Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Important Extra Questions Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition

### Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is the total population of India according to census 2011 ?
121.02 crores (16.7% of total population of the world).

Question 2.
Where does India rank in the world as regards population and area ?
Population—2nd place
Area—Seventh place.

Question 3.
When was the first complete census held in India ?
In 1881.

Question 4.
What is the average density of population in India ?
382 persons per sq. km.

Question 5.
Which state has the highest density of population in India ? Also mention density.(C.B.S.E. 2009)
Bihar—1102 persons per sq. km.

Question 6.
What is the average annual rate of growth of population in India ?
Ans:
1.76 percent.

Question 7.
What is the average birth rate and death rate in India ?
Birth rate 21 per thousand, death rate 7.9 per thousand.

Question 8.
Name the state of India with the highest literacy rate as per 2011 census. (C.B.S.E. 2016)
Kerala.

Question 9.
What is the total number of villages in India ?
6,40,867 (2011 data)

Question 10.
Which state has the highest population in India ?

Question 11.
Which state has lowest population in India ? (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Or
Name the state of India having the least share of population according to the Census 2011. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Sikkim—6.07 lakhs.

Question 12.
State three clusters of high density of population.
Northern plain, East-coastal plain and Deltas.

Question 13.
Name two types of population growth.
(i) Negative growth rate. When the population decreases.
(ii) Positive growth rate. When the population increases.

Question 14.
Which state has the highest percentage of rural population ?

Question 15.
What do you mean by urbanisation ?
The process of society, transformation from a rural to urban population is known as urbanisation.

Question 16.
Which is the most urbanised state of India ?
Goa (49.77%).

Question 17.
What is the total number of males and females in India ?
Males—62 crores
Females—59 crores.

Question 18.
What is the average sex ratio in India ?
940 females per 1000 males.

Question 19.
Which state has the highest sex’ ratio in India ?
Kerala—1084 females per 1000 males.

Question 20.
Which state has the lowest sex ratio in India ?
Haryana-877.

Question 21.
What does the proportion of literate population of a country indicate? (Sample Paper 2018-19)
It indicates socio-economic development.

Question 22.
Which language is spoken by most of people in India ?
Hindi (33.73 crores).

### Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
India is a land of villages. Give two points to support it.
(i) About 68.84 per cent of people live in villages.
(ii) There are 6.40 lakh villages in India.

Question 2.
In Delhi, in 2011, the total population was 1,67,53,235 and the total area was 1483 sq. kms. Calculate density of population.
Density of population
$$=\frac{\text { Total Population }}{\text { Total area }}=\frac{1,67,53,235}{1483}$$
= 11297 persons per sq. km.

Question 3.
Compare the population and density of population of India and China.
China has a total population of 134 crores while the total population of India is 121.02 crores. The density of population in China is 144 persons per sq. km. while India has a density of population of 382 persons per sq. km. Thus China has more population, while India has more density of population.

Question 4.
‘The distribution of population is highly uneven in India.’ Give three examples.
India has an uneven distribution of population:
(i) Plains have more population than mountains, deserts and forested lands have less population.
(ii) Large states have greater population.
(iii) River basins and coastal plains have dense population.

Question 5.
State the areas of low density of population. Give reasons.
Areas with density of below 200 persons per sq. km are sparsely populated. These are :

• Major parts of Rajasthan
• Chhattisgarh
• Western Odisha
• Eastern Karnataka
• Central parts of Andhra Pradesh.

Thus this extensive tract of low density extend from the Aravallis in the west to Odisha in the east.

Reasons for low density :

• Hilly and dissected topography.
• Shallow and poor soils.
• Low rainfall.
• Forested land.
• Desert area.
• Availability of water is low.

Question 6.
What are pull factors ?
When people, migrate in search of better economic opportunities, jobs, employment and better living conditions, These are called pull factors. Millions of people were attracted by the big cities like Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi.

Question 7.
What are push factors ?
The factors compelling people to leave the place of residence are called push factors. This is due to poverty, umemployment, high pressure of population and economic depression. Migration to big urban cities take place due to marriage, social insecurity, better social, cultural and health facilities.

Question 8.
What do you mean by population* composition ? State its main attributes.
Population composition refers to the physical, socio-cultural and economic attributes of the population. These include age, sex, place of residence, language, religion, marital status, ethnicity, literacy, education and occupation.

Question 9.
The primitive communities societies lived in complete harmony with their natural environment and as such the humans were naturalised. Support the statement. (CBSE 2018)
(i) The primitive society live in complete harmony with their natural environment.
(ii) It is realized that in all such cases nature is a powerful force worshipped, severed and conserved.
(iii) There is direct dependence of human beings on nature for resources which sustain them.

Question 10.
Which five states of India have more than half the urban population of India ? What is the position of Uttar Pradesh
The five states—Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh have 51% of the total urban population of India. Uttar Pradesh has the highest urban population of India, but only 31% of the total population lives in urban towns. This is due to rural background.

Question 11.
State four reasons for declining sex ratio.
(i) More males are born than females.
(ii) Females die at infancy and during the reproductive period.
(iii) General neglect of females is largely responsible for high female sex mortality at childhood.
(iv) Pre-birth sex determination leads to female foeticide.

