Here we are providing Class 12 Sociology Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 3 The Story of Indian Democracy. Sociology Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 Important Extra Questions The Story of Indian Democracy

The Story of Indian Democracy Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Which type of state in India?
India is a welfare state whose main aim is to work for the welfare of the people.

Question 2.
What is a Constitution?
The constitution is a legal book or document in which ways and systems to administer the country are written.

Question 3.
What is a State?
The state is that group in which different legislative institutions running in that society, are known by their name and has a definite territory in which it has complete right to use the physical aspect of power.

Question 4.
Who becomes the chairman of the Planning Commission?
As per the Constitution of India, every Prime Minister of India becomes the Chairman of the Planning Commission.

Question 5.
What is the main aim of the Five Year Plans?
The main aim of the Five Year Plans is to carry out all-round development of the country and give money to the states according to their expenditure for development works. It leads to the social and economic development of the country.

Question 6.
What is a welfare state?
A welfare state is a that state which takes the responsibility for the welfare of the citizens.

Question 7.
Which type of role is played by the welfare state?
The welfare state plays an important role in the welfare of the people of the country. It works for the economic development of weaker sections and backward classes of the country. It makes laws for women and children so that no one gets exploited.

Question 8.
What is Planning?
Planning is a system on the basis of which steps are being taken for the achievement of personal or social objectives.

Question 9.
What is Social Planning?
Social Planning is that system or method with the help of which steps are taken for the solution of different types of social and cultural problems of the society.

Question 10.
What is Economic Planning?
It is that plan or program in which steps are being taken for the development of an economic aspect of all the sectors like agriculture, business, communication, transport, etc.

Question 11.
What is the need for Social Planning in our country?
People of many religions and castes live in our country. Social planning is very much necessary to bring them closer to each other and to solve those problems which arise from their conflict of interests.

Question 12.
When did the Indian Constitution come into force?
The Indian Constitution came into force on 26th January 1950 when our country became a Republic.

Question 13.
Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution?
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee.

Question 14.
How many fundamental rights are given to the Indian citizens?
Six fundamental rights are provided to the citizens of India.

Question 15.
What is the difference between State and Government?
The state is permanent and no one can overturn it whereas government is temporary which comes into power only for five years. There are certain objectives of the state and the government is a means to achieve those objectives.

Question 16.
What is meant by Panchayati Raj?
Panchayat means a group of paths or the association of five persons. The meaning of Panchayati Raj can be understood on the basis of the administration of five persons. It is also known as the local self-government.

Question 17.
State the three levels of Panchayati Raj.
Panchayati Raj has three levels:

  1. Panchayat at the village level
  2. Panchayat Samiti at the block level
  3. Zila Parishad at the district level.

Question 18.
What is Law?
That system of rules which is implemented by the government on the citizens of the country is known as the law.

Question 19.
Who makes laws for the country?
Parliament makes laws for the country and State Legislative assembly makes laws for the state.

Question 20.
When was Panchayati Raj System implemented in India?
Panchayati Raj System was implemented in India in 1959.

Question 21.
Which problems were there in the ancient Panchayati Raj System?

  1. There was a lack of regular elections.
  2. Panchayats had no financial means.
  3. People had no interest in these institutions.
  4. These institutions were under the complete control of government officials.

Question 22.
How many types of laws are there?
Laws are of two types:

  1. Civil laws
  2. Criminal laws.

Question 23.
What is Gram Sabha?
Gram Sabha is formed at the village level and is the base of Panchayati Raj. All the adult males and females of the village are the members of Gram Sabha and these people or members of Gram Sabha from the Panchayat.

Question 24.
Name three sources of income for Panchayats.
What are the main sources of income for Panchayat? (C.B.S.E. 2012, 2013)
What are the sources of revenue for panchayats? Give examples. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (O.D.))

  • Grants are given by the government.
  • Income from the tax imposed on residents.
  • Income from the land of Panchayat.

Question 26.
Give four functions of Village Panchayat.

  1. Arrangement of clean and pure drinking water for the village.
  2. Building roads for the village.
  3. Arrangement of the cleanliness of the village.
  4. Arrangement of electricity for the village.

Question 27.
Give three means of income of Panchayat Samiti.

  1. Grants are given by the government.
  2. Income from fairs arranged by it.
  3. Income from markets arranged by it in its area.

Question 28.
Give two functions of Panchayat Samiti.

  1. Making plans for the development of its area and applying those plans.
  2. Checking the functioning of Panchayats falling in its jurisdiction.

Question 29.
State two means of income of Zila Parishad.

  1. Grants are given by the government.
  2. Income from its property.
  3. A portion of taxes collected from its area.

Question 30.
Give two functions of Zila Parishad.

