Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 5 Primary Activities. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 5 Important Extra Questions Primary Activities

Primary Activities Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What are economic activities ?
Activities which generate income are called economic activities.

Question 2.
Name any four primary activities ?
Hunting, fishing, forestry and agriculture.

Question 3.
Name two activities of, the 1 earliest man. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Hunting and gathering.

Question 4.
What is Chickle ?
It is made from the milky juice of zapota tree.

Question 5.
Name the tree whose bark is used for quinine.

Question 6.
Name three products obtained from gathering for commercial uses.
Quinine, Rubber, Balata and Gum.

Question 7.
Which animals are reared in Sahara ?
Sheep, Goats and Camel.

Question 8.
Which animals are reared in mountainous and Tundra regions ?
Yak in Tibet, Llamas in Andes and Reindeer in Tundra.

Question 9.
Which tribes practise seasonal Transhumance in Himalayas ?
Gujjars, Bakarwals, Gaddis and Bhotiyqs.

Question 10.
Who introduced plantation agriculture ?
It was introduced by Europeans in colonies.

Primary Activities Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What are economic activities ? How are these grouped into different types ? (C.B.S.E. 2015)
Man adopts some activities for his livelihood. Human activities which generate income are called economic activities. These are, broadly grouped into following types :
(a) Primary
(b) Secondary
(c) Tertiary
(d) Quarternary.

Question 2.
What were the two sources of sustenance of earliest man ?
The earliest human beings depended on environment sustenance. Environment provided two foods:
(a) Animals which he hunted.
(b) Edible plants which he gathered from forests.

Question 3.
Name three areas where gathering is still practised.
Gathering is practised in :

  • High latitude zone of Canada, Northern Eurasia and Southern Chile.
  • Low latitude zone of Amazon Basin and tropical Africa.
  • Northern Australia and interior parts of S.E. Asia.

Question 4.
What is Nomadic Herding ? How ; do they meet their basic needs ? (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Nomadic herding is a primitive subsistence activity. People move from one place to another along with their livestock in search of grass and water. These animals provide clothing, shelter, tools and transport.

Question 5.
Mention any two main regions of commercial dairy farming.
Two main region of commercial farming are:

  • North-West Europe region (Denmark and Netherlands)
  • North-East American region (USA and Canada)
  • Temperate grasslands Australia and Newzeland.

Question 6.
What is Commercial grazing ? What are its characteristics ?
Commercial grazing is a large scale organised livestock farming. Sheep, cattle, goats and horses provide meat, wool, hide and skin.
(i) It is capital intensive and organised on scientific basis.
(ii) Livestock is reared on ranches.
(iii) Main emphasis is on breeding, genetic improvement, disease control and health care.
(iv) Products are exported to world markets.

Question 7.
Name some important plantation crops.
Important plantation crops are tea, coffee, cocoa, rubber, cotton, oil palm, sugarcane, bananas and pineapple.

Question 8.
What do you mean by ‘Bush fallow’ ?
Bush fallow is the other name given to shifting cultivation. The forests are cleared by cutting or by burning the bushes and trees. The land cleared is used for cultivation of crops. It is known as ‘Slash and Burn’ or ‘Bush fallow’ agriculture.

Question 9.
What do you mean by ‘Jhumming’ ?
It is a type of shifting cultivation practised in hilly regions of N.E. India. In the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Nagaland and Mizoram, the primitive tribes follow Jhumming. They cut down trees, clear the undergrowth and burn the field of wood and shrubs. After some years when the fertility of this land is reduced, new areas are cleared for cultivation of crops in the same manner.

Question 10.
“Dairy farming has developed due to urbanisation.” Explain with examples. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Mention any two regions of commercial dairy farming. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017)
Dairy farming is developed near urban centres. It is located near industrial and commercial towns which provide a market for dairy products. It is closely related to urbanisation. There is a great demand for milk products in towns due to increasing population. In Europe, N.E. American region and temperate grass lands Australia and New Zealand most of dairy centres are organised near big towns.

Question 11.
What is the importance of ‘dairy farming’ ? Why is it mainly practised near urban and industrial centres of the world ? Explain any two reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Dairy farming is the most advanced and efficient type of rearing of milch animals. Cattles are kept to provide milk. Milk is used to form many products like butter, cheese, condensed milk, etc.
It is practised mainly near urban and industrial centres due to the following reasons :
(i) These provide neighbourhood market for fresh milk and dairy products.
(ii) These provide means of transportation, refrigeration, pasteurization and preservation processes.