Question 12.
Distinguish between rural population and urban population.
Or
Explain any three characteristics each of rural and urban composition of population in India. (Outside Delhi 2019)

 Urban Population Rural Population 1. Manufacturing and trade are the main occupations of urban people. 1. Agriculture is the main occupation of rural people. 2. The urban population is provided with all the basic facilities of life. 2. The rural population is not provided with modern facilities. 3. The density of population is high in urban areas. 3. The density of population is low in rural areas.

Question 13.
Explain three differences between a main worker and a marginal worker.

 Main Worker Marginal Worker 1. An individual is a main worker if he is engaged in any economically gainful work for a period of 183 days in a year. 2.  The high percentage of main workers rep­resents a developed economy. 3. On an average, two persons are dependent on a main worker. Main workers are mostly found in urban areas. 1. An individual who works a lesser number of days (less than 183 days) in a year is called a marginal worker. 2. The high percentage of marginal workers represents a developing economy. 3. Marginal workers are mostly found in rural areas because the agricultural activities are seasonal.

Question 14.
Distinguish between Birth-rate and Growth-rate.

 Birth-rate Growth-rate 1. The number of live births per thousand persons during a certain period of time is called the birth rate. 2. It is calculated for every 1000 persons for a year. 3. A high birth-rate shows an increasing population. 1. It is the difference between the birth rate and death rate per 1000 persons. 2. The growth-rate of population is expressed as percentage during a certain period of time. 3. When birth-rate is more than death-rate, it shows a positive growth rate.

Question 15.
Distinguish between Arithmetic density and Physiological density of population.

 Arithmetic density Physiological density 1. This is measured to express the number of people per unit area. 2. The arithmetic density of India $$\frac{12102 \text { lakh persons }}{32.8 \text { lakh } \mathrm{km}^{2}}=382$$ 3. It explains the variation in distribution of population. 1. It is measured to express the ratio of total population to cultivated area. 2. The physiological density of India $$\frac{12102 \text { lakh persons }}{15.6 \text { lakh } \mathrm{km}^{2}}=780$$ 3. It shows the number of persons dependent on cultivated land.

Question 16.
State the place of India in the world in terms of population size and density.
Or
Compare India’s population size with some big countries of the world.
Ans.
India has a total population of 1210 million persons (in 2011). India is one of the most populous countries of the world. India ranks second in world population next to China. India has 16.7% of the world population, but it has only 2.4% of the worlds land. India’s population is more than the total population of North America, South America and Australia put together. This shows that India has a large population

Question 17.
(a) Name the four most populous states of the country.
(b) Name four large states of India (As regards to area). Compare their population size and area.
(a) The four most populous states of India are (according to 2011 Census):

 S. No. State Population Rank 1. Uttar Pradesh 19,95,81,477 1st 2. Maharashtra 11,23,72,972 2nd 3. Bihar 10,38,04.637 3rd 4. West Bengal 9,13,47,736 4th

(b) Four large states of India (As regards area)

 S. No. Name of State Area  (kms) Rank in area Population Rank in Population 1. Rajasthan 3,42,239 First 6,86,21,012 Eighth 2. Madhya Pradesh 3,08,245 Second 7,25,97,565 Seventh 3. Maharashtra 3.07.713 Third 11,23,72,972 Second 4. Uttar Pradesh 2,94,000 Fourth 19,95,81.477 First

Comparisons
(1) These four large states together account for about 1/3 of the total population of India.
(2) More than l/4th of total population of India lives in Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.
(3) Uttar Pradesh has more people than the two largest states of India i.e., Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

Question 18.
Explain the causes of concentration of dense population in the Sutlej-Ganga plains.
Sutlej-Ganga plains is the most densely populated area in India. This includes the states of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi (NCR), Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. The density of population of these states is above national average density.

 State Density of population State              ’ Density of population Punjab 550 Uttar Pradesh 828 Haryana 573 Khar 1102 Delhi (NCR) 11297 West Bengal 1029

This is the largest compact belt of high density of population. West Bengal has the highest density of population in India.

Reasons:
(1) Favourable climate
(2) Fertile river valleys and delta favouring agriculture.
(3) 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.
(4) Irrigation facilities.
(5) Rural economy.
(6) Urban and Industrial development in Delhi and Kolkata.
(7) A network of developed means of transportation.

Question 19.
Highlight the significance of Socio-economic factors affecting the distribution of population.
Socio-economic factors have helped to increase the economic development of an area.
(i) Technology has been the key to Development.
(ii) Technical know how has increased the supporting capacity of different areas.
(iii) Primary activities are being replaced by secondary and tertiary activities. These support a high density of population.
(iv) Industrialisation such as around Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata have high density of population.
(v) Urbanisation has increased the concentration of people.
(vi) Areas having the strategy of Green revolution such as Punjab has high density of population.

Question 20.
State the four phases into which Indian demographic history is divided.
The process of change in a society, population is called the demographic Transition. It consists of four stages in India:

• Period of Stagnant growth rate—Before 1921 (High death and birth rates)
• Period of Steady growth rate—1921 to 1951 (High birth rate low declining death rate)
• Period of rapid growth rate —1951 tol981 (Death rate declining faster than birth rate)
• Period of declining growth rate—(after 1981) (Low birth rate and low death rate)

Question 21
‘The huge size of population dependent on a narrow resource base creates many problems.’ Discuss.
India has a huge population (1210 million). 16.7 percent of the world population lives in only 2.4 percent of the world land. This huge population has created many social, political and economic problems. Large size of population means heavy pressure on natural and man-made resources. Two major problems are poverty and environmental degradation. Ethnic diversity, rural character and uneven distribution are also showing the socio-economic development. Indian Agriculture cannot absorb the fast growing population.

