Here we are providing Class 12 Political Science Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Rise of Popular Movements. Political Science Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Class 12 Political Science Chapter 7 Important Extra Questions Rise of Popular Movements
Rise of Popular Movements Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What was the main demand of the Chipko Movement? (C.BS.E 2014)
Chipko Movement is a non-violent movement of protecting the trees. The term ‘Chipko’ means ‘hugging the trees’. This movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand in 1972. Villagers demanded that the contracts to exploit forest should not be given to outsiders. The local communities should keep a check on the natural resources. Thus, they protested against the logging contractor.
Highlight any two main demands of the anti-arrack movement. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Following are the main demands of the anti arrack movement:
- Women demanded a ban on the sale of alcohol (arrack) in their neighborhood.
- To prevent violence against women.
Mention any two demands of the Bharatiya Kisan Union. (C.BS.E. 2013, 2014) :
- The Bharatiya Kisan Union demanded higher government floor prices for sugarcane and wheat.
- The B.KU. demanded waiving of repayment due on loans to farmers and provision of government pension for farmers.
List any two recommendations of the Mandai Commission. (Sample Paper)
Highlight any two recommendations of the Mandai Commission. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
- Twenty-seven percent of the posts in public services should be reserved for OBCs.
- Welfare programs specially meant for OBCs should be financed by the Government of India in the same manner and to the same extent as already done in the case of SCA and STa.
Who was the chairman of the Mandai Commission? State any one recommendation made by him/her.
Mr. B.P. Mandai was the Chairman of the Mandai Commission. The Commission recommended that 27% of the posts in public services should be reserved for OBCs. They do make 52% of the total population yet the reservation quota for them cannot exceed this limit.
How does party-based movement differ from the non-party movement?
The party-based movement differs from the nonparty movement in the following ways.
- Party-based movement is affected by politics, but the non-party movement is separate from politics.
- In comparison to party-based movement, non-party movement is more useful for democracy.
What was the role of Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghathan (MKSS) in the enactment of the Right of Information Act? (C.B.S.E. 2012 Delhi)
In 1990. the Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghathan (MKSS) in Rajasthan took the initiative in demanding records of famine relief work and accounts of laborers. The demand was first made by the people of Bhim Tehsil. The villagers asserted their right to information. In 1994 and 1996, the MKSS organized Jan Sunwais or Public hearings, where the administration was asked to explain its stand in public.
Mention any two issues of A concern related to development project such as the Sardar Sarovar Project. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
- Rehabilitation of project-affected villagers.
- The social cost included forced resettlement of the project-affected people, a serious loss of their means of livelihood and culture, and depletion of ecological resources.
Highlight the importance of popular movements. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
- Popular movements ensure effective representation of diverse groups and their demands. This reduces the possibility of deep social conflict and dissatisfaction of their group from democracy.
- Popular movements suggest new forms of active participation and thus broaden the idea of participation in Indian democracy.
Which sections of Indian Society are most affected by the Chipko movement? (C.B.S.E. Sample Q.P. 2017)
The most affected Indian Society by the Chipko movement is concerning villagers like a male, farmer, and especially women.
Match the following in ‘Column A’ with those in ‘Column B’ in a meaningful way. (C.B.S.E. 2019)
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|(I) Chipko Movement||(a) Maharashtra|
|(II) Narmada Bachao Aandolan||(b) Uttarakhand|
|(III) Dalit Panthers Movement||(c) Andhra Pradesh|
|(IV) Anti-Arrack Movement||(d) Gujarat|
|Column ‘A’||Column ‘B’|
|(I) Chipko Movement||(b) Uttarakhand|
|(II) Narmada Bachao Aandolan||(d) Gujarat|
|(III) Dalit Panthers Movement||(a) Maharashtra|
|(IV) Anti-Arrack Movement||(c) Andhra Pradesh|
Rise of Popular Movements Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type (2 Marks)
Which one of the two is more essential-construction of mega-dams or an environmental movement that opposes it and why? (C.B.S.E. 2016)
The more essential is the construction of mega-dams because they help in solving the problem of water and electricity of that area. People get employment also thus, construction of mega-dams is very helpful for the development.
Highlight the most novel aspect of the Chipko Movement. (Imp.) (C.B.S.E. 2016)
Women’s active participation in the Chipko Movement was a very novel aspect of the movement.
