Here we are providing Class 12 Sociology Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Structural Change. Sociology Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Important Extra Questions Structural Change
Structural Change Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
When did modernisation emerge in India?
When the Britishers came to India, modernisation emerged because they started to spread western education and establish new factories here.
Which type of change is brought about with Sanskritisation?
Sanskritization brings a change in the structure of the caste system. When people of lower castes try to change their castes and try to imitate the habits of higher castes.
What is Modernisation?
What does the term modernity assume? (C.B.S.E. 2015)
What is the meaning of modernity? (C.B.S.E. 2017 (OD))
The process which is based upon the method of change and which gives us the feeling of old or new is known as modernisation.
What is social change?
When changes start to come about in the views and ways of working for most of the people of society, then it is known as social change.
Why can’t every type of change be called progress?
When change occurs in the desired direction, then it is known as progress. The change which occurs against our wish, that change cannot be called progress. In this way, every change cannot be called progress.
When did the process of urbanisation emerge in India?
The process of urbanization emerged in India at a time when the density of population started to increase in urban areas, the means of transport started to develop, the size of cities started to increase and the production started to take place on a large scale.
What is a city?
The city is a community of any particular geographical area which has more population, more non-agricultural occupations, impersonal relations, formal relations and where there is the emphasis on secondary groups.
What is urbanisation?
Urbanisation is the process in which the situation of villages changes and urban features start to develop in that area. It means that their ways of living start to change into the urban ways of living.
Give three features of urbanisation.
- Relations are formal.
- The presence of more mobility.
- Families start to disintegrate in this process.
What is Industrialisation?
What does Industrialisation refer to? (C.B.S.E. 2012)
Industrialisation is a process in which products from the house level reaches the level of large scale factories and the production starts to take place on a large scale.
What are the evil consequences of industrialisation?
- Industrialisation causes a lot of pollution.
- It becomes a cause of the destruction of cottage industries.
- Wealth concentrates only in a few hands.
What are the reasons for the increasing population in cities?
Population in cities is increasing because of a number of factors like availability of facilities, more opportunities of employment, decreasing land for every person, use of technology and immigration of rural people for more opportunities of employment.
What is necessary for modernisation?
- Level of education should be good.
- Means of transport and communication should be properly developed.
- More industries should be present as compared to agriculture.
- Technical manpower should be there.
What is Cultural Change?
Changes which take place in our culture, views, religion, institutions, behaviour etc. is known as cultural change. It means that whichever changes take place in our culture are part of cultural change.
What is Structural Change?
Changes which occur in our social relations and social institutions are known as structural changes. Changes which occur in a family, marriage, etc. are also a part of structural change.
Write three negative impacts of modernisation.
- Joint families present in the rural areas are disintegrating and nuclear families are emerging due to modernisation.
- Immorality among people is increasing and people are more and more engaged in immoral activities.
- The new generation is under the impact of the goods of leisure.
What is meant by Colonialism?
At one level, the rule of one country over the other is known as Colonialism. It means the capturing of a weak country by the powerful country, for its benefits, is known as Colonialism.
How did colonial laws favour the owners and managers of the tea industry? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
Colonial laws vested more powers with the owners and managers of the tea industry and adopted the harsh measures against the labourers so that the planters could be benefited.
Structural Change Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is meant by Social Change?
Any type of change which occurs in social relations, social organization, social structure, social actions, social interactions, etc. is known as social change. In short, we can say that the change which takes place in the living style of people is social change. It is always cultural and collective. Whenever a change occurs in the behaviour of people, then we can say that social change is taking place.
How many types of social change are there?
- Change: Difference between the earliest and existing situation is known as change. This change could be good or bad.
- Evolution: When the change goes through definite stages then it is known as evolution.
- Progress: Progress is always good for society. When change comes according to our wish and direction then it is called progress.
- Development: In this type of change, it goes through one stage to another stage. This type of change occurs in the desired direction and is planned towards the objective.
- Revolution: When change comes very quickly and suddenly then it is known as revolution. Very quick change comes in traditions and politics. It can be violent or non-violent.
Give four features of Modernisation.
- The spread of technology is very wide.
- Industrial aspect is also included in it. People mostly depend upon industries in this process.
- The higher literacy rate is present due to this process.
- Developed means of transport and communication exists in this process.
What are the main features of Urbanisation?
- One of the main features of urbanisation is that the relations in it are temporary and they come to an end.
