NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Mineral and Power Resources

These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science. Here we have given. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Mineral and Power Resources

1. Answer the following questions.
Question 1(1).
Name any three common minerals used by you every day.

  • Aluminium
  • Iron
  • Copper
  • Gold

Question 1(2).
What is an ore? Where are the ores of metallic minerals generally located?
Rocks from which minerals are mined are known as ores. Metallic minerals are generally located in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus.

Question 1(3).
Name two regions rich in natural gas resources.

  1. In the world: Russia, Norway, UK, Netherlands (Any two)
  2. In India: Jaisalmer, Krishna-Godavari Delta, Tripura, and some areas offshore in Mumbai High. (Any two)

Question 1(4).
Which sources of energy would you suggest for
(a) rural areas
(b) coastal areas
(c) arid regions
Sources of energy suggested for
(a) Rural areas – Biogas
(b) Coastal areas – Wind energy tidal energy
(c) Arid region – Solar energy, wind energy

Question 1(5).
Give five ways in which you can save energy at home.

  • Switching off lights when not in use.
  • Keeping gas cylinder off when not in use.
  • Repair of equipment regularly.
  • Not switching on the light during daytime.
  • Always replacing the wire fittings when they are aged.

Question 2.
Tick the correct answer.
(1) Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of minerals?

(a) They are created by natural processes.
(b) They have a definite chemical composition.
(c) They are inexhaustible.
(d) Their distribution is uneven.

2. Which one of the following is not a producer of mica?
(a) Jharkhand
(b) Karnataka
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Andhra Pradesh

3. Which one of the following is a leading producer of copper in the world?
(a) Bolivia
(b) Ghana
(c) Chile
(d) Zimbabwe

4. Which one of the following practices will NOT conserve LPG in your kitchen.
(a) Soaking the dal for sometime before cooking it.
(b) Cooking food in a pressure cooker.
(c) Keeping the vegetables chopped before lighting the gas for cooking.
(d) Cooking food in an open pan kept on low flame.

3. Give reasons.

Question 3(1).
Environmental aspects must be carefully looked into before building huge dams.
Damming of rivers affects their natural flow. Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate. Deforestation, soil erosion, sedimentation, displacement of local communities are the other problems which arise due to the construction of huge dams.

Question 3(2).
Most industries are concentrated around coal mines.
This is because coal is a bulky raw material and involves a high cost of transportation.

Question 3(3).
Petroleum is referred to as “black gold”.
Petroleum is used to derive various valuable products therefore, it is referred to as “black gold.”

Question 3(4).
Quarrying can become a major environmental concern.
Air pollution is caused due to generation of dust in mining areas. Dumping of waste and slurry leads to degradation of land, soil and an increase in stream and river pollution.

Question 4.
Distinguish between the followings:
(1) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy
(2) Biogas and natural gas
(3) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals
(4) Metallic and non-metallic minerals
(1) Distinction between Conventional and Non-conventional Sources of Energy

Conventional Non-conventional Sources of Energy
1. Conventional sources of energy are those sources which have been in use from time- immemorial. 1. Non-conventional sources of energy have generally been identified in the recent past.
2. They are exhaustible except water. 2. They are inexhaustible.
3. They cause pollution when used as they emit smoke and ash. 3. They are generally pollution-free.
4. Their generation and use involves huge expenditure. 4. Very meager amount of money is required for their use.
5. They are very expensive to be maintained, stored and transmitted as they are carried over long distances through transmission grid and lines. 5. Less expensive due to local use and easy to be maintained.
6. Examples: Coal, mineral oil, natural gas, atomic power, water


6. Examples: Geothermal energy, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, energy from urban wastes.

(2) Distinction between Biogas and Natural Gas

Biogas Natural gas
1. Biogas is obtained from shrubs, farm wastes, animal and human wastes. 1. Natural gas is found associated generally with petroleum.
2. It is used mainly in rural areas for domestic purposes. 2. It is used as a means of energy, raw material in fertiliser plants and as a fuel in electricity generation.
3. It produced in rural areas is. 3. It is produced in Mumbai High, Gujarat and Assam oilfields, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Rajasthan.
4. It has no categories. It is only one gas, that is biogas. 4. Natural gas is called LPG when used indomestic purposes and CNG when used in vehicles.

(3) Distinction between Ferrous and Non-ferrous Minerals

Ferrous Minerals Non-ferrous Minerals
1.The minerals having iron contents are called ferrous minerals. 1.The minerals that do not possess iron contents are called non-ferrous minerals
Examples: Iron ore, manganese, chromium, and cobalt. Examples: Copper ore, tin, zinc, gold, silver, lead, etc.
2. India abounds in ferrous minerals. 2. India is deficient in non-ferrous minerals.

(4) Distinction between Metallic and Non-metallic Minerals

Metallic Minerals Non-metallic Minerals
1. Metallic minerals are those minerals that produce metals after their processing. 1. Non-metallic minerals are those minerals which do not produce metals.
2. They are often hard and have shine or luster of their own. 2. They are neither hard nor do they have the luster of their own.
3. They can be smelted.  3. They cannot be smelted.
4. Many of them can be drawn into wires and rolled down into sheets. 4. They can neither be drawn into wires nor
can they be rolled down into sheets.
5. When hit they are not broken.
Examples: Iron ore, copper, aluminium, tin, silver, and gold.
5. When hit, they get broken.
Examples: Sulphur, coal, petroleum, mica, salt.

Question 5.

(1) Salma’s class took up an active campaign to do an energy audit of their school by surveying electricity consumption. They prepared survey sheets for the students of the school.
Using the data collected during the survey, students calculated the units consumed for one month and the approximate expenditure and compared it with the electricity bill of the previous month. They also calculated the approximate cost of electricity consumed by fans’ lights and other appliances not switched off. Thus, they highlighted the amount that could be saved and suggested simple energy conservation habits like

  • Switching off the appliances when not in use.
  • Minimal usage as per requirement.
  • Maximizing the use of natural breeze and light by keeping the windows open.
  • Keeping the lights dust-free.
  • The appropriate maintenance and usage of appliances as per the given instructions.

Can you add some more tips to this list?
You could conduct a similar survey at home and then extend it to your apartment and make your neighbours also energy-wise.

Electricity audit
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Mineral and Power Resources 1

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