Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Important Extra Questions Tertiary and Quaternary Activities
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Which two elements are included in tertiary activities ?
Production and exchange.
What is trade ?
Trade is essentially buying and selling of itmes produced elsewhere.
Name two types of trade.
Retail trade and wholesale trade.
Name two types of trading centres.
Rural and urban.
What are Quasi urban centres ?
Rural marketing centres.
What are mandis ?
State four examples of retail trading service ?
Street peddling, handcarts, mail-order and door to door.
Information Communication Technologies.
What are Isochrone lines ?
Isochrone lines are drawn on a map to join places equal in terms of the time taken to reach them.
Which is the fastest means of communication ?
Mobile Technology and Satellites.
What are modes of Mass media ?
Radio and Television.
Name three services involving mental labour.
Teacher, lawyers and physicians.
Central Business District.
Which industries are fostered by Tourism ?
Infrastructure industries, Retail trading and Craft industries.
Name two tourist regions of the world.
(i) Mediterranean coast
(ii) Goa coast.
What are entrepreneurs ?
These are empowered workers which believe in self-actualisation and not wealth. They believe in value system, quality of life and creativity.
Analyse the development of service sector as an outcome of improvement in transport and communication.
(Sample Paper 2018-19)
The service sector includes important services such as transportation and communication. Improvement in these services play an important role for integrated and facilitates economic development and growth.
Give two examples of high service.
Finance and insurance.
Give one example of a global city.
What is the importance of secondary activities in the world ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials to valuable products.
What was the initial form of trade in the primitive society ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
The initial form of trade in the primitive society was barter system. In this, direct exchange of goods take place without use of money.
Define the term ‘tertiary (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Activities related to the service sector.
Give the meaning of retail.(C.B.S.E. 2013)
Business activity concerned with the sale of goods directly to the consumer.
Write the meaning of Trading centres’. (Delhi 2019)
From around the globe in the international trade trade centres brings together business.
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What is trade ? What is its aim ? What are trading centres ? (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Trade is essentially buying and selling of items produced elsewhere. It is of two types. Wholesale and Retail trade. The trade services are intended for profit. All this work takes place in towns and cities and are known as trading centres (Rural and Urban).
What are Periodic markets ?
In rural areas, local periodic markets are organised. These may be weekly or bi-weekly. People from surrounding areas meet their demands from it. These markets move from one place to another. Thus shopkeepers serve a large area on all the days.
Describe the different types of stores. (C.B.S.E. 2017)
(i) Consumer co-operatives. These provide large scale retailing.
(ii) Departmental stores. Heads of each department purchases and sells commodities.
(iii) Chain stores. These experiment sale of goods in one store and apply the results to other stores.
What is Transport Service ? Why is it necessary ?
Transport is a service by which persons, manufactured goods and property are physically carried from one location to another. It is necessary to satisfy man’s basic need of mobility. It is necessary to have speedy and efficient transport system.
Describe any three characteristics is of chain stores in the world. (C.B.S.E. Outside 2017)
The use of telecommunications finked to the development of electrical technology. It carries the messages with great speed. The time reduced is from weeks to minutes. Mobile telephones can send communications direct and instantaneusly at any time and from any where.
What are means of mass media ? Explain its different types.
Radio and television also help to relay news, picture and telephone calls to vast audiences around the world and hence they are termed as mass media. Its functions:
- They are vital for advertising and entertainment.
- Newspapers are able to cover events in all corners of the world
- Satellite communication relays information of the earth and from space
- The internet has truly revolutionized the global communication system.
What is unorganised sector of services ? What do you know about Mumbai’s Dabbawala ?
Unskilled workers migrate from rural to urban areas in search of employment. They are employed in domestic services as housekeepers, cooks, gardeners and are called unorganised sector. In India, Mumbai’s Dabbawala (Tiffin) service provides about 1,75,000 customers all over the city.
What is the basis of Quarternary services ? Which activities are involved in these ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Knowledge based sector is called Quartemary services. It involves three processes.
- dissemination of information.
What are Quinary activities ? Give examples. (C.B.S.E. 2009)(Sample Paper 2018-19)
Quinary activities focus on the creative, re-arrangement of new and existing ideas, data interpretation and use of evaluation of new technologies. That is one highest level of decision makers. These are referred as Gold Collar professions. They have special and highly paid skills of senior business executives research scientists and financial consultants.
How does the climate of a region attract tourists. Explain with examples from different regions of the world. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Influence of climate in tourism.
(i) Most people expect to have warm, sunny weather for beach holidays. This is one of the main reasons for the importance of tourism in South Europe.
(ii) The Mediterranean climate offers almost consistently high temperatures, long hours of sunshine and low rainfall throughout the peak holidays seasons.