- The population is dense. That’s why people live in a large number in small houses.
- Mobility exists in urbanisation. People can move anywhere freely.
- Occupations in urbanisation are not related to agriculture. The concentration of people is centred more around non-agricultural occupations.
- People in urban areas have more capacity for accommodation. People accommodate themselves according to the changed circumstances.
What is the relation between technology and urbanisation?
Large scale industries were established due to the advancing technology and the country became industrialised. New cities emerged around those industries. First small settlements cropped up around these industries, then markets and shops were opened to provide the people with essential commodities. Then hotels, schools, colleges, offices, companies, etc. were set up for the people. In this way, gradually cities were developed and urbanisation took place. In this way, we can say that technology plays a great role in the process of urbanisation.
What do you mean by structural change?
Social change may be divided into two parts structural and cultural. The process of change related to structural features are social relations, family, kinship, caste, occupational group, etc. If any change takes place in them, then it is known as structural change. We can take the example of agriculture-related occupations. In ancient times, only family members were engaged in agricultural works and they used to carry out agricultural works with traditional methods. But agriculture in modern times is done with electric implements and labourers.
Production is being done for the market. It is known as structural change. Here we can take another example of a joint family. Nowadays, Nuclear families are emerging and the structure and functions of the family have changed. It is known as structural change. Structural change has emerged due to processes like westernisation, modernisation, industrialisation, etc.
Which problems take place due to urbanisation?
Slums in urban areas are the centres of criminal activities. More crimes take place in cities due to the increasing population and dearth of occupations. Poverty and unemployment force the person to commit crimes to become rich as soon as possible. To meet the rising expenses, teenagers resort to other means to earn quick money. Smuggling is also present in cities. Problems like smuggling, selling drugs, bank robberies, slums, poverty, crimes, unemployment and immorality are commonly seen in urban areas and all these are because of urbanisation.
What changes have taken place in the process of industrialisation of the country after independence?
Few industries were established in India before independence because it was not possible to get proper facilities from a foreign government. Before 1947, only two steel producing units were present in India, but they increased very quickly after independence. The government made five-year plans whose main objective was the industrial development of the country. After 1947, this process assumed a great speed. India made very good progress in the field of the iron industry, tractors, cars, scooters, motorcycles, electronics, fertilisers, chemicals, heavy industries, etc. India is now one of the leading producers of clothes in the world. It also made great progress in the fields of coal, shipping, petroleum products, etc. Foreign investment in the country increased quickly after 1991 and India is now emerging as an industrialised country.
Explain the three different situations of urban impact as given by M.SA. Rao.
Three different situations of urban impact as given by M.S.A. Rao.-.
- The impact of urban influences varies according to the kind of relations a village has with a city or town.
- There are villages where a sizeable number of people have sought employment in far of cities.
- Urban influence on the villages situated near an industrial town.
- The growth of metropolitan cities and their impact on surrounding villages.
Structural Change Important Extra Questions Essay Answer Type
What are the features of Industrialisation? Explain in detail.
What are the prime features of industrial societies today? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
There are certain features of industrialisation which are given below:
1. Production through machines: Production, in the process of industrialisation, is being done by the machines and not manually. New machines are being invented in this process and these machines help in increasing production. Production in ancient times was being done manually. That’s why industrialisation was not at its developed stage. But production in this process is being done with new machines and is being done on a large scale.
2. Industrialisation is related to the process of production: The relation of industrialisation is with the process of production because production increases in this process. Production in this process is being done with machines.
3. Traditional power is not used in industrialisation: Traditional power is that power which is based upon human force or animal power. Instead of human or animal power, petrol, diesel, coal, electricity or nuclear power is used in industrialisation because this power gives more force to machines as compared to traditional power. Today’s machines are running with this type of power.
4. Production in industrialisation is done on a large scale: This process helps to increase the production. Production in ancient times was being done manually and that’s why it’s the rate was very low. But it is being done with machines in industrialisation and that’s why it is being done on a large scale. Machines are being used to fulfil the needs of the increasing population so that more and more production should take place.
5. Economic development is there in industrialisation: Economic development is a must in this process. Many industries are established in this which not only fulfils the needs of their own countries but they fulfil the needs of other countries as well. That’s why they earn profit for themselves and money for the country. They also pay taxes to the country, which increases the income of the country. This income is used for the development of the country. People get employment in these industries which uplifts their standard of living. It leads to the economic development of the country.
