Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 6 Water Resources. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Important Extra Questions Water Resources

Water Resources Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
State three reasons for scarcity of water and declining availability of water.
(i) Increasing demand
(ii) Over-utilisation
(iii) Pollution.

Question 2.
Name four sources of surface water.
Rivers, Lakes, Tanks, Ponds.

Question 3.
What is the total number of rivers in India (with a length more than 1.6 km) ?

Question 4.
State three states with high use of groundwater.
Punjab, Haryana, Tamil Nadu.

Question 5.
Mention any two sources of water pollution by human beings in India. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
(1) Urban sources—-sewage, municipal and domestic garbage.
(2) The disposal of industrial effluents into water.

Question 6.
Which element has concentrated in water in Maharashtra ?

Question 7.
What do you mean by clean water ?
When water is without unwanted foreign substances.

Question 8.
Which three programmes have been started under Watershed Management ?
Haryali, Neeru-Meeru, Arvary Pani Sansad.

Question 9.
When was Water Prevention Act passed ?
In 1974.

Question 10.
Name any two water conservation techniques adopted in India. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Rainwater harvesting arid Watershed management.

Question 11.
How can you help in improving the quality of water in your locality ?
We can improve the quality of water in our locality.
(i) Disposal of Garbages and Municipal Sewages in proper place not directly into the rivers, lakes or ponds.
(ii) Recycle the industrial effluents before its entering in the river.

Water Resources Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe the ground water resources in India.
Groundwater Resources. The total replenishable groundwater resources in the country are about 432 cubic km. The Ganga and the Brahmaputra basins have about 46 percent of the total replenishable groundwater resources. The level of groundwater utilisation is relatively high in the river basins lying in north-western region and parts of south India.

Question 2.
‘What are positive effects of irrigation ?

  • Provision of irrigation makes multiple cropping possible.
  • It has also been found that irrigated lands have higher agricultural productivity than unirrigated land.
  • The high yielding varieties of crops need regular moisture supply, which is made possible only by developed irrigation systems.
  • This is why that green revolution strategy of agriculture development in the country has largely been successful in Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh.

Question 3.
How do human beings pollute the water through industrial and agricultural activities? Explain. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Industries produce several undesirable products which pollute water bodies. Major water polluting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles and chemicals. Industrial wastes, polluted waste water, poisonous gases, chemicals, metals dust are disposed off in running water. The poisonous elements reach the rivers and water bodies which pollute the bio system of these waters.

India has traditionally been an agrarian economy and about two-third of its population has been dependent on agriculture. Irrigation is needed because of spatio-temporal variability in rainfall in the country and pollute water. Some pollutants also seep into earth and pollute the groundwater.

Question 4.
Punjab and Haryana states have adequate water resources, but groundwater table has gone lower. Why ?
In Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh more than 85 percent of their net sown area is under irrigation. Wheat and rice are grown mainly with the help of irrigation in these states. Of the total net irrigated area 76.1 percent in Punjab and 51.3 percent in Haryana are irrigated through wells and tube wells. This shows that these states utilise large proportion of their groundwater potential which has resulted in groundwater depletion in these states.

Question 5.
“Indiscriminate use of water by- increasing population and industrial expansion has led to degradation of the water quality considerably in India.” Explain the values that can help in maintaining the quality of water. (CBSE2018)
Water quality refers to purity of water quality of water suffers from its large scale pollution almost throughout the country, it has been estimated that three fourths of the surface water in India is polluted water. Following steps are necessary for conservation of water resources.

  • Developing water-saving technology and methods.
  • Preventing pollution of water.
  • Encouraging watershed development, rainwater harvesting, water recycling and reuse and conjunctive use of water for sustaining water supply in long run.

Question 6.
Why is conservation of water necessary ? State its two methods. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Why is conservation of water essential in India? Explain any three different methods of water conservation with examples. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Water Conservation and Management. Since there is a declining availability of fresh water and increasing demand, the need has arisen to conserve and effectively manage this precious life giving resource for sustainable development. Given that water availability from sea/ocean, due to high cost of desalinisation, is considered negligible.

India has to take quick steps and make effective policies and laws, and adopt effective measures for its conservation. Besides developing water saving technologies and methods, attempts are also to be made to prevent the pollution. There is a need to encourage watershed development, rainwater harvesting, water recycling and reuse, and conjunctive use of water for sustaining water supply in long run.