How did the farmers associated with Bharatiya Kisan Union differ from most other farmers in India? (C.B.S.E 2016)
Farmers associated with Bharatiya Kisan Union grew cash crops for the market.
What was the Anti-Arrack Movement? (Sample Paper C.B.S.E. 2010, 2012)
Anti-Arrack Movement was started in Andhra Pradesh and demanded prohibition on the sale of arrack (alcohol).
What was Chipko Movement? (C.B.S.E. 2008, 2012)
The Chipko Movement (1974-77), hugging trees to prevent them from being felled, linked the issue of environmental degradation to women’s increasing toil for fuel and fodder.
What was the main objective of the Dalit Panthers? (C.B.S.E. 2011 Delhi)
The Panthers’ aim was to unite the Dalit and to bring them into their fold.
Name the popular movement which demanded that no forest exploiting contract be given to any outsider. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Shetkari Sanghatahna and Raitha Sangha belonged to which two respective states?
Shetkari Sanghatahna belonged to Maharashtra and Raitha Sangha belonged to Karnataka.
Why the ongoing environmental movements are opposing the construction of mega-dams? (C.B.S.E. Sample Paper 2018)
Construction of mega-dams results in the displacement of a large number of people living around that area.
Which popular movement led to the empowerment of women? (C.B.S.E. 2018)
Chipko movement led to the empowerment of women.
Explain the main recommendation of the Mandal Commission. (C.B.S.E. 2019)
The main recommendation of the Mandal Commission is 27% of the posts in Public services should be reserved for O.B.Cs.
Choose the correct answer:
In which year All India Kisan Sabha was established?
Who led the Narmada Bachao Andolan’
(a) Medha Patkar
(b) Rajni Sharma
(c) Shabana Azmi
(d) Meira Kumar.
(a) Medha Patkar.
Where Anti-Arrack Movement was started?
(b) Andhra Pradesh
(d) Tamil Nadu.
(b) Andhra Pradesh.
Rise of Popular Movements Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Describe any four demands made by the Bharatiya Kian Union after 1980? (C.B.S.E 2015)
- It demanded removing inter-state restrictions on the movement of foodgrains.
- Electricity rates should be reduced.
- The government floor price of sugarcane and wheat should be raised.
- The repayment of the loans to the farmers should be waived. The government should provide pensions to farmers.
Describe any two issues which made the Anti-Arrack movement a women’s movement. (CJ3.S.E. 2015)
1. Anti-Arrack Movement in Andhra Pradesh was definitely a movement of women. In the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, women came together in a spontaneous local initiative to protest against arrack (Local alcohol) and forced the closure of wine shops. The news spread very fast and women of about 5000 villages got inspired and met together in meetings, passed resolutions for the complete prohibition, and sent these resolutions to the District Collector and higher authorities. Due to women’s protests, the arrack auctions in the Nellore district were postponed 17 times. In 1992, women took out a big procession in Hyderabad to protest against the sale of ‘arrack’.
2. Women also raised the issue of domestic violence: the Anti-arrack movement became a part of the women’s movement.
Explain the role of Environ¬mental movements to meet the challenge of environmental degradation. (C.B.S.E. 2016)
Following are the role of Environmental movements to meet the challenge of environmental degradation-
1. Chipko Movement: Chipko Movement literally means ‘Hug the Trees’ Movement. This movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand in 1972. There was a dispute between the local villagers and a logging contractor who had been allowed to fell trees in a forest close to the village. The villagers protested against the logging contractor and the government. Chipko Movement is seen not only as a movement to save the environment but also as a feminist movement.
2. Narmada Bachao Andolan: Narmada Bachao Aandolan is a movement to save the Narmada river. It was around 1988-89 that issues crystallized under the banner of the NBA. Initially, the movement demanded proper and just rehabilitation of all those who were directly or indirectly affected by the project.
Where and when was the organization ‘Dalit Panthers’ formed? Describe any three of its activities. (Imp.) (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Describe any four activities of the Dalit Panthers to promote their interests. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
Dalit Panthers was an organization of educated Dalit youths. Babu Rao Bagul, E.P. Soukamble gave direction to Dalit policies through their poems, literature, and biographers. Dalit Panthers openly challenged casteism and Brahmanism.
Dalit Panthers raised the following issues for the welfare of Dalits:
- The Panther’s aim was to unite the Dalits and to bring them into their fold.