Question 22.
State the four phases into which Indian demographic history is divided.
The Indian demographic history can be divided into the following four phases :—
1. Before 1921 Period. During this period, the increase in population was sporadic, irregular and slow. After 1921, it has increased steadily. Hence the year 1921 is called the demographic divide in the population study of India.

2. During 1921-51 Period. The population increased steadily with the development in medical facilities which reduced deaths caused by epidemics like plague, cholera and malaria. Deaths due to famines declined and sanitation and medical facilities improved. Consequently, crude death rate declined, but crude birth rate remained high. It is called mortality induced growth.

3. During 1951-81 Period. Average growth rate was about 2.2 per cent per annum during this period. The living conditions of the people improved enormously. Death rates however declined faster than the birth rates. This situation resulted in high natural increase. Thus it was fertility-induced growth.

4. After 1981 Period. The rate of growth started declining gradually. During this period, birth rate declined rapidly, from 34 per thousand in 1981 to 26 per thousand in 1999. The difference between birth and death rates narrowed to 17. This declining trend is a positive indicator of the official efforts of birth control and people’s own inclination to opt for smaller families.

Question 23.
What is meant by the term ‘index of population concentration’ ? What are its implications ?
Index of population concentration is the proportion of India’s population living in a state of Indian union. For example, the index of concentration for Uttar Pradesh is
$$\frac{1995 \text { Lakh }}{12102 \text { Lakh }}=\frac{1995}{12102} \times 100=16.48 \%$$
It means 16.48% population of India lives in Uttar Pradesh Thus, it is a ratio between the population of state and total population of the country.

Question 24.
The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high and steadily increasing overtime. Substantiate the statement. (CBSE 2018)
Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points. The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high and steady.

• It is a period of steady growth of population rate.
• There was an overall improvement in health and sanitation.
• It brought down the Mortality rate.
• The crude death rate remainded high.

• It is a period of population explosion in India.
• There was a rapid fall in Mortality rate.
• There was a high fertility rate of population.
• There was improvement in living conditions.
• Migration from neighbouring countries particularly Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, etc. had contributed to high growth rate in India.

Question 25.
What factors are responsible for the high rate of population growth in India ?
Between the years 1921-1950, India’s population was stable or had a meagre growth. There has been a rapid growth of population since 1951. The population increased from 361 million in 1951 to 439 million in 1961, 547 million in 1971 and 683 million in 1981 and 844 million in 1991, 1027 million in 2001 and 1210 million in 2011. The main causes for this rapid growth of population have been as under :

(i) Fall in Death-rate. Due to improved medical facilities and control over floods and epidemics, there has been a considerable fall in death-rate. It has declined from 47 in year 1921 to 7 per thousand in 2001.
(ii) Increase in life expectancy. The expectation of life has increased from 23 years to 65 years in 2001.
(iii) Fall in infant mortality rate. The death rate among children below one year of age has dropped from 250 to 125 per thousand.

Question 26.
What are the basic components ‘ um of change in population or growth of population ?
Ans.
Population never remains stable. It changes with time. The change in population depends on these components:
(i) Birth-rate
(ii) Death-rate
(iii) Migration.
A high birth-rate results in an increase in population, while a high death-rate shows a declining population. The difference between birth-rate and death- rate is called natural growth. When birth-rate is more than death-rate, it is called positive natural growth. Population declines due to out-migration or emigration of people to foreign countries. Population increases due to in-migration or immigration of people from foreign countries.

Question 27.
Why are the years 1921 and 1951 most significant in the history of population growth in India ?
The population of India is increasing at a rapid rate during this century. Between 1901 and 1981, it has increased almost three times. The population growth has been fluctuating during this period.

From the table given below, it is clear—
(i) Till year 1921, the population of India remained more or less stable. During the years 1901-1921 there was an increase in population by only 13 million (at the rate of 3% per decade). This was due to a large death toll because of great influenza (1911-21), First World War (1914), epidemics (1918) and droughts (1920). After 1921, the population began to rise at a slow but definite rate. Thus, the year 1921, is known as a great divide in our demographic history.

(ii) Till 1951, there has been a steady growth of population. After 1951, the population rose at a rapid rate. Thus, the first stage of population growth was over by the year 1951. Between 1951-81, a period of 30 years, our population has been doubled almost at a growth rate of 2.42 per annum.

Question 28.
What do you mean by Census of population ? After how many years, it is held in India ?
Census of Population.
Population data are mostly collected through censuses in all countries of the world. In the case of India, the first census was held in 1872, although the first complete census was taken in 1881 only. Since then, censuses have been held regularly with a gap of 10 years. A census of population involves a complicated process of collecting, compiling and publishing complete demographic data pertaining to all persons living in the country at the time of the censuses. Many improvements have been made to make Indian census as one of the best in the world.

Question 29.
How is arithmetic density not a sensitive measure of density of population ? Which method suits agricultural areas ?
A ratio of population is a better measure of variation in the distribution of population. One such measure is the density of population expressed as number of people per unit area, for example, a square kilometre or a hectare. However, it is a crude measure, and is referred to as arithmetic density. It is a crude method. It is not a sensitive measure of densities.