(iii) People taking winter holidays have specific climate requirements, either highest temperatures than home, or snow suitable for skiing Mediterranean region is called ‘Playground of Europe’.
Distinguish between rural marketing centres and urban marketing centres.
Rural marketing centres. These centres cater to nearby settlements. These are Quasi-urban centres. Here personal and professional services are not well developed. These form local collecting and distributing centres. Most of these have Mandis and also retailing centres. These supply goods demanded by rural folk. Periodic markets are held here—(weekly or bi-weekly).
Urban Marketing centres. These provide urban services. These supply specialized goods and services. These sell manufactured goods. Markets for labour, housing, semi-finished goods are held. These provide services of education, teachers, lawyers, consultants, physicians, dentists and veterinary doctors.
What do you know about medical services for overseas patients ?
Medical Services for Overeas Patients in India. About 55,000 patients from USA visited India in 2005 for treatment. This is still a small number compared with the millions of surgeries performed each year in the $2 trillion U.S. health-care system. India has emerged as the leading country of medical tourism in the world.
World class hospitals located in the Metropolitan cities and Vellore cater to the patients all over the world. Medical tourism brings abundant benefits to developing countries like India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia.
Describe the major components of services.
The major components of services may broadly be grouped as the following :
(i) Business Services include advertising, legal services, public relations, and consulting.
(ii) Finance, insurance and real estate include savings and investment banking, insurance and real estate (commercial as well as residential).
(iii) Wholesale and retail trading links the producers with consumers. Personal services such as maintenance services, beautician and repair work are included in this.
(iv) Transport and communications include railways, roadways, shipping and airline services and post and telegraph services.
(v) Entertainment includes television, radio, film, publishing and lodging.
(vi) Government at different levels—local, state and national includes bureaucracies, police and army, and other public services.
(vii) Non-governmental agencies include those organisations which have been set-up by individuals or groups for charity or non profit social activities concerning education, healthcare, environment, rural development, etc.
Discuss the nature and growth of Quarternary services in the world.
‘The Modern Economic development in the world is the result of the development of quarternary services, Justify the statement. (C.B.S.E. 2014) (C.B.S.E. 2011)’.(Sample Paper 2)
Evaluate the importance of quarternary activities. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
Economic activities have become much more specialized and complex. As a result quarternary activities have come into use now. Activities concerning knowledge, education, information, research and development (R & D) are recognized as quarternary activities or services.
Main Characteristics :
- The term quaternary basically refers to the more intellectual occupations.
- Their task is to think, research and develop ideas.
- As such, this sector is especially concerned with research and development.
- In the most economically and advanced nations, the quarternary activities involve a small but growing proportion of the population.
- These people have the highest incomes and a higher degree of mobility in the process of career advancement.
Growth of Quarternary Activities :
In recent years, revolution in information technology has given rise to knowledge-based industries. There has been a remarkable growth in the science and technology based industrial complexes called Science and Technological parks.
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Write the meaning of tourism. (Delhi 2019)
What is tourism? Explain the factors which attract the tourists in the world. I (Outside Delhi 2019)
Tourism. Tourism is travel undertaken for purposes of recreation rather than business. Employment. It has become the world’s single largest tertiary activity in total registered jobs (250 million) and total revenue (40 per cent of the total GDP). Besides, many local persons, are employed to provide services like accommodation, meals, transport, entertainment and special shops to recreational travellers. Tourism fosters the growth of infrastructure industries, retail trading, and craft industries (souvenirs).
Seasonal and Year Round Tourism. In some regions, tourism is seasonal because the vacation period is dependent on favourable weather conditions, but many regions attract visitors all year round.
Tourist regions :
- Mediterranean Coast. The warmer places around the Mediterranean Coast.
- The West Coast (Goa and Kerala) of India are some of the people tourist destinations in the world.
- Winter sports regions, found mainly in mountainous areas.
- Various scenic landscapes and national parks, which are scattered.
- Historic towns also attract tourists, because of the monuments and cultural facilities.
Factors affecting tourism
(i) Demand. Since the last century, the demand for holidays has increased rapidly. Improvements in the standard of living and increased leisure time, permit many more people to go on holidays.
(ii) Transport. The opening-up of tourist areas has been aided by improvement in transport facilities. Travel is easier by car, with better road systems. More significant in recent years has been the expansion in air transport. For example, air travel allows one to travel anywhere in the world in a few hours’ of flying¬time from their homes. The advent of package holidays has reduced the costs.
(iii) Climate. Most people expect to have warm, sunny weather for beach holidays. This is one of the main reasons for the importance of tourism in South Europe. The Mediterranean climate offers almost consistently high temperatures, long hours of sunshine and low rainfall throughout the peak holidays season.