- According to the manifesto of Dalit Panthers, Dalit word includes Scheduled Castes and Tribes, new Buddhists, economically backward workers, women, landless as well as poor peasants, and all those persons who were being exploited.
- According to Dalit Panther’s manifesto, the main problems of Dalits are lack of food, water, shelter, jobs, land, and their unequal social status and atrocities on them.
- According to Dalit Panthers, their problem could be solved by acquiring economic and political power.
Mention four weaknesses of Mass Movements. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
- National Interest is Ignored. Generally, the aims of all Mass movements are to fulfill the local and regional needs. No importance is given to the national interest.
- Sometimes Turns Violent. Many times in the past mass movements have turned violent to achieve their objectives. Thus, it is often believed that mass movements may become violent.
- Narrow Outlook. The Mass Movements have a very narrow outlook because generally, these movements revolve around only one issue.
- Creates Problems in Law and Order. To get their demands fulfilled all types of methods are used by the mass movements. Many times illegal and unconstitutional methods create law and order problems.
Assess any two positive aspects of the Chipko Movement. (Imp.) (C.B.S.E. 2015)
- Chipko movement to hug trees was one of the first grassroots environmental movements, which
attracted national and international attention. The villagers did not allow the outsiders to exploit the forest recklessly. Natural resources would be rather well-maintained and effectively controlled by the local communities.
- Chipko movement was not only a movement to save the environment but it is also seen as a ‘feminist movement’. This movement created a platform to discuss social and economic issues such as alcoholism. It also discussed the issues of landless forest workers and asked for guarantees of the minimum wage.
State any two main demands of the Narmada Bachao Aandolan. (Imp.) (C.B.S.E. 2015)
- In the beginning, the movement demanded proper rehabilitation of all those who were directly or indirectly affected by the Narmada Project.
- The NBA also emphasized that people of the area must have a say in decision-making. They should also have effective control over natural resources like water, forests, etc.
Rise of Popular Movements Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
What are Popular Movements? Describe any four benefits of popular movements. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Describe any six advantages of popular movements. (C.B.S.E. 2015)
When any movement is actively supported by a large section of the society, it is called a popular movement. It can be party-based or non-party based.
Benefits of Popular Movements
1. Helpful to Understand Democratic Politics. The history of popular movements helps us to understand better the nature of democratic politics. Popular movements come up to rectify some problems in the functioning of party politics and should be seen as an integral part of our democratic politics.
2. Effective Representation to Different Groups. Popular movements represent new social groups whose economic and social grievances were not redressed in the realm of electoral politics. Popular movements ensured effective representation of different groups and associations.
3. Mass Movements railed Legitimate demands of the People. Generally, popular movements have raised legitimate demands of the people and have involved greater participation of the masses. Mainly workers, farmers, and poor people participate in these popular movements.
4. Govt, is compelled to accept Genuine Demands. Many times even the most genuine demands of the people are not accepted by the government. Then it is through popular movements that the government is compelled to accept the demands of disadvantaged social groups.
5. Popular movement includes a various dimensions of public welfare.
6. Popular movement spread awareness among peoples.
Write an essay on the Women’s Movement in India.
No doubt the condition of the women even today, is not good, but a psychological change has been witnessed in the women. The personality cult of women is on the rise and they have become active for the protection of their interests. The women’s movement has played a very important role in the emancipation of the dignity and status of women.
Women’s Movement in the 19th century. The Women’s movement in India had its origin in the nineteenth century. Mahila Mandals were organized for the first time by the Arya Samaj and the Brahmo Samaj. The Ramakrishna Mission and Theosophical Society which were established at the end of the 19th century worked for the welfare of women. These societies especially emphasized women’s education. In the 19th century, the Women’s movement was dominated by men. The main issues of Women’s movements were purdah, child marriage, enforced widowhood, etc. Sati was banned in 1829.
Women’s Movement in the 20th century. In 1924, the All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) was established. This organization demanded-education for women, economic equality, the right to inheritance, divorce, pension of widows, etc. AIWC also raised a voice for the right to vote for women. In 1931, AIWC put demands for creches, nursery schools, ante-natal and post-natal care, and maternity homes in factories where women worked in considerable numbers. Due to Mahatma Gandhi, women also started participating in the Gandhian Movement.