6. Industrialisation leads to breaking of old traditions: This process helps in disorganization of old traditions. For example, joint families in India disintegrate due to this process and nuclear families emerge. In the same way, many changes are also taking place in institutions like the caste system, marriage, etc. So we can say those old traditions are not prevalent due to this process.
7. New classes came into being due to industrialisation: Many new classes came into being due to this process. Rich class, middle class, poor class, capitalist class, labourer class, etc. are some of the examples of these new classes. Some people earn a lot of money due to this and some become poor. Many classes like Trade Unions emerge which are necessary for our society.
What problems are emerging due to industrialisation? Explain them.
What are the consequences of the process of industrialisation? Explain them in detail.
1. Economic problems: Many times, industrialisation leads to an economic problem instead of economic development. Production, in this, is done on a large scale, but many times consumption is constant or reduces due to one or another reason. Production continues at the same pace but less consumption leads to blockage of goods. That’s why many times, industry suffers economic depression.
2. Unemployment: Industrialisation also leads to the increasing problem of unemployment. Production in ancient times was done manually with which everyone was employed. But this process leads to new inventions and the advent of new machines. Owners try to reduce manpower and start to take more work from machines. One machine does the work of 10-20 labourers. The labourers become unemployed. In this way, this process leads to unemployment.
3. Destruction of small scale industries: This process also leads to the destruction of small scale and cottage industries. Production through machines is cheaper and is of good quality. But cottage industries are unable to produce things of good quality because they are made manually. In this way, things produced by industries take the place of things of the cottage industry in the market. It leads to non-consumption of things of cottage industry and economic depression over the cottage industry. In this way, industrialisation leads to the destruction of cottage industries.
4. Disorganization of Joint families: The process of industrialisation becomes one of the reasons for the disorganization of joint families. Industries are being established in cities because of which people from rural areas leave their joint families and move towards the cities. Gradually their family also move towards cities. With this, they form their own nuclear family. In this way, the joint family, which was one of the important features of Indian society, disorganizes and its reason is industrialisation.
5. Weakening of Caste System: If we look at the ancient Indian society then we see that the caste system was very strong, but now it has been weakened to a great extent. The main reason behind its weakness is industrialisation, as one of the features of the caste system that there were restrictions of social interaction between different castes. But these restrictions have been broken by industrialisation. People use to work with each other in factories and hardly care about the fact that with which caste other people belong.
What are the effects of industrialisation on society?
The industrialization has some good and bad effects on society which are given below:
1. Division of labour: During ancient times, production was completed only in the family. Everyone was aware of every type of work related to production and they used to produce things while cooperating with each other. But due to industrialisation, production work is done on machines because of which the concept of division of labour came in front of us. Things are produced in stages and every stage has different types of work. Now every one performs different work. For example, one runs machine to make cloth, one does work of colouring and so on. All these works are related to the division of labour and specialisation. In this way, labour has been divided. Everyone does any specific work and specialisation of every work takes place. It is all because of industrialisation.
2. Development of means of transport: Means of transport have also been developed due to industrialisation. We need raw material in factories for production. To bring raw material from far off places, means of transport like trains and trucks were developed. Except these, we need means of transport to take produced things from factories to markets and they were developed very slowly. In this way, the means of transport were developed due to industrialisation.
3. Increase in production of factories: Production from houses has gone in the hands of factories, due to industrialisation, where production takes place with machines. Production with hands takes a lot of time but production with machines takes place very quickly. Yet consumption has also been increased due to growth in population but new inventions also took place with this and production was also increased. In this way, the increase in production also took place due to industrialisation.
4. Increase in the size of cities: Size of the cities were also increased due to industrialisation. Industries have been established in cities because of which rural people migrated to urban areas. It was not possible for them to go back to villages daily and that’s why they have brought their rural family to cities. Increase in population led to the construction of more houses which resulted in an increase in the size of cities. Gradually the concept of urbanization emerged.
5. Capitalism: Capitalism also came into being due to industrialisation. When production was taking place in the houses then there was no need for more capital because production was very less. But industrialisation gave birth to the factory system. A lot of capital is required to make any factory to buy raw material, to sell the finished product in the market, to give salary to labourers and for so many other things. Rich people, with a large amount of money, established large factories and with the help of their capital, started to earn more and more money.