Question 12.
“Extensive agriculture is generally done by machines.” Why ?
Extensive agriculture is large scale farming on large holdings with the help of machines. These areas have low population density. Man-land ratio is high and labour is costly. Therefore, it is necessary to use large farm machinery for extensive farming.

Question 13.
On what factors does mining depend ?
State the two groups of factors which affect the profitability of mining. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017)
Factors Affecting Mining Activity
The profitability of mining operations thus, depends on two main factors :
(i) Physical factors include the size, grade and the mode of occurrence of the deposits.
(ii) Economic factors such as the demand for the mineral, technology available and used, capital to develop infrastructure and the labour and transport costs.

Question 14.
Distinguish between open cast mining and underground mining.
Describe any three features of open-cast mining. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi Set-Ill 2017)
Open cast Mining
Depending on the mode of occurrence and the nature of the ore, mining is of two types : Surface and Underground mining. The surface mining also known as open-cast mining. It is the easiest and the cheapest way of mining minerals that occur close to the surface. Overhead costs such as safety precautions and equipment is relatively low in this method. The output is both large and rapid.

Underground Mining
When the ore lies deep below the surface, underground mining method (shaft method) has to be used. In this method, vertical shafts have to be sunk, from where underground galleries radiate to reach the minerals. Minerals are extracted and transported to the surface through these passages. It requires specially designed lifts, drills, haulage vehicles, ventilation system for safe and efficient movement of people and material. This method is risky. Poisonous gases, fires, floods and caving can lead to fatal accidents.

Question 15.
Mention any six characteristics of plantation agriculture. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Characteristics of Plantation Agriculture :
(i) Plantation farms are generally large (more than 40 hectares) and known as estates or plantations.
(ii) The European skill, organisation and large capital are used on plantations.
(iiii) These use scientific methods of cultivation and a single crop specialisation.
(iv) Local or migrated labour is used on plantation such as Negroes in the cotton belt of U.S.A. and Tamils in tea plantations of Sri Lanka. The plantation system depends on the exploitation of cheap labour.
(v) It aims at high yield, high quality production and a large output for export.
(vi) Plantations are located in coastal areas with developed network of roads, railways, harbours and navigable rivers.

Question 16.
Mention any six char- I acteristics of ‘commercial livestock rearing’ in the world. (C.B.S.E. 2009, 2014)
Answer :
Main characteristics :

  • It is capital intensive and is organised on scientific basis.
  • Livestock is reared on large farms called ranches.
  • Main emphasis is on breeding, genetic improvement, disease control and health care.
  • The products like meat, wool, hides and skins are exported.
  • It is a commercial form of grazing.
  • It is practised in temperate and tropical grasslands where fodder crops are also grown.

Question 17.
What are primary activities ? Why are these dependent on environment ? Give some examples.
The primary activities are those activities in which man obtains products directly from nature. These are directly dependent upon environment as these refer to utilisation of earth’s resources such as land, water, vegetation, building materials and minerals.
Examples : These include hunting and gathering, pastoral activities, fishing, forestry, agriculture and mining.

Question 18.
‘Primitive Societies depended on wild animals’ Explain with examples.
(i) The people located in very cold and extremely hot climate survived on hunting. They used primitive tools made of stones, twigs or arrows. So the number of animals killed was limited.
(ii) The people in coastal areas still catch fish. Fishing has experienced modernisation due to technological progress. Many species now have become extinct.

Question 19.
What is primitive subsistence or shifting farming ? Describe its different types. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Primitive Subsistence farming or Shifting Agriculture. Shifting agriculture is practised by many primitive tribes of forests in tropics. People keep on shifting from one part of the forest to another. A patch of land is cleared through fire. It is cultivated for a short period. When the fertility of the soil is exhausted, the fields are abandoned. New areas are cleared. This is also called ‘slash-and-burn’ agriculture.

The cultivated patches are small. Tool like stick and hoe are primitive. Yields are low. Loss of fertility is a great problem. Areas and Crops. Fields are scattered; Primitive tools are used; Rice, millets, yams, beans and cassava are grown. Jhumming in N.E. States of India (Nagaland), Milpa in Central America, Ladang in Indonesia and Malaysia are the popular names given to shifting agriculutre.

Question 20.
What is intensive subsistence farming ? Describe its two types.(C.B.S.E. 2011)
Classify intensive subsistence agriculture into two categories practised in the world. How are they different from each other? Exlain. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017)
Intensive subsistence farming is practised in densely populated area of Monsoon region. In it, large labour is applied to small farms to obtain high yield, and to produce many crops a year.