It is crude because the entire area of a country or a state is taken into consideration while calculating the density. In fact, the population lives only in the selected areas which are productive, rich in natural resources and accessible to the humans. The hilly and the rugged terrain, swampy, marshy and forested tracts as well as the areas covered by water bodies are just not suited for human habitation. These are called negative areas. These areas should not be considered for population.

Since arithmetic density is not a very sensitive index of population crowding, densities are sometimes calculated for the rural population or agricultural population. In calculating the density, cultivated area is considered. A ratio of population to cultivated area is described in France as physiological density. This measure of density gives us an idea as to how many people are dependent on each hectare of cultivated land. It is a highly meaningful index, particularly for countries whose economies are largely dependent on agriculture.

Question 30.
Which are the major demographic attributes of human population ?
The major attributes of population are :
(a) Sex Ratio. A population is comprised by males and females ; who are of different age groups.

(b) Rural and urban population. They may be residing in villages, small and medium towns or large cities.

(c) Working and non-working population. A substantive proportion of population may consist of non-workers who are either too young to work or do not work because they are ill or too old to accept any work.

(d) Others. Age, place of residence, language, religion, marital status, ethnicity, education and occupation. These characteristics of population composition may be described as demographic attributes.

Question 31.
Which state of India is most rural in character ?
Or
In which part of the country is proportion of rural population higher than national average ?
The 2011 Census shows that 72.3 percent population is rural. About 741 million people live in villages. Some states are mostly rural. In Himachal Pradesh, about 90 percent people live in villages. Arunachal Pradesh is most rural with 94.50 percent rural population. All the Northern and North-Eastern states have higher proportion of rural population than national average.

Question 31.
Name the Million Towns of India

Question 32.
State the distributional pattern of sex ratio in the country.
(i) Sex ratio is the number of females per thousand males.
(ii) Sex ratio of India in 2011 is 940 while it was 972 in 1991.
(iii) Sex ratio is high in rural areas.
(iv) Sex ratio is lower in Union Territories.
(v) Kerala has the highest sex ratio of 1084.
(vi) 17 States and 2 Union Territories have sex ratio higher than national average.
(vii) Sex Ratio declines from South to North and from East to West.

Question 33.
“The sex ratio has been generally declining ever since 1901.” Critically examine the statement and give reasons for the declining trend.
The sex ratio of India according to 2011 census is 940 per thousand males. There is a general declining trend in sex ratio. The ratio in 1901 was 972. It was declined to 940 in 2011. This decline has been due to social evils in our society.

Reasons of declining sex ratio :

• In our society, female child is neglected. Male population dominates in our society
• There is high death-rate among females
• Death-rate is particularly high among married women
• Women labour migrates to some mining and industrial centres. It also results in declining sex ratio.

Question 34.
Describe the growth of urban population in India.
With rapid increase in population, the urban population has also rapidly increased. During the last 100 years of demographic history, it has rapidly increased. The total population has increased four times but the urban population has increased eight times. During the first four decades of this century, the urban growth has been very slow. But during the last two decades it has increased rapidly. The urban population in 1901 was 257 lakhs, it has increased to 3330 lakhs in 2011.

Question 35.
Which states of India have a high sex ratio and which states of India have a low sex ratio ?
The highest sex ratio (1084 females per 1000 males) is found in Kerala whereas the national average is 940 females per 1000 males.
Area of High Sex Ratio. The following states of India have a sex ratio higher than the national average.

Odisha (978), Andhra Pradesh (992), Tamil Nadu (995), Karnataka (968), Himachal Pradesh (974), Meghalaya (986), Goa (968), Kerala (1084), Puducherry (1038), Chhattisgarh (991), Manipur (987), Uttarakhand (963), Tripura (961), Jharkhand (947).

Areas of Low Sex Ratio. The following states of India have a sex ratio lower than national average.
Sikkim (889), Nagaland (931), Haryana (877), Punjab (893), Uttar Pradesh (898), Bihar (916), Arunachal (920),Assam (954), Madhya Pradesh (930), Maharashtra (925), Gujarat (918), West Bengal (947) and Rajasthan (926).

Question 36.
What do you understand by term sex ratio ?
The sex composition of population is often expressed as a ratio which is known as the sex ratio. It is computed as number of females per thousand males. Thus, a sex ratio of 1000 implies complete parity between the two sexes. Ratios above 1000 indicates excess of females over males; those below 1000 indicate a deficit of females. The overall sex ratio of 933 for Indian population suggests a general deficit of females. Kerala state has a sex ratio of 1058 where females outnumber males.

Question 37.
Describe the salient features of occupational structure of population of India.
The occupation of population is often classified into primary, secondary and tertiary activities. The 2001 census of India published its data dividing the workers into four main categories.

India-occupational structure (2001) %

 Occupations Persons Males Females 1. Cultivators 31.71 31.34 32.50 2. Agricultural Labourers 26.69 20.82 39.43 3. Household Industries 4.07 3.02 6.37 4. Other workers 37.58 44.72 21.70

(1) More than half of the main workers are engaged in agricultural activities (31.71 + 26.69 = 58.40%)
(2) Workers engaged in Non-Agricultural activities are 41.65%.
(3) More females are engaged in Primary Sector.
(4) The number of workers in the tertiary sector are more in towns and cities.