Question 7.
Name the low cost techniques to recharge groundwater.

  • Roof water-harvesting.
  • Refilling of dug wells.
  • Recharging of hand pumps.
  • Construction of percolation pits.
  • Trenches around fields.
  • Bundhs and stop dams on rivulets.

Question  8.
What are the objectives of Rainwater-harvesting ?

  • Soil conservation.
  • Conservation of water.
  • Conservation of arable land.
  • Development of horticulture.
  • Development of forestry and silvi-culture.
  • Conservation of environment.
  • Increase in agricultural output.
  • Checking environmental degradation.

Question 9.
What are the aims of Rainwater harvesting ?
Examine the importance of ‘rain water harvesting*. (Delhi 2019)
Rainwater Harvesting. It is a technique of increasing the recharge of groundwater by capturing and storing rainwater locally in subsurface water reservoirs to meet the household needs. Objectives of the rainwater-harvesting are to:

  • Meet the ever increasing demand for water.
  • Reduce the run-off which chokes drains.
  • Avoid the flooding of roads.
  • Augment the groundwater storage and raise the water table.
  • Reduce groundwater pollution.
  • Improve the quality of groundwater.
  • Reduce the soil erosion
  • Supplement domestic water requirement during summer and drought.

Question 10.
Describe the Water Resources of India.
Water Resources of India.
(1) India accounts for about 2.45per cent of world’s surface area, 4 percent of the world’s water resources and about 16 percent of world’s population.
(2) The total water available from precipitation in the country in a year is about 4,000 cubic km.
(3) The availability from surface water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869 cubic km.
(4) Out of this, only 60 percent can be put to beneficial uses.
(5) Thus, the total utilisable water resource in the country is only 1,122 cubic km.

Question 11.
Describe the use of water resources in different sectors.
“Scarcity of water on account of its increased demand, possess possibility the greatest demand in India.” Analyse the statement. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Water Demand and Utilisation

1. Agricultural sector. India has traditionally been an agrarian economy, and about two-third of its population has been dependent on agriculture. Hence, development of irrigation to increase agricultural production has been assigned a very high priority in the Five Year Plans.

2. Multipurpose projects. Multipurpose river valley projects like the Bhakra-Nangal, Hirakund, Damodar Valley, Nagarjuna Sagar, Indira Gandhi Canal Project, etc., have been taken up. In fact, India’s water demand at present is dominated by irrigational needs. Agriculture accounts for most of the surface and groundwater utilisation, it accounts for 89 per cent of the surface water and 92 per cent of the groundwater utilisation.

3. Industrial sector. The share of industrial sector is limited to 2 per cent of the surface water utilisation and 5 per cent of the ground water, the share of domestic sector is higher (9 per cent) in surface water utilisation as compared to groundwater. The share of agricultural sector in total water utilisation is much higher than other sectors. However, in future, with development, the shares of industrial and domestic sectors in the country are likely to increase.

Question 12.
Why is irrigation necessary in India ? Give examples.
Examine the importance of irrigation in India contexts. (Delhi 2017)
Explain the importance of irrigation for agriculture in India. (CBSE 2010)
Water for Irrigation. In agriculture, water is mainly used for irrigation.
(1) Irrigation is needed because of spatio-temporal variability in rainfall in the country.

(2) The large tracts of the country are deficient in rainfall and are drought prone.

(3) North-western India and Deccan plateau constitute such areas.

(4) Winter and Summer seasons are more or less dry in most parts of the country.

(5) Hence, it is difficult to practise agriculture without assured irrigation during dry seasons. Even in the areas of ample rainfall like West Bengal and Bihar, breaks in monsoon or its failure creates dry spells detrimental for agriculture.

(6) Water needs of certain crops also makes irrigation necessary. For instance, water requirement of rice, sugarcane, jute, etc. is very high which can be met only through irrigation.

Question  13.
Why is the demand of water for irrigation increasing day by day in India ? Explain any three reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2011, Outside Delhi 2019)
In agriculture, water is mainly used for irrigation.

  • Irrigation is needed due to variable rainfall in India.
  • Drought prone areas like N-W India and Deccan needs irrigation.
  • Dry seasons of winter and summer need irrigation for agriculture.
  • Irrigation is needed during dry season.
  • Certain crops like rice, sugarcane, jute require large water supply.
  • Multiple cropping needs irrigation.
  • HYV crops need regular water supply.
  • Success of green revolution depends upon irrigation.