(i) Intensive subsistence agriculture dominated by wet paddy cultivation. This type of agriculture is characterised by dominance of the rice crop. Land holdings are very small due to the high density of population. Farmers work with the help of family labour leading to intensive use of land.

Use of machinery is limited and most of the agricultural operations are done by manual labour. Farm yard manure is used to maintain the fertility of the soil. In this type of agriculture, the yield per unit area is high but per labour productivity is low.

(ii) Intensive subsidence agriculture dominated by crops other than paddy. It is not practical to grow paddy in many parts of monsoon Asia. Wheat, soyabean, barley and sorghum are grown in northern China, Manchuria, North Korea and North Japan. In India, wheat is grown in the western parts of the Indo-Gangetic plains.

Question 21.
Write notes on :
(a) Market gardening
(b) Truck farming
(c) Flower culture
(d) Fruit culture (CBSE 2014)
Horticulture. The specialised cultivation of fruit and vegetables and flowers solely for the urban markets is known as horticulture.

Area. It is well developed in the densely populated industrial and urban centres where demand is large. The main areas are N.W. Europe and N.E. parts of U.S.A.

Types of Horticulture :
(a) Market Gardening.
Vegetables are grown in sub-urban areas to meet the daily demand. London, Moscow and California are important centres.

(b) Truck Farming. Areas having favourable climate and so it grows fruits and vegetables for distant markets. It involves movement by trucks and is thus known as truck farming. California is the greatest vegetable growing state.

(c) Flower Culture. Netherlands specializes in the cultivation of spring flowers such as Tulips which are flown to all the major cities of Europe.

(d) Fruit Culture. In warm and sunny climate a variety of fruits are grown such as mangoes, apples, oranges, grapes, bananas, etc. Mangoes are exported from India to foreign markets of Russia, Middle East and Southern continents supply fruit in winter.

Question 22.
Differentiate between co-operative farming and collective farming stating any five points of distinction. (CBSE 2016)
Define the term ‘Co-operative farmings.(Out side Delhi 2011)
What is the basic principle of Collective farming ? (Outside Delhi 2019)
Co-operative Farming
(i) A group of farmers form a co-operative society by pooling in their resources voluntarily for more efficient and profitable farming.

(ii) Individual farms remain intact and farming is a matter of cooperative initiative.

(iii) Co-operative societies help farmers, to procure all important inputs of farming, sell the products at the most favourable terms and help in processing of quality products at cheaper rates.

(iv) Co-operative movement originated over a century ago and has been successful in many western European countries like Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden, Italy etc.

(v) In Denmark, the movement has been so successful that practically every farmer is a member of a co-operative.

Collective Farming
(i) Collective farming or the model of Kolkhoz was introduced in erstwhile Soviet Union to improve the inefficiency of the previous methods of agriculture and to boost agricultural production for self-sufficiency.

(ii) The farmers pool in all their resources like land, livestock and labour.

(iii) However, they are allowed to retain very small plots to grow crops in order to meet their daily requirements.

(iv) Yearly targets are set by the government and the produce is also sold to the state at fixed prices. Produce in excess of the fixed amount is distributed among the members or sold in the market.

(a) The farmers have to pay taxes on the farm produces, hired machinery, etc. Members are paid according to the nature of the work allotted to them by the farm management.

Question 23.
Explain any five characteristics ‘ of extensive ‘commercial grain cultivation’ practised in the World. (CBSE 2014)
(i) It is practised in Temperate grasslands.
(ii) Wheat is the main crop grown.
(iii) The size of farm is very large.
(iv) Mechanised agriculture is practised.
(v) Yield per hectare is low.
(vi) Field per person is high.

Question 24.
Define the term “mixed farming9. Explain any four characteristics of mixed farming practised in the world.
(CBSE – 2014)
Mixed farming involves the growing of crops and raising of livestock on the same farm. Cattle rearing, poultry farming, and dairy farming are also practised.

Characteristics :

  • Wheat, barley, oat and fodder crops are grown.
  • It involves high capital expenditure and machinery.
  • It makes extensive use of chemical fertilisers.
  • Crop rotation and inter-cropping is practised to retain soil fertility.