After independence, the Indian Constitution was formulated on the concept of equality – legal, social, and economic. Hindu Code Bill was passed for the welfare of Hindu Women. But there is a great need for a Common Civil Code. In local bodies, 30% of seats are reserved for women.
According to a UNICEF Report (1988), a hundred million women work on the margins of life in India’s vast unorganized sector to tackle the twin problems of poverty and discrimination. In the unorganized sector, the implementation of minimum wages has not been done.
Autonomous Women’s Movement. In the 70s many autonomous Women’s movements such as Chipko Movement (1974-77). Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) was established in 1972 in Gujarat. The Working Women’s Forum (WWF) was established in Chennai by Jay Arunachalam in 1978. By the 1990s, the WWF began to function in four states – Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh.
At present, various women organizations in India are working for the protection of the interests of women. The main organizations among them are -All India Women Conference, National Council of Women in India, Bharatiya Gram Mahila Sangh, National Federation of Indian Women, etc.
What is meant by Chipko Movement? When did it start and j where? What is the significance of this j e movement in the conservation of the environment? (Imp.)(C.B.S.E. 2011, Delhi)
Chipko Movement shows that tribals are mostly dependent upon forest products for their primary needs and survival. But the forest policies and management are blind to the needs of the common people. Chipko Movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villages to fall ash trees for making agricultural tools. The forest department allotted the same piece of land to some sports contractor for commercial use. Thus, the villagers protested against this decision of the government.
Chipko Movement (1947-77), hugging trees to prevent them from being cut down, linked the issue of environmental degradation of women’s increasing toil for fuel and fodder. This movement was started under the leadership of Chandi Prasad Bhatt and Sunderlal Bahuguna.
Major Issues Related to Chipko Movement.
Major demands or major issues of the Chipko Movement are as follows:
- Natural resources such as land, water, forests, etc., should be under the control of local communities.
- Forest contracts should be given to the local people and not to the outsiders.
- Minimum wages of the workers working in forests should be fixed.
- Low-cost material should be provided to small- scale industries.
- Women asked the government to enforce prohibition.
Significance of Chipko Movement.
- This movement to ‘hug trees’ was one of the first grassroots environmental movements, which attracted national and international attention.
- Chipko Movement was not only a movement to save the environment but it is also seen as a ‘feminist movement’ not only because of the active participation of women but also because deforestation was seen as affecting women’s lives in the hills in their search for fuel and fodder.
- Chipko Movement was not only a movement to save the environment but it had a larger social base. Women protested against the drinking habit of men.
- The government issued a ban on the felling of trees in the Himalayan region for fifteen years.
- Chipko movement created awareness among the women of the hilly region as women became aware of their rights.
What was the main recommendation of the Mandal Commission? How was it implemented? (C.B.S.E. 2008)
What are the recommendations of the Mandal Commission? What was the aftermath of the Mandal Commission?
The Mandal Commission was set up by the Janata government on Jan. 1, 1979. The Mandal Commission was headed by B.P. Mandal, former Chief Minister of Bihar. The Mandal Commission was to determine the criteria for defining the socially and educationally backward classes. It was to recommend necessary measures for the advancement of the backward classes. The Mandal Commission identified 3,743 other backward classes. The recommendations of the Mandal Commission are as follows :
- Twenty-seven percent of the posts in public services should be reserved for OBCs. They do make 52 percent of the total population yet the reservation quota for them cannot exceed this limit.
- Welfare programs specially meant for other backward classes should be financed by the Government of India in the same manner and to the same extent already done in the case of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
- Radical land reforms should be brought about by states to free small landholders from their heavy dependence on rich peasants for their subsistence.
- Other Backward Classes should be encouraged and helped to set up small-scale industries.
- Special educational schemes, with emphasis on vocational training, should be started for OBCs. They should also be given special coaching in technical and professional institutions to enable them to compete with students from the open quota.
Implementation of the Mandal Report. The Commission submitted its report to the government in December 1980. It was presented to both the Houses of the Parliament on April 30, 1982. Ever since then there has been a continuous and persistent demand for an outright acceptance of its recommendations without any further scrutiny. National Front had promised in its poll manifesto to implement the Mandal Commission Report. But the ruling party leaders had aired conflicting views about it. However, Prime Minister Mr. V.P. Singh announced all of a sudden the acceptance of the Mandal Report on August 7, 1990, in the Parliament without taking into confidence even his own Cabinet colleagues for reasons of political expediency.