People taking winter holidays have specific climate requirements, either higher temperatures than home, or snow suitable for skiing. Mediterranean region is called ‘Playground of Europe’.
(iv) Landscape. Many people like to spend their holidays in an attractive environment, which often means mountains, lakes, spectacular sea coasts and landscapes not completely altered by man.
(v) History and the arts of an area have potential attractiveness. People visit ancient or picturesque towns and archaeological sites, and enjoy exploring castles, palaces and churches.
(vi) Culture and economy entice tourists with a penchant for experiencing ethnic and local customs. Besides, if a region provides for the needs of tourists cheeply (low-cost), it is lively to become very popular. Home-stay has emerged as a profitable business tourism segment in heritage homes in Goa and Madikere (Coorg, Karnataka).
What is meant by Outsourcing ? What is the role of KPO’s and BPO’s ?
Outsourcing. Outsourcing or contracting out is giving work to an outside agency to improve efficiency and reduce costs. When outsourcing involves transferring work to overseas locations, it is described by the term off shoring, although both off shoring are outsourcing are used together.
Activities involved in outsourcing.
- information technology (IT)
- human resources
- customer support
- call centre services
- and engineering.
Data processing is an IT related service easily be carried out in Asian, East European and African countries. In these countries IT skilled staff with good English language skills are available at low wages than those in the developed countries.
Thus, a company in Hyderabad or Manila does work on a project based on GIS techniques for a country like USA or Japan. Overhead costs are also much lower making it profitable to get job-work carried out overseas, whether it is in India, China or even a less populous country like Botswana in Africa.
Call Centres. Outsourcing has resulted in the mushrooming of call centres in India, China, Eastern Europe, Israel, Philippines and Costa Rica. It creates new jobs in these countries, but it has also led to a crisis for job seekers in the countries which outsources jobs.
KPO’s and BPO’s. New trends in quarternary services include knowledge processing, outsourcing (KPOs) and ‘home shoring’, the latter as an alternative to outsourcing. The KPO industry is distinct from Business Process Outsourcing (BPO). It involves more high skilled workers. It is information driven knowledge outsourcing.
KPO enables companies to create additional business opportunities. Examples of KPOs include research & development (R&D) activities. e-learning, business research, intellectual property (IP) research. Other related sectors the legal profession and the banking sector.
The global cities act as the command and control centres of the world system. Elaborate.
One of the most significant effects of the internationalization of financial markets has been the growth of global cities, notably London, New York and Tokyo. Though a number of other cities such as Pairs, Toronto, Los Angeles, Osaka, Hong Kong and Singapore, are also important in a global economy, the role of the trio – New York, London and Tokyo in the production and transformation of international and economic relations in the late twentieth century has been the most significant.
They act as the command and control centres of the world system by providing home of massive complexes of financial firms, business services and corporate headquarters of Transnational corporations (TNCs). They create opportunities for interaction through face-to-face contact, political connections and cultural activities.
Telecommunications have a variety of impacts upon cities and regions, both positive and negative. Electronic systems are of great use in everyday life, including credit cards, visa, passports, tax records, medical report, telephone and crime statistics. But inequalities in access to internet internationally, measured in terms of hosts per 100,000 people reflect the long standing division between the developed and developing countries.
The best connected nations are Scandinavia, Canada and Australia. Countries such as UK, Germany and Japan are next in rank. The USA, surprisingly is ranked relatively low, reflecting its sizeable poorly served population. Yet 90 per cent of all international traffic is either to or from the USA. The vast majority of the world’s people in Asia, Africa and South America have little or no Internet access.
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Important Extra Questions HOTS
Technology loosens the shackles of environment or human beings. Justify. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
With the passage of time, people began to understand their environment and the forces of nature. With social and cultural development, humans developed better and more efficient technology. They moved from a state of necessity to a state of freedom. They created possibilities with the resources they obtained from the nature.
Define outsourcing. Which types of activities are outsourced?
Outsourcing is giving work to an outside agency to improve efficiency and reduce costs. When outsourcing involves transferring work to overseas locations it is described by the term off shoring.
- Information technology
- Human Resources
- Customer support
- Call centre services etc.
‘Tertiary activities include both production and exchange.’ Explain giving examples.
Tertiary activities include both production and exchange.
(a) The term production involves the provision of services that are consumed. The output is indirectly measured in terms of wages and salaries.
(b) The term exchange involves trade, transport and communication. These overcome distance. Tertiary activities involves the commercial output of services. These are not directly involved in the processing of physical raw materials.
- The work of a plumber.
- The work of an electrician and technician.
- The work of a laundrer, barber, shopkeeper.
- The work of a driver, cashier
- The work of a teacher, doctor, lawyer and a publisher.