Question 25.
Distinguish between the following :
Describe any five characteristics of ‘subsistence agriculture’ practised in the world. (Delhi 2019)
(i) Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture.
(ii) Intensive and Extensive Agriculture.
(i) Subsistence Agriculture and Commercial Agriculture

Subsistence Agriculture Commercial Agriculture
1. Subsist ence a griculture is the type of farming in which crops are grown for local consumption.

2. Sedentary agriculture and intensive agriculture are its main types.

3. It is practised in densely populated areas of monsoon region like India. China. Indonesia. Bangladesh, etc.

4. Rice is the main crop in S E. Asia. Other cereals are grown in dry areas.

5. Size of the land holding is small.

6. Simple implements, with large human labour, are used.

7. Green manures and fertilizers are used to increase the fertility

1. Commercial agriculture includes the growing of crops for market.

2. Plantation farming and extensive farming are its main types.

3. It is practised in sparsely populated areas of temperate grasslands.
Tropical regions have plantations. Mixed farming and dairy farming in Europe are other forms of it.

4. Wheat is grown in temperate regions. Tea, coffee, sugarcane are grown in tropical region.

5. Size of the land holding is large.

6. Lt is highly mechanised farming.

7. Chemical fertilizers are widely used.

(ii) Intensive and Extensive Agriculture (CBSE Output Delhi 2017)

Intensive Agriculture Extensive Agriculture
1. Intensive agriculture means the application of large amount of labour and capital to small fields to obtain high yield per unit area of land and to produce many crops a year.

2. It is carried on in densely populated areas like China. India. N.W. Europe etc. where availability of per capita land is low.

3. It is practised in old world countries and is known as oriental agriculture also.

4. It is of two types. In wet areas, it is intensive subsistence dominated by wet paddy. In other areas, it is dominated by other food crops.

5. The size of land holdings is small.

6. Much human labour is used. Machinery is not so widely used.

7. Livestock farming is little developed due 1o poor pastures.

1. Extensive agriculture means highly mechanised farming on large holdings, employing little labour to get a large total yield. But it is a capital intensive farming.

2. It is best developed in sparsely populated areas like Steppes, Prairies, the Pampas and Downs (Temperate Grasslands) where large land holdings are available.

3. It is a new development and is carried out- in new world countries.

4. It has a marked speci-alisation of wheat monoculture. It is a type of plantation agriculture in mid-latitudes

5. The size of land holdings is very large (16,000 Hectares).

6. It is highly mechanised farming. A small labour force is used.

7. Livestock farming supplements agriculture due to availability of grasslands.

Primary Activities Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
(a) What is Gathering ? What are its main characteristics ?
(b) In which areas, is it still practised ?
(c) What products are gathered from it ?
(d) Examine the future of gathering in the world.
Why has gathering little chance of becoming important at the global land? Explain one reason. (C.B.S.E. Set-III outside 2017)
Gathering and hunting are the primitive economic activities meant for the subsistance of tribal societies, but in modern times gathering is market oriented and has become commercial. Examine the statement. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
Gathering is one of the oldest activity of man. Man survived on edible plants gathered from forests to meet food requirements.
(а) Characteristics.

  • It is practised in regions with harsh climatic conditions
  • It involves primitive societies who extract both plants and animals to satisfy their needs for food, shelter and clothing.
  • This type of activity requires a small amount of capital investment.
  • It operates at very low level of technology.
  • The yield per person is very low and little or no surplus is produced.

(b) Areas. Gathering is practised in :

  • high latitude zones which include northern Canada, northern Eurasia and southern Chile.
  • Low latitude zones such as the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, Northern fringe of Australia and the interior parts of Southeast Asia.

(c) Products
In modern times some gathering is market oriented and has become commercial.

  • Gatherers collect valuable plants such as leaves, barks of trees and medicinal plants and after simple processing sell the products in the market.
  • They use various parts of the plants, for example, the bark is used for quinine, tanin extract and cork
  • leaves supply materials for beverages, drugs, cosmetics, fibres, thatch and fabrics; nuts for food and oils and tree trunk yield rubber, balata, gums and resins.

(d) Future of gathering
Gathering has little chance of becoming important at the global level. Products of such an activity cannot compete in the world market. Synthetic products often of better quality and at lower prices have replaced many items.
Geography Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 5 Primary Activities 1

Question 2.
Describe the main features of Pastoral nomadism and the areas associated with it.
Pastoralism. The domestication of animals was one of the early steps in the development of civilisation. People living in different climatic conditions selected and domesticated animals found in those regions e.g. cattle and horses in the grasslands, sheep and reindeer in the tundra regions, camel in the tropical deserts, and llama and yak in the high altitudes of the Andes and the Himalayas respectively.