But this move of Mr. V.P. Singh had alienated his senior-most colleagues, provoked the Bharatiya Janata Party and C.P.M. to denounce publicly this rash decision. The student community that had been seriously hit by the implementation of the Report had launched a massive movement throughout the country and initially brought the government to a collapsing point. The anti-reservationists stir had reached a new peak of frenzied violence especially in New Delhi, Chandigarh, Kurukshetra, Jammu, Jaipur, and many other cities of north India.
In November 1992 the Supreme Court held the order of V.P. Singh’s government to be valid and enforceable subject to the exclusion of the ‘Creamy Layer’ or the more advanced section of the beneficiary backward classes within four months. The Supreme Court also held that the maximum size of all reservations together must not exceed 50 percent.
Describe the journey of the movement for Right to Information which, ultimately culminated into an Act. i.e. RTI Act. 2005. (C.B.S.E. 2016)
In 1990, the Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sanghathan (MKSS) in Rajasthan took the initiative in demanding records of famine relief work and accounts of laborers. The demand was first made by the people of Bhim Tehsil. The villagers asserted their right to information. In 1994 and 1996, the MKSS organized Jan Sunwais or Public hearings, where the administration was asked to explain its stand in public.
In 1996 this organization formed the national council for People’s Right to Information in Delhi to raise the Right to Information to the status of the national campaign. The Consumer Education and Research Centre, shouric committee, and press council proposed a draft for the Right to Information Law. Finally, the Right to Information Act came into effect in 2005. This law makes the country more democratic and public-oriented.
What was Narmada Bachao Andolan? What was its criticism against it? (Imp.)(C.B.S.E. 2008 Outside Delhi Set-I)
What was Narmada Bachao Andolan? What were its main issues? What democratic strategy did it use to put forward its demands? (C.B.S.E. 2012 Outside Delhi) :
The Narmada Valley project was conceived in 1946, but final planning and work on it started only after the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal passed its order in 1978. In the early eighties, an ambitious development project was launched in the Narmada Valley of Central India. If completed, the Narmada Project will rank as the largest irrigation project planned and implemented in the world. The Narmada Project consisted of 30 big dams, 135 medium-sized dams, and 3000 minor dams. Out of the thirty major dams, the most controversial ones are the Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP) in Gujarat and the Narmada (Indira) Sagar Project in Madhya Pradesh.
Narmada Project has given rise to a powerful social movement. The movement against the Sardar Sarovar Project started in 1985. In 1986, Narmada Dharangrast Samiti (NDS) began to investigate the problem under the leadership of Medha Parker. They found that environmental impact has not been studied, the number of people to be displaced was not known, an estimate of land to get irrigation water had been exaggerated, etc.
Thus, in 1989, organizations like NDS, Maharashtra Ghati Navnirman Samiti, Narmada Asargrasta Sangharsha Samiti, and few others emerged to form Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA). Since the formation of the NBA, there have been many protests, demonstrations, Jal Samadhi, and sit-ins. One of the important events in the history of the NBA has been the filing of a petition against the dam by the NBA in 1994. In May 1997, the Supreme Court halted the construction of the dam, but in its 2000 judgment, it gave a green signal for it. Narmada Bachao Andolan has also become the center of national and international concerns.
In the beginning, the movement demanded proper rehabilitation of all those who were directly or indirectly affected by the Narmada Project. The NBA also emphasized that people of the area must have a say in decision-making. They should also have effective control over natural resources like water, forests, etc. In 2003, the government formulated National Rehabilitation Policy and this is a major achievement of the NBA.
Criticism of NBA. NBA has been criticized by many on the ground that its demand to stop the construction of dams is against the process of development. For the development of the area, the construction of the Narmada Project is very essential.
Study the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Sardar Sarovar Project is a multi-purpose mega-scale dam. It required the relocation of around two and a half lakh people from the villages. Issues of relocation and proper rehabilitation of the project-affected people were first raised by the local activist groups. It was around 1988-89 that the issues crystallized under the banner of the NBA — a loose collective effort of local voluntary organizations.
(i) Why is the Sardar Sarovar Project mentioned as a multipurpose mega-scale dam?
Sardar Sarovar Project is mentioned as a multipurpose mega-scale dam as it would benefit huge areas of Gujarat and three other states in terms of availability of drinking water, irrigation, generation of electricity, and increase in agricultural production.