  1. Checking the functions of all Panchayat Samitis falling in its area.
  2. Checking the developmental works of the area.

Question 31.
Give any three functions of Panchayati Raj institutions.

  1. Arrangement of clean drinking water and electricity.
  2. Development of poultry, piggery, fishing in its area.
  3. Arrangement of roads, bridges, etc., in its area.

Question 32.
What is the term of Gram Panchayat?
According to the 73rd Constitutional Amendment, Gram Panchayat is elected for five years.

Question 33.
How many members of Gram Panchayat are there?
There is no definite number of members of Gram Panchayat. Their number is different in different states. For example, the number of members of Gram Panchayat is from 6 to 20 in Haryana.

Question 34.
How are the members and chairman of Gram Panchayat elected?
A direct election system exists in India to elect the representatives of the people. In this way, Panch and Sarpanchs are also directly elected by the people.

Question 35.
Who implements plannings made by Panchayat Samiti?
Plannings of Panchayat Samiti are implemented by the Block Development Officer.

Question 36.
What is the qualification to become a member of Gram Panchayat?

  1. A person should be not less than 21 years of age.
  2. He should be a citizen of India.
  3. He should not hold any office of profit and should not be declared bankrupt.

Question 37.
What is Liberalisation?
Removing certain restrictions from a controlled economy is known as liberalization. This makes the economy more competitive, open, and progressive.

Question 38.
What is Privatisation?
Socialist and democratic countries have a mixed economy. This type of economy has public enterprises that are under the direct control of the government. Sometimes, the government gives control of these public enterprises to private parties so that they can earn more and more profit. This process is known as privatization.

Question 39.
What is meant by Fundamental rights?
Indian citizens are provided with certain basic rights by the Constitution and these rights are known as fundamental rights. These rights are a must for a person to live a better life which is why they are known as fundamental rights.

Question 40.
Name the six fundamental rights provided to the Indian citizens.

  1. Right to Equality
  2. Right to Freedom
  3. Right against Exploitation
  4. Right to Religious Freedom
  5. Cultural and Educational Rights
  6. Right to Constitutional Remedies.

Question 41.
What is the Right to Constitutional Remedies?
Every citizen has the right to go directly to the Supreme Court for the protection and application of his fundamental rights. If anyone thinks that either the government or anyone else is taking away his fundamental rights then he can go to the court to protect the same. It is known as the Right to Constitutional Remedies.

Question 42.
What are Interest Groups?
These are organized or unorganized groups that try to influence government policies and promote its interests. They have some of the objectives and exert pressure on the government to achieve these objectives. They never contest the elections but always control the power indirectly.

Question 43.
“In Indian nationalism, the dominant trend was marked by an inclusive and a democratic vision.” What do you understand by the words ‘inclusive’ and ‘democratic’ in this statement? (C.B.S.E. (O.D.))
In the above statement “inclusive” and “democratic” means

  1. Inclusive because it recognized diversity and plurality.
  2. Democratic because it sought to do away with discrimination and exclusion and bring forth a just and equitable society.

The Story of Indian Democracy Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
State the main features of the Panchayati Raj system.

  1. Panchayati Raj system has a three-tier structure.
  2. Gram Sabha plays the most important role in it.
  3. Members of its institutions are elected directly by the people.
  4. Some seats of its institutions are reserved for scheduled castes, tribes, and women.
  5. The financial powers and functions of Panchayati Raj institutions are distributed.

Question 2.
Name the types of laws given by Maclver.

  1. National Law
  2. International Law
  3. Constitutional Law
  4. Ordinary Law
  5. Public Law
  6. Private Law
  7. General Law
  8. Administration Law.

Question 3.
What is the importance of Decentralisation in India?
Decentralization refers to the distribution or division of powers from top to bottom. Decentralization is of great importance in India because India is a democratic country. One of the important conditions of democracy is the people’s participation in politics and it is only possible when there will be elections at every level. Representatives will be elected by the people through these elections. If elected, they will need powers. They will get the powers from the top which is possible if there is the decentralization of powers instead of centralization. Our country is facing many types of problems and these could be solved if power is given to concerned people of local areas.

Question 4.
Give any four features of a Decentralised system.

  1. The administrative system becomes popular in this system because this system gives equal chances to everyone to gain power. People’s participation is possible with the spread of democracy.
  2. Decisions are taken very quickly in a decentralized system. In the absence of this system, the decision-making process will take a lot of time. On the other hand, decentralization hardly requires higher officials to make decisions as the powers are distributed to the lower levels as well.
  3. There is flexibility in administration through this process. Officials have complete freedom in their jurisdiction. They work for the people and take decisions on the spot.
  4. There is hardly any pressure of work on the officials. If this process is absent then higher officials will be burdened and lower officials would remain without any work. So this process divides all the functions at different levels.