With this many other classes like businessmen, owners, labourers, middlemen, etc. came into being and business increased. They started to send their produce to other countries which resulted in making more money. This wealth has resulted in the occupation of other countries and imperialism came into being. It has led to the exploitation of other countries. In this way, capitalism came into being and many other problems took place.
6. Elimination of cottage industries: Industrialisation led to the elimination of cottage industries from the villages. Production through machines is cheaper and is of good quality. But production in cottage industries is being done with hands which is not as good as the production of machines. In this way, things produced in the factories started to be sold in the market at cheaper rates. Then people stopped buying things of the cottage industry. In this way, the cottage industry faced economic depression and it came to a stage of the lockout. In this way, industrialisation led to the elimination of the cottage industry.
Explain some problems which are being faced by urban people.
1. Problem of places of living: One of the major problems of urban areas is the problem of the place of living. Rural people are moving continuously towards urban areas because of which urban population is increasing rapidly. The population is increasing rapidly but places of living remain the same. That’s why either jungle are cleared to make places of living or many people start to five in one single room. Except this new slum areas are emerging and living there is another problem in itself.
2. Health problem: Urban people also have to face a health problem. Pollution due to the emission of smoke from large industries, pollution of vehicles, noise pollution, slums, etc. is some of the reasons which create a lot of health problem. Everyone comes under the trap of diseases. In the same way noise, the problem of sanitation, non-hygienic water, etc. also affects the health of the people. When people move towards cities then their health is in good shape but within a few years, their health also starts to be affected by the polluted environment of urban areas.
3. Growth of population: Urban population keeps on growing which creates a lot of problems for the people. Population increases due to difference of birth and death rate and it also increases due to the emigration of rural people towards the urban areas. It leads to the growth of population at a rapid pace. Growth in population has led to many other problems like the problem of the place of living, lack of civic facilities, etc.
4. Problem of crimes: Crimes prevails more in urban areas than in rural areas. Crimes in rural areas are generally related to small quarrels or are related to land. But they are of different nature in urban areas. Many types of crimes prevail in urban areas like theft, dacoity, rape, murder, white-collar crimes, etc. People have formal relations among them. Even neighbours hardly know anything about their neighbours. That’s why crimes take place quietly. Planned crimes exist in urban areas. In this way, people have to face the problem of crimes in urban areas.
Which features of modernisation can be seen in India? Explain them in detail.
1. Industrialisation: There were very few industries before independence in India. But these industries increased very quickly after independence because industries got favourable conditions after 1947. Yet industrialisation is not a feature of modernisation but still, it is necessary for modernisation, because more industries will bring more money, economic development and employment for the people. Today, > the Indian industries are expanding very rapidly. India’s place in the world is 10th from the industrial point of view. In this way, the first necessary condition of modernity is an industry, which is increasing rapidly in our country
2. Secularism: When India was divided into the kingdoms, different kings used to promote one religion and the other religions were generally hated by them. This situation changed after the interference of the British. They hardly gave importance to any religion because their main motive was to earn money. After independence, the Indian government and the Constitution adopted the policy of Secularism so that none of the religions of the country could be given more importance and all the religions of the country should get equal importance. This is one of the conditions of modernity that a country should be secular and this policy has been adopted in India. So we can say that our country fulfils the next condition of modernity i.e. secularism.
3. Urbanisation: Next feature of Modernisation is urbanisation or increasing the Urban area and this thing can be applied in our country. In 1901, 90% of our population was rural but it decreased very rapidly after independence. According to the census of 1991, 25% of people lived in urban areas and according to the census of 2011, 32% of people lived in cities. It means that the rural population is moving very quickly towards urban areas and urban areas are developing rapidly.
4. Education: It has been said that a country is a modem whose literacy rate is 4 higher because education is directly related to modernity. If we look at western countries, they are considered as modern but we should look at their literacy rate as well. Literacy rate of Japan is 100%, the U.K. 99%, Russia 99.2% and the U.S.A. 98%. Except for this, the literacy rate of European countries is also very high because they spend a lot of money on education. These countries spend around 19-20% on the education of their total budget but our country spends only 3-3.5%. But this percentage is increasing slowly gradually.
5. Westernization: If we look carefully, then westernisation is generally considered as modernisation. Britishers ruled over India for around 200 years and they started the process of westernisation. They implemented western education in India, started industries on western lines, started trains and means of communication. They also changed the administrative system and started to run administration on western lines. A revolution came in India in the fields of transport, communication, education, etc. and this revolution is still underway. Our country has also developed a means of transport, communication, education, etc. on western lines. So after looking at this we can say that India is moving towards modernity.