Question 14.
Give examples of Recycling and Reuse of Water.
Recycle and Reuse of Water. Another way through which we can improve fresh water availability is by recycle and reuse. Use of water of lesser quality such as reclaimed waste-water would be an attractive option for industries for cooling and fire fighting to reduce their water cost. Similarly, in urban areas water after bathing and washing utensils can be used for gardening.

Water used for washing vehicle can also be used for gardening. This would conserve better quality of water for drinking purposes. Currently, recycling of water is practised on a limited scale. However, there is enormous scope for replenishing water through recycling.

Question 15.
What are the two water problems in India ? Explain with suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2009, 11)
Why is the quality of water deteriorating in India? Explain with ‘ examples. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Due to increase in population, the availability of water is decreasing. The two main water problems are:
(i) Deterioration of Water Quality : Quality refers to purity of water, or water without unwanted foreign substances. Water gets polluted by foreign matters such as micro-organisms, chemical, industrial and other wastes. Such matters deteriorate the quality of water and render it unfit for human use.

When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water. This results in pollution of water whereby quality of water deteriorates affecting aquatic systems. Sometimes, these pollutants also seep into earth and pollute groundwater. The Ganga and the Yamuna are the two highly polluted rivers in the country.

(ii) Water Conservation and Management :
Since there is a declining availability of fresh water and increasing demand, the need has arisen to conserve and effectively manage this precious life giving resource for sustainable development. Given that water availability from sea/ocean, due to high cost of desalinisation, is considered negligible,
India has to take quick steps and make effective policies and laws, and adopt effective measures for its conservation.

Besides developing water saving technologies and methods, attempts are also to be made to prevent the pollution. There is need to encourage watershed development, rainwater harvesting, water recycling and reuse, and conjunctive use of water for sustaining water supply in long run.

Water Resources Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe the main features of India’s National Water Policy.
Highlights of India’s National Water Policy, 2002 : The National Water Policy, 2002 stipulates water allocation priorities broadly in the following order: drinking water, irrigation, hydro-power, navigation, industrial and other uses. The policy stipulates progressive new approaches to water management. Key features include:

(1) Irrigation and multi-purpose projects should invariably include drinking water component, wherever there is no alternative source of drinking water.
(2) Providing drinking water to all human beings and animals should be the first priority.
(3) Measures should be taken to limit and regulate the exploitation of groundwater.
(4) Both surface and groundwater should be regularly monitored for quality. A phased programme should be undertaken for improving water quality.
(5) The efficiency of utilisation in all the diverse uses of water should be improved.
(6) Awareness of water as a scarce resource should be fostered.
(7) Conservation consciousness should be promoted through education, regulation, incentives and disincentives.

Question 2.
Describe the methods and effects of Rainwater Harvesting.
Rainwater Harvesting. Rainwater harvesting is a method of capturing and storing rainwater for various uses. It is also used to recharge groundwater aquifers.

  • It is a low cost and eco¬friendly technique for preserving every drop of water by guiding the rain water to bore well, pits and wells.
  • Rainwater harvesting increases water availability.
  • It checks the declining ground water table.
  • It improves the quality of groundwater through dilution of contaminants like fluoride and nitrates.
  • It prevents soil erosion, and flooding and arrests salt water intrusion in coastal areas if used to recharge aquifers.

Methods. Rainwater harvesting has been practised through various methods by different communities in the country for a long time. Traditional rainwater harvesting in rural areas is done by using surface storage bodies like lakes, ponds, irrigation tanks, etc.

In Rajasthan, rainwater harvesting structures locally known as Kund or Tanka (a covered underground tank) are constructed near or in the house or village to store harvested rainwater to understand various ways of rainwater harvesting.

Effects. There is a wide scope to use rainwater harvesting technique to conserve precious water resource. It can be done by harvesting rainwater on rooftops and open spaces. Harvesting rainwater also decreases the community dependence on groundwater for domestic use.

Besides bridging the demand supply gap, it can also save energy to pump groundwater as recharge leads to rise in groundwater table. These days rainwater harvesting is being taken up on massive scale in many states in the country. Urban areas can specially benefit from rainwater harvesting as water demand has already outstripped supply in most of the cities and towns.

