Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 4 Human Settlements. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Important Extra Questions Human Settlements
Human Settlements Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is a settlement ?
A settlement is a cluster of dwellings of different sizes.
Name any two modern towns built by the British in modern style? (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Which town was developed as centre of modern industries after 1850? (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Name any two towns of India, initially developed as educational centres. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017 Set-III)
Varanasi, Aligarh, Pilani etc., developed as educational centres.
Name the local names of hamleted settlements.
Panna, Para, Palli, Nagla and Dhani.
Why is India a popular tourist destination in the world. (CBSE 2018)
Because of favourable climatic conditions, medical services, heritage home, national parks, etc.
Name the areas of dispersed settlements are found.
Name any one state of India, where dispersed settlements are found. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Meghalaya, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala.
Name two most ancient town in India. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Varanasi and Ayodhaya.
Name three nodal towns of India.
Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
Name three satellite towns around Delhi.
Ghaziabad, Rohtak and Gurgaon.
What is the population size of the class I cities in India ?
1,00,000 persons and above.
Which type of the rural settlement in India includes Panna, Para, Palli, Nagla, Dhani, etc.
Give any two examples of mining towns in India, (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Name any two towns of India, initially developed as mining towns. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017 Set-11)
Jharia and Raniganj.
Name any one area of hamleted settlement in India. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Chattisgarh, Lower Valleys of Himalayas.
Human Settlements Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
On what factors does the location of rural settlements depend ?
There are various factors and conditions responsible for having different types of rural settlements in India.
(i) physical features – nature of terrain, altitude, climate and availability of water
(ii) cultural and ethnic factors social structure, caste and religion
(iii) security factors – defence against thefts and robberies.
Name the main types of rural settlements in India.
Rural settlements in India can broadly be put into four types:
(i) Clustered, agglomerated or nucleated,
(ii) Semi-clustered or fragmented,
(iii) Hamleted, and
(iv) Dispersed or isolated.
What are administrative towns? State one example from India. (Sample Paper 2017-18)
Towns supporting administrative headquarters of higher order are called administrative towns e.g. Chandgara.
What is the meaning of a settlement ? What is its base ?
Human Settlement means cluster of dwellings or any type of size where human beings live. For this purpose, people may erect houses and other structures and command some area or territory as their economic support-base. Thus, the process of settlement inherently involves grouping of people and apportioning of territory as their resource base.
What is the basic difference between rural and urban settlements ? (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
The basic difference between rural and urban settlements is as follows :
The rural settlements derive their life support or basic economic needs from land based primary economic activities, whereas, urban settlements, depend on processing of raw materials and manufacturing of finished goods on the one hand and a variety of services on the other.
How does an agglomeration develop ?
Majority of metropolitan and mega cities are urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration may consist of any one of the following three combinations :
(i) a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths
(ii) two or more contiguous towns with or without their outgrowths, and
(iii) a city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths together forming a contiguous spread.
State any three characteristics of clustered rural settlements in India.
(i) This is a cluster of compact houses.
(ii) The General living area is separated from farming area.
(iii) These settlements are rectangular and linear in shape.
Classify Indian Towns on the basis of their evolution in three different periods. Name one town of each period. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
The Indian towns are classified into three groups on the basis of their Evolution in different periods.
Types of Town Example :
- Ancient Towns — Pataliputra
- Medieval Towns — Agra
- Modern Towns — Chandigarh.
What are salient characteristics of Indian cities ?
Indian Cities : Salient Characteristics.
Salient features of the Indian cities are as follows :
1. Most towns and cities are over-grown villages and have much rural semblance behind their street frontages.
2. People are even more rural in their habits and attitude, which reflects their socio-economic outlook in housing and other aspects.
3. Sizeable chunk of cities are full of slums largely due to the influx of immigrants without much infrastructure.
4. Several cities have distinct marks of earlier rulers and old functions.
5. Functional segregation is distinctly rudimentary, non-comparahle to western cities.
6. Social segregation of population is based either on caste, religion, income or occupation.
Classify Town and Cities on basis of population size.
Towns and Cities based on Population Size
Census of India classifies urban centres into six classes. Urban centre with population of more than one lakh is called a city and less than one lakh is called a town. Cities accommodating population between one to five million are called metropolitan cities and more than five million are mega cities. Majority of metropolitan and mega cities are urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration may consist of any one of the following three
(i) a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths
(ii) two or more contiguous towns with or without their outgrowths, and
(iii) a city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths.
It is evident that majority of urban population lives in 423 cities, i.e., only 8.2 per cent of all urban places. They support 60.3 per cent of the total urban population of the country. Out of 423 cities, 35 cities / urban agglomerations have population more than 1 million each, thus they are metropolitan cities. Six of them are mega cities with population over five million each. More than one-fifth (21.0%) of urban population lives in these mega cities.
More than half (55.2%) of the towns (with population less than 20 thousand each) accommodate only 11.0 percent of urban population. One-fourth (26.78%) of urban population lives in middle-sized towns of the country. These medium towns recorded highest growth during the last decade, raising their share in total urban population from 24.3 per cent to 26.8 percent.