Question 5.
Give four demerits of a decentralized system.

  1. This system lacks uniformity in administration. Higher officials give directions of work to lower officials who change it according to time and needs which is why differences arise in their work.
  2. Another demerit of this system is that it increases expenditure. The government will have to bear all the expenses of officials, their pay, workplace, offices, etc., which sums up to a hefty amount.
  3. It is a danger for national interests. Officials start to solve and think about local problems and hardly care about the national interests.
  4. This system lacks control of the center. Officials work in their own way and many a time, they go beyond the policies of the central government.

Question 6.
What provisions are kept for women in the Constitution?
Women constitute half of the total population of our country. Their status remained lower for ages and were considered as slaves of the house. That is why special provisions are kept in the Constitution for their welfare. Article 15 states that the state shall take care of the interests and security of women and shall provide special facilities to them. Article 39 states that males and females shall be given equal pay for equal work. Article 42 states that the state shall arrange for maternity help of women. Article 51 states that it is the duty of every Indian to give up those traditions which are against the dignity of women. By the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments, one-third of the total seats are kept reserved for women in municipalities and Panchayati Raj institutions.

Question 7.
What provisions have been made for children in the Constitution?
Children are also given special attention to different articles of the Constitution. Article 15 states that the state shall specially arrange for the security of the interests of children. It can provide them special facilities. Article 39 states that children should not do those works, due to economic problems, which could have an adverse impact on their age and health. That is why Government should make such a policy with which children could be protected from exploitation and moral and physical degradation. Article 45 states that the state shall arrange for free and compulsory education for children up to the age of 14 years.

Question 8.
What provisions have been made for scheduled tribes in the Constitution?

  1. Article 275 of the Constitution states that the state shall provide special grants for tribal welfare.
  2. Article 325 has given the universal adult franchise to all the citizens of the country including the tribal people.
  3. According to Article 330 and 332, 41 seats of the Lok Sabha and 527 seats of the state legislative assemblies are reserved for tribal people.
  4. According to Article 335, 7.5% of the total seats in government jobs are reserved for tribal people.

Question 9.
What were the objectives of the First Five Year Plan?
When the first five-year plan was started in 1951, India was facing economic problems due to the division of the country and the Second World War. That is why the following objectives were made in it:

  1. The agricultural system of the country should be strengthened.
  2. Agriculture of the country should be developed so that country should become self-dependent in food production.
  3. To make more and more programs of social welfare.
  4. To increase industrial development.
  5. To concentrate on employment giving sectors.
  6. To work for the rehabilitation of people.

45% of the total amount of the budget of this plan (1,960 crores) was spent on agriculture. The growth rate of this plan was projected at 2.2% but it reached the level of 3.7%.

Question 10.
Give some features of the 73rd Amendment of the Constitution.
Give salient features of the Amended Act of 1992.
In 1992, the 73rd Amendment of the Constitution was passed and some provisions were made in it for local governments. Some features or provisions of this amendment are given below:

  1. Now there will be a three-tier system in the Panchayati Raj system and these are Panchayat for village level, Block Samiti at the block level, and Zila Parishad at the district level.
  2. Now it has become mandatory to hold regular elections in all the local governments after every five years.
  3. One-third of the total seats in local governments will be kept reserved for women.
  4. Seats for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward classes will be kept reserved in local governments according to the ratio of their population in that area.
  5. An independent constitutional body, i.e., State Election Commission will conduct fair elections in all the local bodies.

Question 11.
Explain the three-tier system of Panchayati Raj.
How Local Self Government works at the village level?
73rd Amendment of the Constitution has provided the three-tier system for Panchayati Raj. At the village level, the basic unit of democracy is Gram Sabha which is the sabha of all the adults of the village. This Gram Sabha elects the Panchayat and Sarpanch of a village. Panchayat looks after the needs of the village. The Second level is the Block Samiti at the block level and all the panchayats of the block are its members. It looks after the work done by the Panchayats in the block. It has one chairman as well as many elected and ex-officio members. The third level of Panchayati Raj is Zila Parishad at the district level. All the Block Samitis of one district are its members. M.P., M.L.A., Commissioner, etc., are its ex-officio members. It also has some elected members. Zila Parishad looks after the work done by Panchayats and Block Samiti in the district.