Question 3.
What is Water Pollution ? Discuss- the methods and rules to check it. ;
Prevention of Water Pollution. Available water resources are degrading rapidly.
(1) The major rivers of the country generally retain better water quality in less densely populated upper stretches in hilly areas.

(2) In plains, river water is used intensively for irrigation, drinking, domestic and industrial purposes. The drains carrying agricultural (fertilisers and insecticides), domestic (solid and liquid wastes), and industrial effluents join the rivers.

(3) The concentration of pollutants in rivers, especially remains very high during the summer season when the flow of water is low.

Polluted Rivers. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in collaboration with State Pollution Control Boards has been monitoring water quality of national aquatic resources at 507 stations. The data obtained from these stations show that organic and bacterial contamination continues to be the main source of pollution in rivers.

The Yamuna river is the most polluted river in the country between Delhi and Etawah. Other severely polluted rivers are : the Sabarmati at Ahmedabad, the Gomti at Lucknow, the Kali, the Adyar, the Cooum (entire stretches), the Vaigai at Madurai and the Musi of Hyderabad and the Ganga at Kanpur and Varanasi. Groundwater pollution has occurred due to high concentrations of heavy/toxic metals, fluoride and nitrates at different parts of the country.

Question 4.
Examine the success of watershed management in Jhabua District of Madhya Pradesh. (CBSE – 2015)
A case study for Water Shed Management Location: Jhabua district is located in the westernmost agro-climatic zone in Madhya Pradesh. It is, in fact, one of the five most backward districts of the country. It is characterised by high concentration of tribal population (mostly Bhils).

Problems: The people suffer due to poverty which has been accentuated by the high rate of resource degradation, both forest and land. The watershed management programmes funded by both the ministries of “Rural Development” and “Agriculture”, Government of India, have been successfully implemented in Jhabua district which has gone a long way in preventing land degradation and improving soil quality.

Programmes: Watershed Management Programmes acknowledge the linkage between land, water and vegetation and attempts to improve livelihoods of people through natural resource management and community participation. In the past five years, the programmes funded by the Ministry of Rural Development alone (implemented by Rajiv Gandhi Mission for Watershed Management) has treated 20 per cent of the total area under Jhabua district.

The Petlawad block of Jhabua is located in the northernmost part of the district and represents an interesting and successful case of Government-NGO partnership and community participation in managing watershed programmes. The Bhils in Petlawad block, for example (Sat Rundi hamlet of Karravat village), through their own efforts, have revitalised large parts of common property resources. Each household planted and maintained one tree on the common property.

They also have planted fodder grass on the pasture land and adopted social-fencing of these lands for at least two years. Even after that, they say, there would be no open grazing on these lands, but stall feeding of cattle, and they are thus confident that the pastures they have developed would sustain their cattle in future.

Water Resources Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Explain any three factors responsible for depletion of water resources. Examine any two legislative measures for controlling water pollution in India.(C.B.S.E. 2013)
Deplection of water resources:

Water resources in India are very rapidly decreasing. It is due to the following reasons:

  • The use of water is increasing due to increasing population.
  • The Industrial sector is using water resources at a fast rate.
  • Water is used for irrigation to increase the agricultural productivity.
  • Water pollution is increasing.

Legislative measures :
(i) The legislative provisions such as the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 and Environment Protection Act 1986, have not been implemented effectively.

(ii) The Water Cess Act 1977, meant to reduce pollution has also made marginal impacts. There is a strong need to generate public awareness about the importance of water and the impacts of water pollution. The public awareness and action can be very effective in reducing the pollutants from agricultural activities, domestic and industrial discharge.

Question 2.
Analyse the economic and social values of rainwater harvesting. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Economic and Social values of rainwater.

  • It meets the ever increasing demand of water.
  • It prevents the flooding of roads.
  • It help to save energy.
  • It helps in the economic development of a country.
  • It reduces groundwater pollution.

Question 3.
Describe the Jal Kranti Abhiyan.
In 2015-16 the Government of India launched the Jal Kranti Abhiyan with an aim to ensure water security through per capita availability of water in our country. In different regions of India people had practised their traditional knowledge of water conservation to ensure water availability. This Abhiyan aims at involving local bodies, NGO, etc. regarding its objectives.

Following are some activities of this Abhiyan:

  • One water stressed village is selection in each 672 districts of the country to generate a Jal Gram.
  • Abatement of pollution.
  • Trough social media creating mass awarness.