Question 38.
Name the 18 major languages which have been specified in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.
The following 18 major languages have been specified in the eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution:

• Assamese
• Bengali
• Gujarati
• Hindi
• Kashmiri
• Malyalam
• Marathi
• Oriya
• Punjabi
• Sanskrit
• Tamil
• Telugu
• Urdu
• Sindhi
• Nepali
• Konkani
• Manipuri.

Question 39.
Name the four language families to which Indian languages belong to.
The languages spoken by the people of India have been divided into the following four language families:

• Dravidian Family — (Dravida)
• Sino-Tibetan Family — (Kirata)
• Indo-European Family — (Arya)

Question 40.
Which language family is predominant in India ?
Most of the population of India speaks the languages of Aryan Family. About 73% of the total population of India speak Aryan Languages. Hindi is the main language of this family and is spoken by the majority of people in India.

Question 41.
Why do the people of India display high degree of diversity in their language and dialects ?
Or
“India is a land of linguistic diversity.” Support the statement. (Outside Delhi 2019)
India is a vast country of severe contrasts. The languages and dialects show a great diversity. According to 1961 census, there are about 187 languages spoken in India. It is but natural when we look the huge size of population of India. The population of India has been derived from a number of racial groups.

The people in India has been in a long process during which different racial groups entered India. Each stock has its own spoken languages. This led to the development of different languages in different regions. Each region has tried to maintain its own language. Each linguistic group has tried to maintain its individual identity.

Language is a good indicator of ethnic diversity as well as unity. In 1961 Census, 1652 languages were enlisted on mother tongues in India. Hindi is the mother tongue of 337.27 million persons (40.42% of total).

Question 42.
‘The decades 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady l growth of population, whereas the decades of 1951-81 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India Explain giving reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Growth the populations is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points. The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high.

• It is a period of steady growth of population rate.
• There was an overall improvement in health and sanitation.
• It brought down the Mortality rate.
• The crude death rate remained high.

• It is a period of population explosion in India.
• There was a rapid fall in Mortality rate.
• There was a high fertility rate of population.
• There was improvement in living conditions,
• Migration from neighbouring countries particularly Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, etc., had contributed to high growth rate of India.
• Economy rose and development acitivites.

Question 43.
“Apart from birth and death, migration is another way by which the population size changes.” Justify the statement. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Migration is one of the major factors that affects the population change. Rural urban migration is important factor contributing to the population growth of cities. Population declines due to out-migration or immigration of people to foreign countries. Population increases due to in-migration or immigration of people from foreign countries.

Internal migration does not make any change but international migration makes the differences in the size of population. Marriage is a social factor which change the size of population if women married to foreigner population decreased and population of her husband country increased. Facilities of education, health, etc. inspire people to migrate. Due to employment facilities people migrate from their birth place.

### Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe briefly the factors responsible for the variations in ; density of population in India. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Or
An uneven distribution of population suggests a close relationship between socio-population and physical and economic factors”. Support the statement with suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Density of population means the average number of people living in a sq. km. area. It is called arithmetic density. It is calculated as under :
Density ol population $$=\frac{\text { Total population }}{\text { Total area }}$$
Density of population of India in 2011
$$=\frac{1210 \text { crore persons }}{32.8 \text { lakh sq. } \mathrm{km} . \text { area }}=382$$ persons per sq. km.
With this average density of 382 persons per sq. km, India is considered to be one of the densely populated countries of the world.

Distribution Of Population

The population in India is not evenly distributed among different states. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu are the most populous states of India while Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Tripura are sparsely populated states. The factors affecting the distribution of population can be grouped into three classes:

• Physical factors
• Socio-economic factors
• Demographic factors

The following factors determine the density of population:

(i) Relief of the Land. Plain areas attract more population than mountains and plateaus. It is so because in plains, it is easy to conduct business, industry and farming. Against this, in the mountainous areas like Himachal Pradesh and Meghalaya the density is low. It is so because in hilly areas facilities like flat land, transport, irrigation, etc. are not available for the conduct of trade, industry and farming. A high density of population is found in the fertile plains of the Ganga and Sutlej.

(ii) Climate. The extremely cold climate of Ladakh and northern Himachal Pradesh, extremely hot climate of Thar Desert in Rajasthan and wet climate of Meghalaya discourage human settlement.

(iii) Rainfall. Areas with regular and moderate rainfall are densely populated. For instance, in West Bengal, density of population is 1029 per sq. km. due to the adequate rainfall which is beneficial for farming.

(iv) Irrigational Facilities. If the rainfall is scanty in an area but irrigational facilities are available, agriculture becomes possible which in turn supports large population. It is for this reason that we find high density in the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu where water is available for irrigation.

(v) Soil. Deep, fertile soils are suitable for agriculture. River valleys, deltas and lowlands are the most productive areas. River valleys are densely populated areas. There is sparse population in region of poor soils.

(vi) Minerals. The presence of mineral deposits supports a high population density. New towns have sprung up in Damodar valley due to presence of minerals. Coal, water power and petroleum help in the location of industries. These industrial areas support a large population.

(vii) Rivers and water supply. Rivers are the main source of water supply. Most of the towns are located along the banks of rivers. The ancient civilisation grew up in the river valleys. Deserts are sparsely populated due to shortage of water.

(viii) Agriculture. Productive areas can generally support dense population. In West Bengal, three crops a year are obtained in rice-cultivating areas. Therefore, West Bengal has high density of population in agricultural areas. Areas adopting modern high yielding crops have high density of population like Punjab.

