NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
These Solutions are part of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science.Here we have given. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History Chapter 7 Weavers, Iron Smelters and Factory Owners
What kinds of cloth had a large market in Europe?
Chintz, cossaes or khassa and bandanna.
What is jamdani?
Jamdani is a fine muslin on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white. Often a mixture of cotton and gold thread was used.
What is bandanna?
Bandanna is a brightly coloured and printed scarf for the neck or head. Originally, the term derived from the word ‘bandhna’ and referred to a variety of brightly coloured cloth produced through a method of tying and dying.
Who are the Agaria?
The Agaria refers to a community of iron smelters. They were specialized in the craft of iron smelting.
Fill in the blanks:
- The word chintz comes from the word Chhint (Hindi word)
- Tipu’s sword was made of Wootz steel.
- India’s textile exports declined in the 19th century.
How do the names of different textiles tell us about their histories?
Muslin: European traders first encountered fine cotton cloth from India carried by Arab merchants in Mosul in present-day Iraq. So, they began referring to all finely woven textiles as “muslin”.
Calico: When the Portuguese first came to India in search of spices, they landed in Calicut on the Kerala coast in South-West India. The cotton textiles which they took back to Europe, along with the spices, came to be called “Calico” which was derived from Calicut. Subsequently, Calico became the general name for all cotton textiles.
Chintz: It was derived from the Hindi word “Chhint”.
Bandanna: This term also derived from the Hindi word “bandhna”, i.e., tying.
Why did the wool and silk producers in England protest against the import of Indian textiles in the early eighteenth century?
At this time textile industries had just begun to develop in England. Unable to compete with Indian textiles, English producers wanted a secure market within the country by preventing the entry of Indian textiles.
So, by the early eighteenth century, worried by the popularity of Indian textiles, wool and silk makers in England began protesting against the import of Indian textiles. In 1720, the British government enacted legislation banning the use of printed cotton textiles — chintz. The Act was known as the “Calico Act”.
How did the development of cotton industries in Britain affect textile producers in India?
The development of cotton industries in Britain badly affected textile producers in India:
- Indian textiles now had to compete with British textiles in the European and American markets.
- Exporting textiles to England became increasingly difficult since very high duties were imposed on Indian textiles imported into Britain,
- Thousands of weavers in India became unemployed. Bengal weavers were the worst hit.
- By the 1830s British cotton cloth flooded Indian markets. This affected not only specialist weavers but also spinners.
Why did the Indian iron smelting industry declined in the nineteenth century?
This has the following reasons:
- The new forest laws were enacted. When the colonial government prevented people from entering the reserved forests, it became difficult for the iron smelters to find wood for charcoal and to get iron ore.
- In some areas, the government did grant access to the forest. But the iron smelters had to pay a very high tax to the forest department for every furnace they used.
- By the late nineteenth century, iron and steel were being imported from Britain. This inevitably lowered the demand for iron produced by local smelters.
- By the early twentieth century, the artisans producing iron and steel-faced a new competition.
What problems did the Indian textile industry face in the early years of its development?
In the early years of its development the Indian textile industry faced several problems:
- It found it difficult to compete with the cheap textiles imported from Britain.
- In most countries, governments supported industrialization by imposing heavy duties on imports. This eliminated competition and protected newly born industries. But the colonial government in India refused such protection to local industries.
- However, during the First World War when textile imports from Britain declined Indian factories were called upon to produce cloth for military supplies. This boosted up cotton factory production in India.
What helped TISCO expand steel production during the First World War?
- As the First World War broke out in 1914, steel produced in Britain now had to meet the demands of the war in Europe. So, the import of British steel into India declined dramatically.
- Indian railways also turned to TISCO for the supply of rails. As the war dragged on for several years.
- TISCO had to produce shells and carriage wheels, for the war.
- By 1919, the colonial government was buying 90% of the steel manufactured by TISCO.
- Over time TISCO became the biggest steel industry within British rule.
Find out about the history of any craft around the area you live. You may wish to know about the community of craftsmen, the changes in the techniques they use, and the markets they supply. How have these changed in the past 50 years?
- I found out about the history of carpets around my area.
- The origin of carpet weaving in our area is very ancient. This can be traced back to the Buddhist and Mauryan times.
- The carpet weaving craft is practiced by Mushhar and shepherds which are semi-nomadic.
- The generally traditional and strong influence of Tibetan and Persian Art is seen in the designs. The images of Hindus Gods and deities, natural scenarios of the hills and geometrical motifs, etc. are included.
- The techniques of weaving have been changed to a great extent. Now electrical appliances are also used in this process. Its market has also expanded over time.
- However, due to the spread of education, many people have shifted to other jobs. Currently, many women from other communities have also taken to carpet weaving. Thus, it is expanding in our area.
On a map of India, locate the centers of different crafts today. Find out when these centers came up.
Objective Type Questions
1. Match the following:
2. State whether True or False:
- The Wootz steel-making process was widely known in north India. False
- The importance of Surat declined in the eighteenth century. True
- Charkha was put at the center of the tricolour flag of the Indian National Congress adopted in 1931. True
- Tipu Sultan fought seven wars with the British. False
- Tipu Sultan ruled Mysore till 1812. False
- During British rule, the Sugar industry was focused. False
3. Fill in the blanks:
- In the mid-nineteenth century, Patola was highly valued in Indonesia
- TISCO became the biggest steel industry within British rule.
- The first cotton mill in India was set up in 1854
- Khadi slowly became a symbol of nationalism.
- Michael Faraday was the discoverer of electricity and electromagnetism.
Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
1……… cloth had a large market in Europe.
(d) None of these
2. women and men who carried basket loads of iron ore on their heads were called
3. In which century did India’s textile industry decline?
(a) 17th century
(b) 18th century
(c) 19th century
(d) 20th century
4. TISCO expanded steel production during the
(a) First World War
(b)Second World War
(c) Third World War
(d) None of these
5. Portuguese first came to India in search of
6. What things did the Portuguese take back to Europe?
(c) Cotton textile
7. Tipu Sultan’s sword was made of
(a) stainless steel
(d) none of these
8. Which of the following was NOT the name of Indian textile?
9. Michael Faraday spent four years studying
(a) the property of Indian steel
(b) the ancient Indian culture
(c) the properties of Indian Wootz
(d) none of these
10. Which place in India had one of the finest ores in the world?
(c) Rajhara Hills
(d) None of these
11. Spinning Jenny was invented by
(b) John Kaye
(d) none of these
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