These animals were the chief sources of milk, meat, wool and hides. In the tropical and temperate grasslands of the world, livestock, herding and rearing constitutes as pastoral nomadism.

Pastoral nomadism. It is a subsistence activity depending on animals. Since these people do not live a settled life, they are called nomads. Each nomadic community occupies a well-defined territory. The animals depend entirely on natural vegetation.

Cattle are reared in grasslands receiving more rain and having soft and long grasses. Sheep are reared in low rainfall areas with short grasses. Goats are common in the rugged terrain with scanty grasses. There are six widely distributed species reared by pastoral nomads : sheep, goats, camels, cattle, horses and donkeys.

Transhumance. In some parts of the world, the movement of herders follows the change in seasons. For example, in the mountainous regions such as the Himalayas, Gujars, Bakarwals, Gaddis and Bhotiyas migrate from the plains to the mountains in summers and from mountains to the plains in winters. Similarly, in the tundra region, the nomadic herders move from south to north in summers and from north to south in winters. Such seasonal migration of people with their animals is known as transhumance.

Areas. Pastoral nomadism is associated with seven distinct areas—high latitude sub-Arctic, Eurasian Steppe, mountainous south-west Asia. Saharan and Arabian deserts, sub-Saharan Savannas, the Andes and the Asian high altitude plateaus. These may broadly be grouped under three broad regions.

(i) Sahara, the largest region extends over nearly 13,000 km., from the Sahel and Sahara in Africa to Mongolia and Central China.
(ii) Tundra, the second region includes the southern border of the tundra region in Eurasia.
(iii) S.W. Africa, the third region comprises of south-west Africa. These areas are either too hot and dry or too cold. Today, nomadic herding supports only 15 to 20 million people in the world.
Geography Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 5 Primary Activities 2

Question 3.
Describe the development of commercial grazing in different types of grasslands.
Commercial Grazing. Commercial grazing is a large scale domestication of animals, on permanent ranches, with scientific methods and fodder crops. It is practised in temperate grasslands. These areas with moderate rain, mild temperature and large surplus land favour the commercial form of grazing. Cattle are kept to produce the products of meat, wool, dairy products for export.

(a) Temperate Grasslands
(i) Prairies. The Prairies grasslands of North America have many large ranches. Better breeds of cattle like Hereford, Friesian and Jersey cow are kept. Merino sheep are grazed on Edward and Mexico plateau. Cattle are fattened on corn for sending to slaughter houses. It is said in the U.S.A., ‘corn goes to market on hoofs’.

(ii) Pampas. S.E. South America includes the grazing lands of Pampas, Patagonia, Uruguay and southern Brazil. The Pampas with 50 to 100 cms rain, cool climate, Alfa-Alfa grass have helped commercial grazing of cattle for beef and wool. Uruguay and Brazil with green grasses are leading exporters of cattle products.

(iii) Australia. Temperate grasslands of Australia include ‘Downs’ grasslands over large areas of Victoria, N.S. Wales, and South Australia. Australia is the leading commercial grazing country of the world. Natural pastures, cool climate, artesian wells, large ranches favour commercial grazing.

(iv) New Zealand. The economic development of New Zealand depends upon sheep and cattle grazing. New Zealand is the leading exporter of beef, wool, butter. Sheep and dairy cattle are kept on small farms.

(v) South Africa. The veld region of South Africa plateau is a region of temperate grasslands. Sheep and Angora goats are grazed for beef and wool.

Geography Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 5 Primary Activities 3

Question 4.
What is plantation Agriculture ? What are its characteristics ? Name the areas and crops grown there.
Describe any five features of plantation agriculture practised in different regions of the world? (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017, Delhi 2019)
Plantation Agriculture :
Plantation agriculture is a large scale specialised commercial farm of a single cash crop on estates or plantations. Some of the main crops are rubber, oil palm, cotton, tea, cocoa, bananas, pineapples, coffee and sugarcane. The plantations were established by the Europeans during the colonial period in tropics.

Areas. Plantations are found in many parts of tropical regions of Asia, Africa and America.
(i) West Indies, Cuba and Jamaica.
(ii) Guinea and west coast of Africa.
(iii) India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Indonesia, Phillipines.

