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Seed Various Types and its Significance

Do all fruits contain seeds? No, triploid fruits do not. The seed is a fertilized mature ovule which possess an embryonic plant, usually stores food material and has a protective coat. After fertilization, changes occur in various parts of the ovule and transforms into a seed.

Types of Seed

I. Based on the number of cotyledons two types of seeds are recognized.

(i) Dicotyledonous Seed:
Seed with two cotyledons.

(ii) Monocotyledonous Seed:
Seed with one cotyledon.

II. Based on the presence or absence of the endosperm the seed is of two types.

(i) Albuminous or Endospermous Seed:
The cotyledons are thin, membranous and mature seeds have endosperm persistent and nourishes the seedling during its early development. Example: Castor, sunflower, maize.

(ii) Ex-albuminous or Nonendospermous Seed:
Food is utilized by the developing embryo and so the mature seeds are without endosperm. In such seeds, colyledons store food and become thick and fleshy. Example: Pea, groundnut.

Significance of Seeds:

  1. The seed encloses and protects the embryo for next generation.
  2. It contains food for the development of embryo.
  3. It is a means for the dispersal of new individuals of the species.
  4. A seed is a means for perpetuation of the species. It may lie dormant during unfavorable conditions but germinates on getting suitable conditions.
  5. Seeds of various plants are used as food, both for animals and men.
  6. They are the basis of agriculture.
  7. Seeds are the products of sexual reproduction so they provide genetic variation and recombination in a plant.
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