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Meristematic Tissue Definition, Characteristics and Classification
Characteristics and Classification
The characters of meristematic tissues: (Gr. Meristos-Divisible)
The term meristem was coined by C. Nageli 1858.
- The meristematic cells are isodiametric and they may be, oval, spherical or polygonal in shape.
- They generally have dense cytoplasm with prominent nucleus.
- Generally the vacuoles are either small or absent.
- Their cell wall is thin, elastic and made up of cellulose.
- These are most actively dividing cells.
- Meristematic cells are self-perpetuating.
Classification of Meristem
Meristem has been classified into several types on the basis of position, origin, function and division.
Theories of Meristem Organization and Function
Many anatomists illustrated the root and shoot apical meristems on the basis of number and arrangement and accordingly proposed the following theories – An extract of which is discussed below.
Shoot Apical Meristem
Apical Cell Theory
Apical cell theory is proposed by Hofmeister (1852) and supported by Nageli (1859). A single apical cell is the structural and functional unit.
This apical cell governs the growth and development of whole plant body. It is applicable in Algae, Bryophytes and in some Pteridophytes.
Histogen theory is proposed by Hanstein (1868) and supported by Strassburgur. The shoot apex comprises three distinct zones.
It is the outermost layer. It gives rise to epidermis.
It is middle layer. That gives rise to cortex.
It is innermost layer. Which gives rise to stele
Tunica Corpus Theory
Tunica corpus theory is proposed by
A. Schmidt (1924).
Two zones of tissues are found in apical meris tem.
1. The tunica:
It is the peripheral zone of shoot apex, that forms epidermis.
2. The corpus:
It is the inner zone of shoot apex,that forms cortex and stele of shoot.
Root Apical Meristem
Root apex is present opposite to the shoot apex. The roots contain root cap at their apices and the apical meristem is present below the root cap. The different theories proposed to explain root apical meristem organization are given below.
Apical Cell Theory
Apical cell theory is proposed by Nageli. The single apical cell or apical initial composes the root meristem. The apical initial is tetrahedral in shape and produces root cap from one side. The remaining three sides produce epidermis, cortex and vascular tissues. It is found in vascular cryptogams.
Histogen theory is proposed by Hanstein (1868) and supported by Strassburgur. The histogen theory as appilied to the root apical meristem speaks of four histogen in the meristem. They are respectively,
It is the outermost layer. It gives rise to root epidermis.
It is the middle layer. It gives rise to cortex.
It is innermost layer. It gives rise to stele.
It gives rise to root cap.
Korper Kappe Theory
Korper Kappe theory is proposed by Schuepp. There are two zones in root apex – Korper and Kappe
- Korper zone forms the body.
- Kappe zone forms the cap. This theory is equivalent to tunica corpus theory of shoot apex.
- The two divisions are distinguished by the type of T (also called Y) divisions.
- Korper is characterised by inverted T divisions and kappe by straight T divisions.
Quiescent Centre Concept
Quiescent centre concept was proposed by Clowes (1961) to explain root apical meristem activity. This centre is located between root cap and differentiating cells of the roots. The apparently inactive region of cells in root promeristem is called quiescent centre. It is the site of hormone synthesis and also the ultimate source of all meristematic cells of the meristem.