Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 2 The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Important Extra Questions The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth

### The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What was the world population at the beginning of 21st century ?
Over 6 billion.

Question 2.
Which two elements help us to understand demographic characteristics of an area ?
(i) Population Distribution
(ii) Density of Population.

Question 3.
How is density of population calculated ?
Density of Population $$=\frac{\text { Population }}{\text { Area }}$$

Question 4.
Name a mineral belt in Africa which has dense population ?
Katanga—Zambia Copper belt.

Question 5.
Which Industrial Region of Japan is densely populated ?
Kobe-Osaka Region.

Question 6.
What is the present rate of growth of world population ?
1.2 percent.

Question 7.
How many times, has the world population increased during last 500 years ?
10 Times.

Question 8.
What is the proportion of Indian population in world population ?
There is one Indian after every six persons.

Question 9.
How much population is found in ten most populated countries of the world ?
60 percent.

Question 10.
What is the average density of population in the world ?
53.7 persons per sq. km.

Question 11.
Name the country with highest density of population in the world ?
Macao SAR, (China)-19,509.9 persons per sq. km. (2011 data)

Question 12.
Which continent has the highest growth rate of population in the world ?
Africa.

Question 13.
Differentiate between growth and development. (CBSE 2018)
Growth is a quantitative change and development is a qualitative change.

Question 14.
What are immigrants ?
Migrants who move into a new place are called immigrants.

Question 15.
What are emigrants ?
Migrants who move out of a place are called emigrants.

Question 16.
Which country has the lowest growth rate of population in Asia (1995-2000) ?
Japan.

Question 17.
Define positive growth of population.
When birth rate is more than the death rate between two points of time is called positive growth of population.

Question 18.
Name the most densely populated region of North America. (C.B.S.E.2013)
North Eastern part of U.S.A.

Question 19.
Give the meaning of negative growth of population.
When the birth rate falls below the death rate.

### The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
“The population of the world is unevenly distributed’. Explain with two examples. (C.B.S.E. 2017 Set-I)
The population of the world has an uneven pattern of distribution
(i) About 90% of the world population live in 10% area of the world
(ii) 10 most populous countries have about 60% of world population. Like G.B. Cressey, we can say ‘world has many places where people are few and few places where people are very many”.

Question 2.
What do you mean by density of population ? How is it calculated ?
Density of population is a man-land ratio. It is a ratio between the number of people to the area of the land. It is expressed in persons per sq. km.
Density of population $$=\frac{\text { Number of people }}{\text { Area of land }}$$

Question 3.
How does availability of water affect density of population ? Give two examples.
People prefer to live in areas where fresh water is easily available. Water is used for domestic purposes, crops, cattle, industries and navigation,

• River valleys are densely populated areas such as Ganga valley.
• Earliest civilisations developed in Nile valley and Indus valley.

Question 4.
Why are mountains sparsely populated ? Explain giving two examples.
Hilly areas are sparsely populated areas. These hinder the development of agriculture and transport. These do not favour settlements and industries. So mountain areas of Himalayas are sparsely populated. Rocky and Andes mountains have low density of population.

Question 5.
Why are mineral belts densely populated ? Give reasons.
Mineral areas attract industries. These also generate employment. Skilled and semi-skilled workers move to these areas. So these become densely populated. Katanga Zambia copper belt in Africa and Singhbhum in Jharkhand (India) are densely populated.

Question 6.
What do you mean by Population Growth ? State its three impacts on a region. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Change of population in a period of time in an area means growth of population, It may be positive as well as negative. Population growth affects

• Economic development
• Social uplift
• Cultural development.

Question 7.
What is crude birth rate ? What are its effects ? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Crude birth rate (CBR) is expressed as number of live births in a year per thousand of women.
It is calculated as $$\mathrm{CBR}=\frac{\mathbf{B} 1}{\mathbf{P}} \times \mathbf{1 0 0 0}$$
CBR Crude B1 = live births
P = Mid year population

Effects: (i) It affects change of population
(ii) Increasing birth rate shows a positive growth of population.