(ix) Means of transportation. Means of transportation affect industries, agriculture and trade of region. Areas with developed and means of transportation attract population. Inaccessible areas like mountains are sparsely populated.

(x) Demographic factors. Fertility, mortality, migration and urbanisation also affect the distribution of population.

Question 2.
“The spatial distribution of population in India is highly uneven.” Discuss with the help of suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2017 Set-I)
Or
Describe the spatial patterns of density of population in India.
The distribution of population in India is very unequal. According to 2001 census, the total population of India is 121.02 crores and the density of population is 324 persons per sq. kilometre. The density of population varies according to relief, climate and the agricultural productivity of the land. The density of population depends on the amount of rainfall. The areas of sufficient rainfall can support a large number of people.

Keeping in view, the national average density (382 persons per sq km), three types of population density areas are recognized: —
1. Densely populated areas: These areas have a density of more than 400 persons per sq kilometre. The high density areas make a girdle round the Deccan plateau. Right from Sutlej-Beas plain to Brahamputra valley, the density of population is very high. Three clusters of high density are found :

(а) West Coastal Plain. Kerala has 859 persons per sq. kilometre density of population.
(b) The East Coastal Plain. Tamil Nadu has a density of 555 persons per sq. kilometre. Mahanadi, Godawari and Krishna deltas are clusters of high density.
(c) The Northern Plain. It includes West Bengal (1029), Bihar (1102), Uttar Pradesh (828), Punjab (550), Haryana (573).

Factors favouring high density :

• Sufficient rainfall.
• Fertile river valleys and deltas.
• 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.
• Irrigation facilities.
• Healthy climate.
• Rich in mineral and power resources.
• Rural economy.
• Urban and Industrial development in Kolkata and Delhi.

2. Moderately populated areas. These include the areas with a density between 250 to 500 persons per sq. kilometre. These areas are surrounded by Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Maharashtra (365), Andhra Pradesh (308), Karnataka (319), Gujarat (308), Odisha (269), Goa (399), Assam (397) have a moderate density.

Factors for moderate density:

• Agriculture is not developed due to thin and rocky soils, undulating topography.
• Rainfall is uncertain.
• Means of transporation are not developed.
• Some areas have high density of population due to irrigation and Green Revolution, lava soils, mineral resources and Industrial development.

3. Sparsely populated areas. These areas have a density less than 250 persons per sq. kilometre. The mountainous, arid and forest areas are not attractive to human habitation. An extensive tract of low density extends from the Aravallis to Odisha.

(a) North Eastern India. This region includes Meghalaya (132), Manipur (122), Nagaland (119), Sikkim (86) and Arunachal Pradesh (17).

(b) Rajasthan Desert. Rajasthan has a density of 128 persons per sq. kilometre.

(c) Western Himalayas. It includes Jammu and Kashmir (124), Himachal Pradesh (123).

Factors for low density:

• The hilly nature of the land.
• Dense forests.
• Low rainfall.
• Poor economic development.
• Absence of minerals.
• Lack of irrigation and agriculture.
• Cold climate.

Ranking of States and Union Territories by Population : 2011

 Rank in 2011 Indian States/Union Territories Population 2011 Percent to total population of INDIA Density of Population 1 2 1,21,01,93,422 3 100.00 4 382 5 INDIA 1,21,01,93,422 100.00 382 1. Uttar Pradesh 19,95,81,477 16.49 828 z. Maharashtra 11,23,72,9/2 9.29 365 3. Bihar 10,38,04,637 8.58 1,102 4. West Bengal 9,13,47,736 7.55 1,029 5. Andhra Pradesh 4,93,86,799 4 00 308 6. Madhya Pradesh 7,25,97,565 6.00 236 7. Tamil Nadu 7,21,38,958 5.96 555 8. Rajasthan 6,86,21,012 5.67 201 9. Karnataka 6,11,30,704 5.05 319 10. Gujarat 6,03,83,628 4.99 308 11. Odisha 4,19,47,358 3.47 269 12. Kerala 3,33,87,677 2.76 859 13. Jharkhand 3,29,66,238 2.72 414 14. Assam 3,11,69,272 2.58 397 15. Punjab 2,77,04,236 2.29 550 16. Chhattisgarh 2,55,40,196 2.11 189 17. Haryana 2,53,53,081 2.09 573 18. NCT of Delhi* 1,67,53,235 1.38 11,297 19. Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh* 1,25,48,926 1.04 124 20. Uttarakhand 1,01,16,752 0.84 189 21. Himachal Pradesh 68,56,509 0.57 123 22. Tripura 36,71,032 0.30 350 23. Meghalaya 29,64,007 0.24 132 24. Manipur 27,21,756 0.22 122 25. Nagaland 19,80,602 0.16 119 26. Goa 14,57,723 0.12 394 27. Arunachal Pradesh 13,82,611 0.11 17 28. Puducherry* 12,44,464 0.10 2,598 29. Mizoram 10,91,014 0.09 52 30. Chandigarh* 10,54,686 0.09 9,252 31. Sikkim 6,07,688 0.05 86 32. Andaman & Nicobar Islands* 3,79,944 0.03 46 33. Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu* 585,764 0.05 970 34. Lakshadweep* 64,429 0.01 2,013 35. Telangana *Union Territories 3,52,86,757 3.00 307

# Note: The erstwhile state of Jammu & Kashmir reorganised into two Union Territories – Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh. As per Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (Merger of Union territories) Act, 2019, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu have been merged.