Characteristics :
(i) Plantation farms are generally large (more than 40 hectares) and known as estates or plantations.
(ii) The European skill, organisation and large capital are used on plantations. These use scientific methods of cultivation and a single crop specialisation.
(iii) Local or migrated labour is used on plantation such as Negroes in cotton belt of the U.S.A. and Tamils in tea plantations of Sri Lanka. The plantation system depends on the exploitation of cheap labour.
(iv) It aims at high yields, high quality production and a large output for export.
(v) Plantations are located in coastal areas with developed network of roads, railways, harbours and navigable rivers.

Areas :
(a) Most of the estates are owned by Europeans. British companies own rubber plantations of Malaysia, Tea estates of India and Sri Lanka and Banana plantations in West Indies.
(b) The French established cocoa and coffee plantation in west Africa.
(c) The British established sugarcane and banana plantations in West Indies.
(d) Spanish and Americans established coconut and sugarcane plantation in Phillipines.

Question 5.
Write detailed notes on :
(a) Compare the features of Mixed farming and Diary farming in five points? (Sample Paper 2018-19)
(a) Mixed Farming
(b) Dairy Farming
(a) Mixed Farming: Mixed farming involves the growing of crops and raising of animals on the same farm. Besides cultivation, other subsidiary occupations like cattle rearing, poultry farming, dairy farming etc. are practised.

Livestock is fed on fodder crops in winter. In summer, cattle graze on pastures. Many factors have favoured the development of mixed farming :

  • Urban and industrial population.
  • Facilities of transport.
  • Nearness to market.
  • Certain rainfall.
  • Intensive methods.

Areas. It is practised in highly developed parts of the world. Mixed farming is found through- out Europe, Eastern and Northern America, Pampas, S.E. Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Characteristics :
(i) This type of farming is highly intensive, scientific and specialised.
(ii) Mixed farms are moderate in size.
(iii) It represents truly mixed economy because crops and livestocks are equally integrated.
(iv) Cereals are grown with other crops practising crop rotation, inter cropping and crop-combination.
(v) Mixed farming is characterised by high capital expenditure on machinery and farm building.
(vi) Chemical fertilizers are extensively used to maintain the fertility of the soils.
(vii) The labour is skilled and expert in farming.

(viii) Mixed farming has threefold advantages:

  • It protects the farmers against the risk of poor prices, crop failure and diseases.
  • Labour is evenly spread throughout the year.
  • Soil fertility is maintained by crop rotation.

(ix) Livestock is fed on fodder crop, pastures and other crops.
(x) The farmers have a higher standard of living.

(b) Dairy Farming: Dairy farming is an advanced type of farming. Cattle are kept to produce milk. Milk is a highly nutritious food. Milk is used to form many products like butter, cheese, condensed milk, etc. Dairy cattle include many breeds of cows and buffaloes.

Geographical factors favouring dairy farming :

  • A cool-temperate climate
  • Moderate temperatures
  • Sufficient rainfall
  • Rich pastures
  • Nearness to markets
  • Skilled labour
  • Capital
  • Developed means of transport.
  • Technical knowledge.

Modern methods of refrigeration, cold storage, milking and preparing dairy products need technical and scientific knowledge.

Major Dairy Regions. The major dairy regions of the world are found in the cool-temperate regions of the world.

1. N.W. Europe. This dairy region extends from Atlanic coast to Moscow for a distance of 3000 kms. This industry is highly developed in Denmark and the Netherlands. Denmark has 9000 co-operative societies engaged in dairy farming.

2. N.E. American Region. This dairy region extends from Atlantic coast to great lakes of North America. The U.S.A. and Canada are among the leading dairy countries of the world. St. Lawrence valley and Wisconsin states are the main area of dairy region.

3. Australia-New Zealand (Tasmania) Region. New Zealand and Australia have well developed dairy farming. Cattle are reared in North Iceland, Tasmania, Queensland and New South Wales. New Zealand is the largest exporter of butter and cheese in the world.

Primary Activities Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Large scale mechanised grain cultivation results in low yield per acre, but High yield per man.” Discuss.
Extensive agriculture is practised in temperate grasslands. It is a large scale mechanised farming on large farms. It results in low yield per acre but high yield per man.

(i) Wheat is the main cereal grown. The average yield is 20 Bushels per acre. It is low as compared to yield of wheat in countries having intensive cultivation, for example in Belgium it is 60 Bushels per acre.

(ii) The farms are highly mechanised. A single machine can do the work of 50 to 100 labourers. Labour force is small and the yield per man is high.

(iii) It is practised in sparsely populated areas. Therefore production per man is high.

(iv) The size of the farms is very large. The methods are not intensive. The total output is large but the yield per acre is low.