Question 8.
What is Crude Death Rate ? What are its effects ?
Crude death rate (CDR) is expressed as number of deaths in a year per thousand of population changer.
CDR is calculated as CDR = $$\frac{\mathbf{D}}{\mathbf{P}}$$ x 1000
CDR = Crude Death Rate
D = Number of deaths
P = Mid year population

Effects.
(i) It affects mortality rates, and level of economic development.
(ii) An increasing death rate shows a negative growth of population.

Question 9.
How much density of population is found in densely populated areas, moderately populated areas and sparsely populated areas ? Give two examples of each type.
The distribution of population is uneven on the earth. Some areas are crowded and some areas are empty.
1. Densely Populated areas. In these areas density of population is more than 200 persons per sq. km. These are N.E. part of U.S.A, N.W. part, of Europe, South, South-East and East Asia.

2. Moderately populated areas. These areas have density of population of 11 to 50 persons per sq. km. These areas are Western China, Southern, India, Norway, Sweden, etc.

3. Sparsely populated areas. These areas have density of 1-10 person per sq. km. These areas are Tundra, hot and cold deserts, dense forests.

Question 10.
What is growth of population ? Name its types. How will you calculate the growth of population for India for the 1991-2000 decade ?
Growth of population. Change of population in particular area between two points of time is known as growth of population. It is calculated on the basis of difference between birth rate and death rate.

Population growth %
$$=\frac{\text { Natural increase (Births – Deaths) }}{\text { Average Population }} \times 100$$
Average Population
Take the case of India; the population of India in 1991 = 84.63 crore.
The Population of India in 2001 = 102.70 crore
Difference = 18.07 crore.
Growth rate =$$\frac{18.07 \text { crore }}{93.67 \text { crore }}$$ x 100 = 1.93%
Growth of population is classified as of three types.

(a) Natural growth of population. This is the population difference between births are deaths in a particular region between two points of time.
Natural growth = Births – Death.
Actual growth of population = Births – Deaths + in migration – out migration.

(b) Positive growth of population. This happens when birth rate is more than death rate or when people migrate to a region.

(c) Negative growth of population. This happens when death rate is more than birth rate or people migrate to other countries.

Question 11.
What do you mean by density of population ? What are its types ?
Or
Distinguish between Arithmetic and Physiological density.
Population Density. It refers to a ratio between population and land area in a country.
Types of population density.
(i) The arithmetic population density. In this the number of people is divided by the total land area. It is the simplest method to understand the degree of concentration of population. Although density ignores differences in population distribution within a country or region taken, it is still a better method to compare population characteristics of the countries. For example, in 2011, the United States population density was relatively low, about 34.1 persons per sq. km while United Kingdom had a population density of 259.4 persons per sq. km.

(ii) Physiological or nutritional density. It is a more refined method of calculating man-land ratio. It is a ratio between total population and total cultivated area or crop land. In developing countries where subsistence agriculture remains the most important economic activity, physiological density reflects the intensity of agriculture.

In nearly all the populous developing countries in Asia-including India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, there is less than one acre (0.4 hectare) of cropland per person. Exactly, in India 1 hectare of cultivated or cropland supports 5 persons. In China, each hectare of cropland supports 12 persons, while in USA it is only 1.5 persons per hectare.

Question 12.
Write a note on Doubling time of world population.
Doubling Time of World Population.
Another way of comparing population growth rates is by calculating the time it takes for a population to double using the current annual growth rate. The time taken by the World Population as a whole has been given below.

There is great variation among regions in doubling its population. But the time of doubling is reducing fast. It took a minion years for the population to attain one billion but it took only 12 years to rise from 5 Billion to 6 Billion.

Doubling time of world population

 Period Population Time in which population doubles 10,000 BCE 5 million ………… 1650 CE 500 million 1500 years 1850 CE 1000 million 200 years 1930 CE 2000 million 80 years 1975 CE 4000 million 45 years 2012 7000 million 37 years 2044 9000 million (projected figure) …………..