(ii) Why was it opposed by the villagers?
The villagers opposed the dam because due to the building of a dam, 245 villages from these were expected to get submerged.
(iii) What was the main demand of the local activist groups?
The main demand of the local activist groups were relocation and proper rehabilitation of the project affected peoples.
Suppose you are an important leader of the Farmers agitation, The government authorities ask you to present any three demands on j behalf of the farmers. On a priority j basis, which three demands will you make? Support your demands with appropriate arguments. (C.B.S.E. 2015)
As a leader of farmers’ agitation, one can put the following demands on behalf of the farmers:
1. The government should solve the problem of land acquisition. Without the approval and consent of the farmers, government or builders, etc., should have no right to acquire the land of farmers. Even if the farmers give their consent to acquiring their land, they should also be given proper compensation for that particular land.
2. Another important demand and problem are sugarcane crops. Sufficient delay and wastage of time and energy are suffered by the farmers in bringing their sugarcane crops to sugar mills. Poor farmer wastes their days and nights together just in sitting on the trucks of sugarcane. Even the mill owners do not pay the price of their crops in time and properly. The government should intervene from the side of farmers for proper-payment of crops and avoid unnecessary delay.
3. In spite of sufficient stocks and good qualities of urea, poor farmers do not get this facility in time. So as a leader of the Kisan Union, the government should be pressurized the supply urea and other fertilizers in time.
4. Government should make efforts to provide pension to the farmers so that they can lead the rest of the life in comfort.
5. In case some farmers face too many hardships when their crops fail due to recurrent floods or irregular monsoon. These farmers are unable to repay loans as they are caught in the debt trap. The vicious circle of poverty makes their condition so miserable that in an agony of being unable to repay loans are forced to commit suicide in order to relieve themselves. In such conditions, their families too suffer the same hardships. Thus in such cases, governments should exempt such farmers from paying loans.
6. The electricity should be supplied to the farmers at reasonable rates. There should also be easy inter-state movements for farmers’ goods without any restrictions.
Describe how the Anti Arrack campaigns contributed a great deal in increasing overall social awareness about women’s questions. (C.B.S.E. sample Q.P. 2017)
Anti-Arrack Movement in Andhra Pradesh was definitely a movement of women. In the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, women came together in a spontaneous local initiative to protest against arrack (Local alcohol) and forced the closure of wine shops. The news spread very fast and women of about 5000 villages got inspired and met together in meetings, passed resolutions for the complete prohibition, and sent these resolutions to the District Collector and higher authorities. Due to women’s protests, the arrack auctions in the Nellore district were postponed 17 times. In 1992, women took out a big procession in Hyderabad to protest against the sale of ‘arrack’.
- Women also raised the issue of domestic violence.
- As a result, the movement made a demand for equal representation to women in politics.
- Women also raised the demand for reservation in the state legislature and Lok Sabha.
- In Anti Arrack movement, the issue of gender equality was also raised.
Study the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: (C.B.S.E. 2017)
Critics of popular movements often argue that collective actions like strikes, sit-ins, and rallies disrupt the functioning of the government, delay decision-making, and destabilize the routines of democracy. Such an argument invites deeper questions: why do these movements resort to such assertive forms of action? We have seen that popular movements have raised legitimate demands of the people and have involved large scale participation of citizens. It should be noted that the groups mobilized by this movement are poor, socially and economically disadvantaged sections of the society from marginal social groups.
(i) Popular movements resort to which two types of assertive actions?
Popular movements resort to two types of assertive actions:
(a) strikes (b) sit-ins and rallies.
(ii) How far do you agree with the arguments given by the critics?
We agree with the critics to some extent that sometimes these movements resort to such assertive forms of action, that they become violent in nature and cause the destruction of public property.
(iii) Why are groups involved in popular movements mostly from marginal social groups?
The popular movements involve mostly marginal social-groups, because the people of these groups are poor, socially and economically deprived of their rights, and disadvantaged sections of society.
In the given political outline map of the World, five countries have been shown as (A), (B),(C),(D), and (E). With the help of the information given below, identify these countries and write their correct names along with the serial number of the information used and the related alphabet as per the following format in your answer-book: (C.B.S.E. 2017)
(i) The country where Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987.
(ii) This country is of the view that the major responsibility of curbing gas emissions rests with the developed countries.
(iii) This country is known for its forest movements.