What is meant by social change? Give some of its definitions.
The word ‘Change’ is a value-free word. It never tells us about good or bad about any rule. In a general sense, change is that difference which is there in the present state and earlier state of anything. Like anyone has money today but was poor yesterday. His position has been changed due to money. Comparison is necessary for change because if we want to clarify any change then it can be clarified only by comparison. In this way, social change is related to society. When any change comes in the society or social relationship, then it is known as social change.
Many sociologists have given the definitions of social change which are given below:
1. According to Gillin and Gillin, “Social change as variations from the modes of life, whether due to alteration in geographical conditions in cultural equipment, the composition of the population or ideologies, and whether brought by diffusion or invention within the group.”
2. According to Kingsley Davis, “By social change, I meant only such alterations as occur in social organization that is structure and function of society.”
So on the basis of a given description, we can say that social change is collective and is also related to cultural change. When any change comes in human behaviour then we can say that social change is underway. In short, we can say that social change is those differences which exist in ways of life of humans. Whatever we are looking in society these days, that is changed from earlier times. For example, the institutions of family and religion in modern times, have been changed as compared to earlier times.
Explain briefly the characteristics of social change.
1. Social change is universal: Social change is that change which occurs in every society. No society is completely static because change is a law of nature. It doesn’t matter which society it is, whether it is ancient or modem, it exists in every culture and society. Demographic change in society, change because of inventions, change in values and ideals, etc. always exists in society. It is right that the speed of social change is different in a different society, but change is always universal. Social change is a universal phenomenon which occurs in all societies and in all ages. The time when human society started, changes have taken place and will remain forever. Every stage of a human society gone through changes, yet the speed of change in them might be different. Change is the law of nature and no one can be prevented from this.
2. Definite prediction is not possible in social change: Any type of definite prediction is impossible in social change. It is so because social relationships are not definite. They keep on changing. For example, if we predict that caste system, untouchability or dowry system etc. will come to an end in the coming ages and maybe we’ll not be able to find the complete end of these evils in the society. That’s why if we will predict definitely then it can be proved wrong. We cannot imagine definitely about the behaviour of a person. That’s why a prediction is impossible in social change. Social change is a community change. It doesn’t mean that there is no rule of social change or we cannot imagine about it.
3. Speed of social change is not uniform: Yet social change is universal but its speed is different in different societies. It comes very quickly in some societies and in some societies, its speed is very slow. For example, if we compare ancient and modem societies then we can see that speed of change is very fast in modern societies as compared to ancient societies. Even this speed is very fast in big cities and very slow in smaller cities. The reasons for the difference in speed is that the factors, which bring social change, are different in different societies. We can notice the change by comparing the two societies.
4. Change is the law of nature: Existence of social change is the law of nature. Change comes even against our wish. We cannot control natural forces which often brings change. Man is dynamic by nature. Change in society either comes because of natural forces or because of planned ways of humans to fulfil their needs. We always want new things and try to achieve them. So the dynamic nature of the person is also responsible for social change. For example, if we are forced to eat the same vegetable daily then we will be bored after one or two days. We love to eat new things daily for our taste. In this way, the way in which need arises for anything in that same way change comes in society. In this way, we can see that change is the wish of every person.
What are the social consequenc.es of Industrialisation? Explain in detail.
After 1947, the increase in industrialisation has greatly affected the life of Indian people and its description is given below:
1. Change in community feelings: The process of industrialisation has greatly affected both rural and urban communities. But we can see great community feeling in rural areas as compared to urban areas. The urban population has increased due to industrialisation and that’s why the community feeling has loosened its impact in urban areas.
2. Decline in Social Control: As the population increases due to industrialisation then the power of social and caste organisations has declined. Due to the decline of this power of social organisations, community feeling has decreased and social control has also declined.
3. Development of the process of urbanisation: The main reason behind the development of the process of urbanisation is the process of industrialisation. Cities started to develop due to progress in industries. Wherever industries are established, people move to that place, from rural areas, in search of employment and start to live there. Gradually, that area takes the form of a city.
4. Development of means of transport and communication: Means of transport and communication in India were developed rapidly due to the development of large scale industries. Means of transport like rails, buses, roads, means of the naval system were developed and it has become easy for people to conduct business with far off places or to move from one place to another. The mechanisation of industries also increased the production of industries.