Question 13.
Distinguish between growth of population and growth rate of population ? Give examples.

 Growth of population Growth rate of population 1. It is measured as Absolute number. 2. In India growth of population in 2011 decade is (121.0 crore — 102.7 crore) = 18.3 crores. 3. It affects development of a region. 1. It is expressed in percentage. 2. The growth rate of population for 2001 – 11 decade is 17.3%. 3 It affects demographic attributes of a region.

Question 14.
Distinguish between positive growth of population and negative growth of population. Give examples. (Sample Paper 2018-19)

 Positive growth of population Negative growth of population 1. When birth rate exceeds death rate. 2. It is increase in population. 3. It helps in utilising resources. 1. When death rate exceeds birth rate. 2. It is decrease in population. 3. It leads to declining resource use

### The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe the main facts about world’s population. Describe the distribution of population on the earth. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Or
Why the Monsoon Asia and N.W. Europe are two most densely populated parts of the world ?
Or
Why are the arid, frigid, humid and mountainous parts of the world sparsely populated ?
Or
“90 percent of the world population lives in about 10 percent of its total land area, whereas remaining 10 percent population resides in the 90 percent of its land areas”. Support the statement with suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Man is the pivotal point in Human Geography. So the distribution of population on the earth’s surface is of special significance to geographers. The distribution of population is very uneven on the surface of the earth. The rapid growth of population is another striking feature. Some universal factors influence the pattern of distribution of population
.
Main Facts :
(i) The world population has increased fourteen-times i.e. from 50 crores in 1650 to 700 crores in 2000 during the period of 350 years.

(ii) At the present rate of growth, the present population will be 1000 crores by the year 2050.

(iii) It is estimated that about 700 crore people live on the earth’s surface on an area of 14.5 crore sq. kms.

(iv) The average density of population is 48 persons per sq. km. for the whole world.

(v) Asia has the largest population of about 400 crores.

(vi) China is the largest populated country in the world. It has a population of 139 crores.

(vii) Bangladesh with 1203(2014) persons per sq. kilometre has the highest density of population of the world. Macau (China) has the highest density of population 22,134(2013) persons per sq. km.

(viii) About 90% of population occupies only 10% of the land.

(ix) The Northern continents have about 90% of population of the world. About 75% population is found between tropic of cancer and 70°N. The Southern hemisphere has only 10% population.

(x) About half of the population of the world is found in between 20°N and 40°N latitudes. About 4/5th population of the world is found between 20°N to 60°N latitudes.

Distribution of Population. The distribution of world’s population is very irregular and ill balanced. Most of the areas are empty. Densely populated areas are few. About 50% of the population of the world lives on 5% land area of the world. While 50% land area is occupied by only 5% population.

World Population

 Continent Total Population (Millions) 2914 Density of Population, 2011 (per sq. km.) Asia 4351 96.4 Europe 741 72.9 Africa 1136 36.7 South America 618 22.8 North America 353 22.9 Oceania 39 4.5 Antarctica 0.004 0.0003 World 7,238 53.7

1. Areas of High Density. These areas have a density of population of more than 200 persons per sq. kilometre. The high density of population is found in two areas :
(а) Agricultural Areas. Eastern and Southern Asia.
(b) Industrial Areas. North-West Europe and North-East U.S.A.

(A) Agricultural Monsoon Areas. Eastern Asia includes China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines and Taiwan. Southern Asia includes India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Indonesia. Asia is the largest area of high population density. China has about 1/6 population of the world. The fertile valleys of

Hwang-Ho, Yangtze, Indo-Gangetic Plain, the rice- howl of Irrawaddy Delta, Kwanto plain and Volcanic islands of Java support almost half the human race. Factors favouring high density :

• Hot-wet monsoon climate.
• Two to three crops of rice a year.
• Fertile river-valleys and deltas.
• Irrigation facilities.
• Industrial development in Japan.
• Huge Mineral resources.

