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Gynoecium – Definition, Types and its Structure

Gynoecium or pistil is the female reproductive part of the flower. A pistil consists of an expanded basal portion called the ovary, an elongated section called a style and an apical structure that receives pollen called a stigma. Ovary with stipe is called stipitate ovary.
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They are components of a gynoecium. Gynoecium is made of one or more carpels. Carpels may be distinct or connate.

Number of Carpel
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Fusion of Carpels

It is an important systematic character. Apocarpous gynoecium is generally thought to be ancestral condition in Angiosperms.
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Number of Locules

Ovary bears ovules on a specialized tissue called placenta. A septum is a crosswall or partition of ovary. The walls of ovary and septa form a cavity called locule. Like that tetralocular and pentalocular ovaries are present according to the locule numbers four or fie. More than one locule ovaries are called plurilocular.
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Extension of the Condensed Internode of the Receptacle

1. Anthophore:
The internodal elongation between calyx and corolla. Example: caryophyllaceae (Silene conoidea)
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2. Androphore:
The internodal elongation between the corolla and androecium. Example: Grewia.
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3. Gynophore:
The internodal elongation between androecium and gynoecium. Example: Capparis.
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4. Gynandrophore or Androgynophore:
The unified internodal elongation between corolla and androecium and androecium and gynoecium. Example: Gynandropsis.
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Ovary Position

The position or attachment of ovary relative to the other floral parts. It may be classified into

1. Superior Ovary:
It is the ovary with the sepals, petals and stamens attached at the base of the ovary.

2. Inferior Ovary:
It is the ovary with the sepals, petals and stamens attached at the apex of the ovary.

3. Half-inferior Ovary:
It is the ovary with the sepals, petals and stamens or hypanthium attached near the middle of the ovary.
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Perianth/Androecial Position on Thalamus:
It describes placement of the perianth and androecium relative to the ovary and to a hypanthium, if present (Figure 4.25).
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