5. Decline in the importance of religion: Importance of religion, in the Indian society, also declined due to the process of industrialisation. People go to urban areas from rural areas to find work in industries and start to live in urban areas. Materialism is of great importance in urban areas because of which even rural people start to move away from the impact of religion upon their lives. In this way, the importance of religion has declined.
6. Change in family system: Due to the development of industries and urban areas, rural people started to find employment in urban areas. Even they had to leave their ancestral houses and property to earn bread and butter in urban areas. It has resulted in the disorganization of the joint family in rural areas. Nuclear families have started to take the place of joint families. Functions of the family were taken away by other institutions of society. Head of the family lost its hold and control over the family. Modem families are becoming smaller due to family planning.
7. Division of Labour: In rural cottage industry, all the members of the family did every type of work. But when machines started to produce things, then the whole process of production was divided into small parts. As a result, the division of labour started to develop. One person only performs one small work of the whole process in the process of division of labour. For example, any car is made up of thousands of parts and every part is made by a different person or persons. A person only gets that work in which he is specialized. In this way, the division of labour and specialisation is developed due to the development of industries.
What is Modernisation? Give its definitions.
The process of modernisation came with the development of modern societies. The process of modernisation started in India after the advent of the British. It means that when people came in contact with the people of western culture, then many changes took place. Modernisation is the main feature of our modem society.
According to M.N. Srinivas, “Difference exists in the processes of modernisation and westernisation. Concept of westernisation is morally a more neutral concept than the concept of modernisation. We cannot come to know about the good or bad features of any culture in it. But modernisation is not a value-free concept because modernisation is always considered as good and better.” That’s why Srinivas has given more importance to westernisation than modernisation. He has not given the difference in them but according to him, the results of modernisation are always good and better. So from the views of Srinivas, it is clear that the process of modernisation is always progressive. Different sociologists have expressed different views about it which are given below-
1. According to Marrion J. Levy, “My definition of modernisation hinges on the use of inanimate (non-living) tools to multiply the effect of effort. I conceive each of these two elements as the basis of continue. A society will be considered more or less modernise to the extent that its members use inanimate sources of power and or use tools to multiply the effects of these efforts. Neither of these elements is either totally absent from or exclusively present in any society.”
2. According to Weener, “There are many aspects of modernisation-
- Political Modernisation: In this, important institutions, political parties, parliaments, right to vote, development of secret vote which are capable of reaching any participant decision, etc. are included.
- Cultural Modernisation: Which produces likeness with ideologies and secularisation.
- Economic Modernisation: It is different from industrialisation.
3. According to Dr Yogender Singh, “Modernisation includes rational attitude, universalistic viewpoint, sympathy, scientific world view, humanity, technological advancement etc.”
So we can say that the process of modernisation is that process in which change takes place in the old system and new and better system takes place of the old system. This process exists in any society but its degree is different in different societies.
Explain briefly the different characteristics of modernisation.
1. It leads to the development of urbanisation and industrialisation. Industrialisation also exists with urbanisation. Wherever big industries were established, cities were also developed there. With this process, the population of villages started to move towards cities. Means of communication and transport brought about many changes in urban society, like changes in institutions like family, religion and caste, etc. This led to a change in urbanisation. That is why we believe that urbanisation and modernisation are interrelated. Wherever cities are developed modernisation exists. Hence, we can see more progress in urban society as-compared to the rural community.
2. This process develops the education: With the process of modernisation, the educational sector developed very quickly. A lot of development has taken place in technical education. In ancient times, only higher castes were given religious education. But with the progress of society, the need was felt of technical institutions and hence technical institutions were opened. Except this, the importance of occupational education was increased because every person started to get work according to his/her ability. The process of specialisation was also increased. A person who receives technical education got a job or function. In this way, the process of modernisation has brought about many changes in the educational sector.