(B) North West Europe and North East U.SA. In Western Europe dense population is found along 50°N latitudes, from English Channel to Ukraine region. 50°N latitude is known as the axis of population of Europe. Great Britain, Ruhr Valley (Germany), Po-Delta (Italy), Paris Basin (France) and Moscow-Ukraine regions are densely populated areas. In North America the Atlantic coast, St. Lawrence Valley and the Great Lakes region are densely populated areas. The high density of population is mainly due to manufacturing.

 Country Population (millions) (mid-2014) Density of Population per sq. km. (2013) China 1364 145 India 1296 421 C.I.S. 275 13 U.S.A. 971 35 Japan 127 349 Brazil 203 24 Pakistan 194 236 Indonesia 251 138 Bangladesh 158 1203 Nigeria 177 191

Factors favouring high density :

• Industrial development.
• Cool-temperate climate.
• Rich mineral resources.
• Coastal location.
• Mixed farming.
• Large scale urbanisation.
• High standard of living.

2. Areas of Moderate Density. These areas have a density of population between 25 to 200 persons per sq. kilometre.

• Prairies of North America.
• Western Africa
• Eastern Europe
• North-East Brazil and Central Chile.
• Deccan Plateau, Indo-China, Central China in Asia.
• Eastern Australia.

Factors favouring moderate density :

• These areas are found on the margins of densely populated areas.
• Large-scale commercial farming requires a few labourers in these areas.
• Some areas have developed mining and support moderate population.
• Some of the hilly areas don’t support large population.
• In some sparsely populated areas, the plantation crops and dairy farming have been introduced. It has increased the density of population.

3. Areas of Low Density. These areas have a density less than 25 persons per sq. kilometre. About half the land area of the world has a density of only 2 to 3 persons per sq. kilometre. These are almost empty lands. These include high mountains, deserts, dense forests and polar areas.

• High Mountains. These include the Himalayas, the Rockies, the Andes, the Tibet Plateau and mountains of Central Asia.
• Deserts. These include the Sahara, Kalahari, Atacama, Gobi desert and Western Australia.
• Dense Forests. These include the equatorial forest of Amazon and Zaire basin.
• Polar Areas. These include Tundra, Alaska, Greenland and Antarctica.

Factors for low density. These areas have unfavourable conditions for human settlement. People have to face many hardships. These are called the regions of everlasting difficulties.

• Lack of level-land.
• Stony and sandy soils.
• Very cold climate.
• Short-growing season.
• Permanent frost in Polar areas.
• Lack of means of transportation.
• Lack of minerals and industries.
• Unhealthy climate due to fatal disease.

Question 2.
Describe the growth of world population, its determinants and spatial distribution of population growth in the world.
Population Growth. Growth of population means change of size of population in a particular area during a given period. It can be positive as well as negative. Land resources cannot be increased much. So positive growth of population cannot go on for a long time. The main cause of population growth is that the birth rate is higher than death rate. It is also called natural growth of population. It is calculated on the basis of difference between birth rate and death rate. It is calculated with the help of following rule.
Population growth % $$=\frac{\text { Natural increase (Births – Deaths) }}{\text { Average Population }} \times 100$$

Determinants of Population Growth Rate.
The following are the three main determinants of population growth:
(i) Birthrate
(ii) Death rate
(iii) Mobility of population (Migration)

(i) Birth rate. In developing countries, there is high birth rate (Nearly 40 per 1000). So, these countries have a higher population growth rate than that of developed countries. On the other hand, due to low birth rate in developed countries, the rate of growth of population is low.

(ii) Death rate. High death rate does not allow population to grow rapidly. When the birth rate is higher than death rate, the population growth rate is high. On the other hand, both birth rate and death rate are low, the population growth rate is low.

(iii) Mobility of population. The migration of population also effects growth rate. During 1880-1920, about 4 crore people settled in U.S.A. and Canada. It not only resulted in higher growth rate in U.S.A. and Canada; but also a lower growth rate in European countries.

Spatial distribution of population growth rate in world.

