It analyses the process of Environmental Adjustment, regional adaptation and spatial organisation. Man is an active agent, but it is not a part of environment.
Man creates a cultural landscape by modifying the environment. In this way, human geography studies the forces of physical environment like solar energy, gravity and other processes. Similarly human geography studies the forces of cultural activities. So study of Human Geography is essential for the study of Economic, Demographic and Historical Sciences.
Scope of Human Geography :
Human Geography has a wide scope. But there is a lot of difference in views of different scholars. Human Geography is a regional study of variation in mode of life of different human groups. The subject matter of human geography is nature and distribution of interrelationship between man and geographical environment.
Scope of Human Geography :
- The population and the capacity of a region.
- Natural resources of the region.
- Cultural patterns of the region.
- Man-Environment Adjustment in a region.
- Temporal Development.
Describe the main branches of Human Geography.
Human Geography. Human Geography studies the influence of environment on human life. Man tries to modify his environment and creates man-made or cultural features. These features include agriculture, towns, settlements, means of transportation etc.
The study of these man-made features is called Human Geography. Human Geography is inter-disciplinary in nature. It develops close interface with other sister disciplines in social sciences. Human Geography may be divided into following main branches :
1. Cultural Geography. (Social Geography) :
This branch deals with the cultural aspects of different human groups. The cultural aspects include the following aspects :
- Social organisation.
Some Geographers prefer to call it Social Geography. It includes many sub branches as :
- Behavioural Geography
- Geography of social well being
- Geography of leisure
- Gender Geography
- Medical Geography.
2. Economic Geography. Economic Geography studies the economic activities of man. It studies the distribution and utilisation of resources of the earth. It is a study of products in the form of their production, consumption and exchange. Its sub-branches are :
- Geography of Resources
- Geography of Agriculture
- Geography of Industries
- Geography of Marketing
- Geography of Tourism ‘
- Geography of International trade.
3. Population Geography. Population Geography deals with the study of biological and cultural characteristics of human groups. It studies the distribution of population, death rate, birth rate, age, sex composition, literacy, rural and urban settlements. It is called demography also.
4. Historical Geography. Historical Geography studies the geographical development of an area from time to time in the past. It helps us in understanding the region as it is at present.
5. Political Geography. It analyses the political and administrative decisions in different political units. It is concerned with boundaries, capitals, local government, international politics and regional planning. It has sub-branches of Electoral Geography and Military Geography.
6. Urban Geography. It deals with urban studies and planning.
7. Settlement Geography. It studies urban and rural settlement.
Human Geography: Nature and Scope Important Extra Questions HOTS
Describe human geography and associated discipline of social science.
Human Geography and Sister Disciplines of Social Sciences