(iv) The first anti-dam movement aimed to save the Franklin River and its surrounding forests was launched in this country.
(v) The largest producer of mineral oil in the world.
|S. No. of the information used||Alphabet concerned||Name of the country|
|(a) The country where Montreal protocol was signed in 1987.||C||Canada|
|(b) This country of view that the major responsibility of curbing gas emissions rests with the developed countries.||E||India|
|(c) This country is known for its forest movement.||D||Mexico|
|(d) The first anti-dam movement aimed to save the Franklin River and its surrounding forests were launched in this country.||B||Australia|
|(e) The largest producer of mineral oil in the world.||A||Saudi Arab|
Note: The following questions are for the Visually Impaired Candidates only, in lieu of the above questions
(i) Mention any two environmental concerns that have a long history.
(a) Cultivable area is barely expanding any more, and a substantial portion of existing agricultural land is losing fertility.
(b) The loss of biodiversity continues due to the destruction of habitat in areas that are rich in species.
(ii) Explain the significance of the Earth Summit’ held in 1992.
The growing focus on environmental issues within the areas of global politics was firmly consolidated at the U.N. conference on the environment held in Rio de Kaneria, in June 1992.
(iii) Highlight any two features of the Kyoto Protocol.
(a) The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement setting targets for industrialized countries to cut their greenhouse gas emissions.
(b) The protocol was agreed to in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan on the principles set by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions: (C.B.S.E. 2019)
The movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools. However, the forest department allotted the same patch of land to a sports manufacturer for commercial use. This enraged the villagers and they protested against the move of the government. The struggle soon spread across many parts of the Uttarakhand region. Larger issues of ecological and economic exploitation of the region were raised.
(i) Identify the popular movement which is being referred to in the given passage. What was the novel aspect of this movement?
The popular movement which is being referred to in the given passage is the ‘Chipko movement’. Women’s active participation in this, the movement was the novel aspect of this movement.
(ii) Which issues of ecological and economic exploitation were raised in this movement?
Chipko movement raises larger issues of ecological and economic exploitation. For example, local citizens should have effective control over natural resources. They also demanded that government should provide low-cost materials to small industries. People also demanded the economic issues of landless forest workers and guarantees of minimum wages. People wanted a government that ensures development without degrading the ecological balance.
(iii) Highlight the achievements of this movement.
Government-issued a ban on the felling of trees for 15 years. Chipko movement became a symbol of many such popular movements.
Rise of Popular Movements Important Extra Questions HOTS
What is Chipko Movement?
Chipko Movement literally means ‘Hug the Trees’ Movement. This movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand in 1972. There was a dispute between the local villagers and a logging contractor who had been allowed to fell trees in a forest close to the village. The villagers protested against the logging contractor and the government. Chipko Movement is seen not only as a movement to save the environment but also as a feminist movement.
What is Narmada Bachao Aandolan?
Narmada Bachao Aandolan is a movement to save the Narmada river. It was around 1988-89 that issues crystallized under the banner of the NBA. Initially, the movement demanded proper and just rehabilitation of all those who were directly or indirectly affected by the project.
What is Sardar Sarovar Project?
Sardar Sarovar Project is a multipurpose mega-scale dam. This project was launched in the Narmada valley of Central India in early 1980. The project consisted of 30 big dams, 135 medium-sized dams and around 300 small dams to be constructed on the Narmada. Sardar Sarovar Project is in Gujarat.
What do you understand by Anti-Arrack Movement?
Anti-Arrack Movement was started by women in the Southern district of Andhra Pradesh. Women demanded a ban on the sale of alcohol (arrack) in their neighborhood. The women of village Gundhur in Kalihari Mandal of Chittoor district assembled and resolved to put an end to the sale of liquor in their village. Rural women led the anti-arrack movement. Moreover, the anti-arrack movement also became part of the women’s movement.
Mention four features of Social Mass Movements.
- Political Nature. Generally, Social Movements are not political because their objective is not to acquire political power. Their primary objective is to create awareness among the people about their interests and to put pressure on the government to achieve their goals.
- Violent and Non-violent. Social Movements can turn violent as well be non-violent. For example, Chipko Movement was non-violent whereas the Naxalbari movement was violent.
- Mode of Social Movement. Sometimes Social Movements become the mode of social change.
- Social mass movements spread awareness among people.