It has been estimated that in Pre-historic period (8000 B.C.E.), the total population was only 5 million. Large areas were uninhabited. Agricultural revolution led to growth of population upto 1000 million till Industrial revolution in 1850. The period was a slow long term increase in population. Faster population growth came with Industrial revolution. The urban population increased. The standard of living also increased.

It is clear that population growth rate is high in developing countries, while developed countries have a low population growth. Africa has the highest growth rate, while Europe is getting negative growth of population due to decrease in population.

The growth rate of population is not same in all the countries. These countries can be grouped into four divisions :

1. Regions with very high growth rate. This group includes continents where growth rate is about 3 per cent. It includes Africa, Central America, South and West Asia, South America.

2. Regions with high growth rate. This group includes areas where growth rate is 2 to 2.9 percent. It

includes some parts of South America, Eastern Asia, Australia.

3. Regions with moderate growth rate. This group includes countries where growth rate is between 1-1.9 per cent. It includes South America, Carribbean Region, Asia.

4. Regions with low growth rate. This group includes countries where growth rate is less than 1 per cent. It includes North America, Europe, Russia, Japan and New Zealand.

Question 3.
Define migration. What are its causes ? What are its types ?
Migration : Migration is the third component of population change. It is an effort to achieve better balance between population and resources. It is the permanent or semi-permanent change of a person’s place of residence. Migration is probably a more important element in determining population structure and change in an area than fertility and mortality.

Types of migration. Pattern of migration may be rural to rural, rural to urban, urban to urban, interregional and international, etc.
(i) Seasonal migration. On a time scale, migration may be temporary or permanent. Temporary movement may take the form of seasonal migration. It may be of agricultural workers to meet a demand during labour-intensive agricultural seasons, migration which is a movement of people between places for a period of more than one season but less than a lifetime may be important.

(ii) International migration refer to movement of people between countries and continents. It plays an important role in changing population patterns over relatively short periods. In recent decades, international migration has again increased. For most of the people, voluntary migration offers improved economic or other opportunities.

A significant number of people, on the other hand, have to move to other countries as refugees due to civil war, political unrest or environmental degradation, which is less common. At the beginning of the 21st century, the UN estimated that about 120 million people world-wide, were living outside their native countries, including about 15 million refugees.

(iii) Internal migration is an even more widespread demographic process. It involves hundreds of millions of people leaving the countryside for cities, or from overcrowded to other regions offering better opportunities. The movement of rural population to the growing urban cities is caused by push and pull factors.

The adverse conditions operating in rural areas including poverty, unemployment, poor facilities of education, health, recreation and other services push the population to seek a living elsewhere while pull factors are the attractions of the city or destination areas. They include high wages, cheap land, better living conditions and opportunities for economic advancement. As a result, people migrate to the towns and cities, which in turn, have given rise to a large number of slums among them.

(iv) Rural migration. The movement of population also takes place between one rural tract and the other, particularly in the agricultural countries of the world. Such migration takes from crowded areas of low per capita agricultural productivity to areas of new developments.

### The World Population: Distribution, Density and Growth Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Explain the views of Thomas Malthus regarding population control.
Thomas Malthus in his theory (1793) stated that :
(i) Number of people would increase faster than food supply.
(ii) Any further increase would result in a population crash caused by famine, disease and war.
(iii) Preventive checks are better than physical checks.
(iv) Rapid population increase be controlled for the sustainability of resources.

Question 2.
“Technological advancement helped in the reduction of birth rates, but population growth remained high.” Justify the statement. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Technological advancement helped in the reduction of birth rates but population growth remaind high due to –
(1) Steam engine provided mechanised energy of wind and water which replaced human energy. This increased industrial and agricultural productivity.
(2) Vaccination against epidemics and other diseases, improvement in health services contributed rapid fall in death rates.
(3) Improvement is sanitation facilities also beneficial for humans.

Map Skills

Question 1.
Four Geographical features are shown on the outline political map of the world. Identify these and write their names on the dotted lines given in the map.