Differentiate between Hamletled and Dispersed Survival Settlements of India. (C.B.S.E. 2016)
Hamletled settlements: When a village is fragmented on social and ethnic factors, its units are separated from each other. They bear a common name. These units are called pauna, Para, Palli, nagla and dhani. Such villages are more frequently found in the middle and lower Ganga plains.
Dispersed settlements: Isolated settlements are called dispersed settlements. These are found in forests, on hill slopes and fragmente fields. These include hamlets of few huts. Dispersion of settlements is caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain. Many areas of Meghalaya, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala have this type of settlement.
Discuss the factors that determine the type of rural settlements. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
The rural settlements vary in size, shape and lay-out plans. The types of rural settlement depends upon the following factors :
(i) Physical Factors. Physical factors such as relief, altitude, drainage, water table, climate and soil play an important role in determining the type of settlement. In dry areas, the houses are clustered around a source of water.
(ii) Cultural Factors. Ethnic and cultural factors such as tribal, caste or communal identity are also important in determining the lay-out of a rural settlement. The nucleus of the settlement is occupied by land-owners. Harijan Dwellings are located on the periphery away from the main settlement. The settlement is divided into several units.
(iii) Historical factors. The Northern plains of India have been exposed to frequent invasions from invadors and conquerors. The villagers preferred to live in compact settlement in order to defend against the invaders.
Study the diagram given below and answer the questions that follow: (CBSE 2016)
(5.1) Identify and name the given rural settlement pattern.
(5.2) In which type of areas do we find such types of settlement patterns?
(5.3) Give an important characteristic of this type of settlement pattern.
(5.1.) It is a cross shaped settlement.
(5.2) These settlements emerge at places where two roads converge on the third.
(5.3) Houses extend in all the four directions.
Human Settlements Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
What is a Town ? Classify Towns according to urban Historians and describe their evolution.
“Examine flourished since prehistoric times in India.” (Delhi 2019)
Examine the level of urbanisation in India after Independence. (Delhi 2019)
“Towns flourished since prehistoric times in India.” Examine. (Delhi 2019)
Definition of Town
Town is defined in different ways in different countries. In India, the census of India 2001 identifies two types of towns : Statutory and Census :
Statutory Towns : Ail places which have municipal, or corporation, or cantonment board, or a notified town area committee.
Census Towns: All other places which satisfy the following criteria :
- A minimum population of 5,000 persons;
- At least 75 percent of male wmrking population engaged in non-agricultural pursuits;
- A density of population of atleast 400 persons per sq. km.
Evolution of towns in india
Towns flourished since prehistoric times in India. Even at the time of Indus valley civilisation, towns like Harappa and Mohanjodaro were in existence. The second phase of urbanisation began around 600 B.C.E. It continued with periodic ups and downs until the arrival of Europeans in India in the 18th century. Urban historians classify towns of India as :
(1) Ancient towns
(2) Medieval towns, and
(3) Modern towns.
(1) Ancient Towns : At least 45 towns have historical background and have been in existence at least for over 2000 years. Most of them developed as religious and cultural centres. Varanasi is one of the important towns among these. Ayodhya, Prayagraj (Allahabad), Pataliputra (Patna), Mathura and Madurai are some other ancient towns.
(2) Medieval Towns : About 100 of the existing towns have their roots in the medieval period. Most of them developed as headquarters of principalities and kingdoms. Most of them are fort towns and came up on the ruins of earlier existing towns. Important among them are Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur, Lucknow, Agra and Nagpur.
(3) Modern Towns : The British and other Europeans modified the urban scene. As an external force, starting their foothold on coastal locations, they first developed some trading ports such as Surat, Daman, Goa, Puducherry, etc. The British later consolidated their hold from three principal nodes – Mumbai (Bombay), Chennai (Madras) and Kolkata (Calcutta) – and built them in the British fashion.
Rapidly extending their domination either directly or through super control over the princely states, they established their administrative centres, hill-towns as summer resorts, and added new civil, administrative and military areas to them. Towns based on modern industries also evolved after 1850. Jamshedpur can be cited as an example.
After independence, a large number of towns emerged as administrative headquarters (Chandigarh, Bhubaneshwar, Gandhinagar, Dispur, etc.) and industrial centres (Durgapur, Bhilai, Sindri, Barauni, etc.). Some old towns also developed as satellite towns around metropolitan cities such as Ghaziabad, Rohtak, Gurgaon, etc. around Delhi. With increasing investment in rural areas, a large number of medium and small towns have developed all over the country.
Human Settlements Important Extra Questions HOTS
‘Towns act as nodes of economic growth.’ Discuss.
Cities act as nodes of economic growth provide goods and services not only to urban dwellers but also to the people of the rural settlements in their hinterlands in return for food and raw materials. This functional relationship between the urban and rural settlements takes place through transport and communication network.
‘Rural and urban settlements differ in their way of life, attitude and outlook.’ Explain.
Rural and urban settlements differ also in their way of life, attitude and outlook. Rural people are less mobile and therefore social relations among them are intimate. They employ simple techniques to perform their activities and their pace of life is slow. In urban areas, on the other hand, way of life is complex and fast and social relations are formal and institutionalized.