3. It increases international relations: Cooperation is increased in different countries with the process of modernisation. Every country receives security with the advents of U.N.O. To produce a peaceful atmosphere in the world, mutual relations in different countries were necessary. The U.N.O. has tried to protect human rights. It has also given its view to resolving the personal problems of any country. Its main aim is to maintain peace in the world. If a conflict starts between two countries then the U.N.O. tries to resolve their dispute. In this way, the process of modernisation has developed an atmosphere of love and cooperation at the international level,
4. This process develops and increases the process of social differentiation: With the process of modernisation, our society becomes complex and the process of differentiation has increased. With the material development of society, social differentiation has increased. By this process, we have come to know about that process with which the society is divided into different parts. This process never allows the feeling of hardness to come in humans and groups. In this way, when society moves from a simple situation to a complex situation, then differentiation definitely exists in a society. Without this process, we can’t divide the functions in society.
By this, the way in which this process of modernisation develops, similarly every sector of society i.e. religious, economic, educational, etc. starts to develop. That’s why the process of differentiation attains the pace and speed.
5. It increases social mobility: Social mobility is the main feature of modem societies. Specialisation, division of labour in urban societies, differentiation of occupations, business, industries, facilities of means of communication and transport has brought about a great pace in social mobility. Now every person can become successful with his/her ability and brain. Now they can choose an occupation in which they see more profit. People even change their place of residence due to occupation. In this way, with the process of social mobility, new values were developed instead of traditional values.
Explain the impact of Modernisation on Indian society.
The process of modernisation has exerted a number of impacts on Indian society after independence and it is as follows:
1. Urbanisation: Indian society is continuously urbanising after independence. Around 11% of the Indian population was urban in 1901. But according to a census of 2011, this urban population has increased up to 32% of the total population. In 1951, only 2844 cities were there in India but in 1991, this number rose to 3696. In this way, 74 cities were there in 1951 whose population was more than one lakh but this number has also risen to more than 300 in 1991. The number of cities with a population of 10 lakh or more has been increased very quickly. In 1901, only one city with 10 lakh population was there but this number became 5 in 1951 and 23 in 1991. So Indian society is urbanising very quickly.
2. Industrialisation: Industries were developed very quickly in India after our independence. The main aim of the second five-year plan was the development of industries. During this period, the Industrial revolution came into our country. Large scale industries were established where things are produced, not only to meet the need of the country but for export as well. After 1991, privatisation, liberalisation and globalisation were specifically encouraged. Rules of capital investment in industries were eased and investors were given enough protection.
3. Westernisation: Process of modernisation is related to the process of westernisation. Westernisation started to affect Indian society after the advent of Britishers and gradually, the process of westernisation was transformed into modernisation. All those elements of the western culture, which were adopted by the Indian people, also transformed into an Indian way.00 On one side, some elements and lifestyles of the British culture attracted many Indians and on another side, many parts of the Indian population were specifically attracted by the different aspects of the British culture. In this way, the transformation of the Indian people towards the process of modernisation is also related to the mobility of westernisation.
4. Technological Development: India is developing very quickly in the field of technology. India itself is making planes, ships, rails, tanks, computers, missiles, atomic bombs, satellites and this is proof of increasing technological development of the country. India has gained the status of a superpower in the field of space technology. Development of information and technology has changed India into a family. We now have mobile phones by which, we can keep in touch with people no matter now for they are. The internet has brought about a revolution in the field of computers. The field of Biotechnology has also developed to a great extent.
5. Democratisation: India is the largest democracy in the world. All Indian citizens are given fundamental rights without any discrimination. All the citizens have the right to choose any of the available occupations, to move in any part of the country, etc. Governments of states are elected after every 5 years. If any government tries to overlook the interests of the people then people generally do not elect that government in the next election.
Independent Judiciary, Independent Press, Comptroller and Auditor General of India and Election Commission has given a very strong foundation to democratic set up of the country. But still, certain problems are there in our country which greatly affect the democratic set up of the country like poverty, unemployment, our leaders, corruption, non-awareness of rights, non-consensus of political parties, etc.
6. Expansion of Education: After independence, lakhs of educational institutions were opened to increase the literacy rate of the country. That’s why India has done a lot of progress in the field of education. Literacy rate of India was 64.84% in 2001 out of which only 53.67% of females were educated and 75.26% males were educated. This literacy rate was 18% in 1951 and in 2001 it was 65%. The Literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%. 82.14% for males and 65.46% for females. Kerala (93.91%), Mizoram (91.58%), Goa (87.40%), Maharashtra (82.91%) and Himachal Pradesh (83.78%) are the states with high literary rate. Bihar (63.82%) and Jharkhand (67.63%) are the states with low literacy rate. Lakshadweep (92.28%) and Delhi (86.34%) are the Union Territories with a high literacy rate.