Question 3.
Describe the geographical distribution of different language families in India.
The people of India display a high degree of diversity in their languages. The languages spoken by the people can be classified into four language families.

1. Austric Family. The Austric languages are spoken by 6.2 million people in India. These include languages spoken by tribal people.

• Munda language is spoken by tribal groups of Santhals, Mayurbhanj, Ranchi, Betul and Baudh Khondmahals (Jharkhand).
• The Mon Khmer Khasi language is spoken in Khasi and Jaintia hills of Meghalaya.
• Nicobari language is spoken in Nicobar Island.

2. Sino-Tibetan Family. These languages are spoken by tribal groups of Himalayan Region.

• Tibeto-Himalayan group includes Tibetan, Balthi, Ladakhi, Lahauli and Bhutia : Lahauli, Kanauri and Lepcha. Ladakhi has the largest number of speakers.
• North-Assam group includes Aka, Drafla, Abor, Miri and Mishmi Mishing mostly spoken in Arunachal Pradesh.
• The Assam-Burmese group includes Bodo, Naga, Kochin and Kukichin.

3. Dravidian Family. These languages are spoken in Deccan plateau region. It includes Tamil (Tamil Nadu), Malayalam (Kerala), Kannada (Karnataka) and Telugu (Andhra Pradesh). There is less diversity in this group of languages. It also includes Kin, Parji, Khond, Tulu, Kurgi, etc.

4. Aryan Family. It has two main branches :
(i) Dardic
(ii) Aryan

The majority of people speak these languages. Hindi is the principal language spoken by the majority of people. Hindi is the main language in Northern plains. Urdu, Sindhi, Marathi, Konkani, Oriya, Bangla, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Marwari are other important languages in different regions. Hindi occupies the fourth place in the World. Urdu is very akin to Hindi and is widely spoken in this belt.

Question 4.
Discuss the religious composition of Indian population and its spatial distribution.
Religious Composition : Important aspect of India’s population is the multiplicity of religious faiths. It is commonly known that the religion of the land is Hinduism. India witnessed successive penetration by other religions (Christianity, Judaism, Zorastrianism, Islam) and sections of Indian population embraced these faiths from time to time.

(1) The earliest to appear was Christianity. Historical records show that the Syrian Christians appeared on the west coast of India in the very first century of the Christian era.

(2) The Arab traders brought the message of Islam to the people of India living on the west coast much before the Muslim conquest of India.

(3) Buddhism which was once upon a time a major religion of the land is today confined to a few pockets only.
It is thus obvious that the religious composition of population has been changing with conversions from one faith to another, due to migration and partition of the country.

Different Religions. The religious groups of India include Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains, although other religious faiths such as Judaism and Zorastrianism are also represented. Several tribal communities adhere to animism and totemism. Hindus account for 82 per cent of the total population. They are distributed in all parts of India. However, in some districts they are less numerous than the Muslims, Christians, Sikhs or Buddhists.

The Muslims are the largest minority group and account for 12.12 per cent of the total population. The proportion of Christians is 2.34 per cent while Sikhs account for 1.93 per cent of the total population. Buddhists and Jains account for 0.76 and 0.39 per cent of the total population, respectively. It may be noted that while Hindus are found everywhere, other religious groups have their concentration in a few pockets only.

(1) Hindus : Hindus remain the most numerous groups everywhere.

(a) In many parts of the country such as a few districts of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh the proportion of Hindus population goes up to 95 per cent or even above. It is lowest (5 %) in Mizoram.

(b) In the sub-Himalayan districts of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh the proportion of Hindu population is high above 95 per cent.

(c) The Hindu percentage remains well above 90 per cent in eastern Madhya Pradesh, eastern Gujarat, southern Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and coastal Andhra Pradesh.

(d) There are, however, certain districts on the west coast where the Hindu percentages fall below 70 per cent and even below 50 per cent. Hindus are in minority in Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Nagaland and North East Tribal areas.

(2) Muslims : According to the 1991 Census, Muslim population numbered 101.5 million which accounted for 12.12 per cent of the country’s total population. The major areas of Muslims concentration are situated in the Kashmir Valley, parts of the upper Ganga plain (Uttar Pradesh) and a number of districts in West Bengal where the Muslim proportion ranges between 20 and 40 per cent. In Murshidabad (West Bengal), the Muslim proportion goes as high as 61.40 per cent. In the upper Ganga Valley, Muslims are fairly predominant in several districts.

(3) Christians : Of the 19.64 million Christians of India, about 29 per cent live in the state of Kerala alone. Other areas of Christian concentration are in Goa and Tamil Nadu.

About 30 per cent of population of Goa consists of Christians. Several Tribal districts of Odisha and Bihar have significant proportion of Christian population. Likewise, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Manipur have very high proportion of Christians. In Nagaland for example, their share in the total population is as high as 87.47 percent.

Mizoram with 85.73 per cent of its population consisting of Christians follows closely. Percentages remain very high in the districts of Meghalaya and some districts of Manipur (between 50 and 98 per cent). Several districts of Uttar Pradesh and Punjab have small Christian population.

(4) Sikhs : The 1991 Census returns show that there are 16.25 million Sikhs in the country. While there is no part in India where the Sikhs are not found, their major concentration is seen in the states of Punjab and neighbouring districts of Haryana. This is obvious because Sikhism arose from the soil of Punjab.

Minor pockets of Sikh concentration are found in the Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh, Ganganagar, Alwar and Bharatpur districts of Rajasthan. Sikhs account for 4.84 per cent of the total population of the Union Territory of Delhi. In the urban areas of other states, Sikhs live in small numbers.

(5) Buddhists, Jains and Parsis : India has about 6.38 million Buddhists, 3.55 million, Jains and about 72,000 Parsis. Of the total Buddhists of India, 79 per cent live in Maharashtra alone. These are Neo-Buddhists who embraced this religion after large scale conversion under the influence of the movement launched by Baba Saheb Ambedkar. The main pockets of traditional Buddhism, however, lie in Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura.

Of the total population of India, 28.80 per cent live in Maharashtra, 16.78 per cent in Rajasthan and 14.65 per cent in Gujarat. These three states account for 60.23 per cent of the Jain population of the country. An interesting feature of the distribution of Jains is that their majority live in the urban areas. The Parsis are the smallest religious group. They are most concentrated in Western parts of India in Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Question 5.
Discuss the trend of urbanisation in India with special reference to the post independence period.
Urbanisation in India : According to census, the population is classified into two groups; rural and urban. People living in towns are included
in urban population. A town is an area which has a municipal committee, corporation etc. ; it has a population more than 5000 and 75% people are engaged in occupations other than agriculture.

India is primarily an agricultural country. Most of people live in villages. Villages have been the basis of Indian culture. India has a large urban population. According to census of 2011, the total urban population in India was 39 crores. It is almost equal to the urban population of U.S.A. (25,9 crore) India ranks the largest urbanised country in the world. But the degree of urbanisation in India is low as compared to other countries of the world.

 Country Urban population % U.S.A. 82.6 Brazil 84.9 Egypt 43.7 Pakistan 36.7 India 31.7

Growth of urban population :

With the rapid increase in population, the urban population has also rapidly increased. During the last 110 years (1901-2011), the total population of India increased three times, but the urban population has increased eleven times during the same period.

Rural and Urban Population : 1901-2011

 Census year Population (million) Percentage of total population Rural Urban Rural Urban 1901 213 26 89.2 10.8 1911 226 26 89.7 10.3 1921 223 28 88.8 11.2 1931 246 33 88.0 12.0 1941 275 44 86.1 13.9 1951 299 62 82.7 17.3 1961 360 79 82.0 18.0 1971 439 109 80.1 19.9 1981 524 159 76.7 23.3 1991 629 218 74.3 25.7 2001 741 285 72.2 27.8 2011 833 377 68.8 31.7

The rate of growth of urbanisation has been slow during the period 1901.-61. But during the period of 20 years (1961-81) there has been a rapid growth of urbanisation in India. The urban population increased from 7.8 crores to 15.6.

The percentage of urban population increased from 17.9% to 23.3%. In 2001 the urban population has increased to 28.5 crores (27.8% of the total population). The growth of towns has helped rapid growth of urbanisation. Many industrial towns have been established. The Indian towns have been classified into 6 groups.

 Class Population Class I Class II More than 1 Lakh 50000 – 99999 Class III 20000 – 49999 Class IV 10000-19999 Class V 5000 – 9999 Class VI Less than 5000

After independence, the number of big towns is increasing while the number of small towns is decreasing. In 1991, there were 299 class I towns out of 4689 towns. In 1981, there were 218 class I towns, but in 1901 there were only 24 class I towns. The number of million towns in India is 35.

These towns have a population of 10 crores which is about 1.3rd of total urban population of India. Kolkata, Mumbai, ‘Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Kanpur, Nagpur, Jaipur, Lucknow are million towns in India.

### Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
‘Dense population is found in states in Ganga and Sutlej plain.’ Explain.
West Bengal (1029 persons per sq. km) and Bihar (1102 persons) are the two states with dense population in Northern plains, Uttar Pradesh (20 crores population) is the state with highest population of India with density of population of 828 persons per sq. km. Punjab has density of population of 550 persons per sq. km. while Haryana has a density of population of 573 persons per sq. km. All the states he in Ganga Sutlej Basin.

Question 2.
Identify the challenges of the adolescent population before the society. Enlist a few measures to overcome these problems. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
The share of adolescents is about 20.9% of the population. The adolescent population though regarded as the youthful population, having high potential is quite vulnerable if not quided properly. The National youth policy looks into the overall development of our large youth population. It stresses on an all round improvement of the youth and adolescent enabling them to shoulder responsibility towards constructive development of the country.

• It reinforces the qualities of patriotism and responsible citizenship.
• Special emphasis was given in empowering women and girl child to bring parity in the male and the female status.
• Efforts were made to look into health. Sports and recreation creativity and awareness about new innovations in the spheres of science and technologies.

Map Skills

Question 1.
Show the following on the outline map of India and label these.
(1) Most populated state.
(2) Least populated state.
(3) State with highest density of population.
(4) State with lowest density of population.
(5) State with highest growth rate of population.
(6) State with lowest growth rate of population.
(7) State with highest percentage of rural population.
(8) Most urbanised state.
(9) State with highest sex ratio.
(10) State with lowest sex ratio.