Question 12.
What is Gram Sabha? What are its functions?
Gram Sabha is a Sabha of the adults of the village and it elects the Sarpanch and Gram Panchayat by exercising its right of universal adult franchise. Gram Sabha does a number of functions like:

  1. Gram Sabha elects Sarpanch, Panchayat, and its members.
  2. Sarpanch produces the budget of Panchayat in Gram Sabha. It discusses that budget.
  3. It decides on the developmental work done in the village.
  4. It can ask questions to the members of Panchayat about any issue of village importance. ‘

Question 13.
What is the importance of Local Self government?
In a democratic country like India, where a number of linguistic, ethnic, and religious groups live together, the local self-government is very important due to the following reasons:

  1. The matters of local interest like water supply, cleaning, and lighting of streets, maintenance of drainage system, etc., are better understood by the local residents. Hence, there is a need for local self-government.
  2. The knowledge gained in running the administration of local affairs proves to be a training ground for self-government.
  3. Local functions are performed better by the local bodies at a low cost.

Question 14.
Write the functions of Panchayat.
What powers and responsibilities have been delegated to the Panchayats? (C.B.S.E. 2011)
What are the social welfare responsibilities of the Panchayats? (C.B.S.E. 2012)
State the social welfare responsibilities of panchayats. (C.B.S.E. 2015)

  1. An important function of Gram Panchayat is to uplift the social and economic life of the people.
  2. Village panchayat tries to open schools in the village and motivates the people to send their children to schools.
  3. Gram Panchayat also arranges for the means of recreation like films, festivals and opening up of library in the village.
  4. Panchayat educates the people about new techniques of agriculture and it arranges for new seeds and developed fertilizers.
  5. For the industrial development of the village, it also tries to establish any small- scale or college industry in the village.

Question 15.
What is Nyaya Panchayat? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
What are Nyaya Panchayats? What authority do they possess? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
The nature of two persons is not the same. That is why problems may arise between them. In this way, problems between villages may arise from time to time. Nyaya Panchayat stops and solves these problems. One Nyaya Panchayat is generally formed for 5-10 Gram Sabhas. Its members are elected and Sarpanch makes a committee consisting of 5 members. They have the right to ask questions to the Panchayat.

Question 16.
What is Panchayat Samiti or Block Samiti?
Panchayats, coming in one block, are the members of Panchayat Samiti and Sarpanchs of these Panchayats are its members. Members of Panchayat Samiti are also elected. Panchayat Samiti takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which are coming in its area. It checks the developmental functions of the village and directs the Panchayat for the welfare of the village. It is the second level of Panchayati Raj.

Question 17.
What is Zila Parishad?
The highest level of Panchayati Raj is Zila Parishad which takes care of the functions of the Panchayats which exist in its district. It is an executive institution. Chairman of Panchayat Samiti, elected members, members of Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, and Legislative Assemblies are the members of Zila Parishad. All these take care of the developmental functions done in the villages of the district. Zila Parishad does many functions like improvement of agriculture, improvement of land, irrigation, rural electrification, the arrangement of seeds and fertilizers, education, industries, etc.

Question 18.
Write about the problems faced by the Panchayati Raj.

  1. People of villages are backward and believe in superstitions. They never accept change very quickly which is the biggest obstacle in the way of the Panchayati Raj institutions.
  2. Villages lack good leaders. The elected leaders are generally dishonest. They only take care of their own development and hardly care about the development of the village.
  3. Rural people are related to different religions, castes, etc. Members of Panchayat never take care of the whole village but they only think about the development of their own caste and religion which can be biased.
  4. Good literate people shift to the cities to live due to which villages are lacking good literate leaders.
  5. Government officials, Panchs, and Sarpanchs indulge in corrupt practices and hardly take care of the development of the villages.

Question 19.
What is a Sarpanch?
The Head of the Gram Panchayat is known as Sarpanch or Chairperson. He is known by different names in different states like President, Sarpanch, Mukhiya, Pradhan, Sabhapati, etc. Sarpanch is directly elected in most of the states. It means that the voters of the village, who elect the members of the Panchayat, elect the Sarpanch of the village as well. Sarpanch presides over the meetings of Panchayat. He uses the money given by the government for the welfare of the village and tries for the all-round development of the village.

Question 20.
What are the sources of income of Gram Panchayat?
1. Taxes. The first source of income of Panchayat is tax. It can collect only those taxes which are sanctioned by the government like property tax, animal tax, occupational tax, token tax, road tax, octroi tax, etc.

2. Fees and Fine tax. The second source of income of Panchayat is the fine and fees imposed by it. For example, fees for the use of Panchayat’s rest house, tax of lighting of streets and markets, water tax, etc. These are imposed only by those Panchayats which give these facilities.

3. Government Grants. The main source of income of Panchayats is the grants given by the government. The government gives different types of grants to apply the plans related to development made by them. Generally, some part of the land tax collected by the government is given to Panchayats like 15% in Punjab, 12.5% in U.P., etc. Panchayats of Bihar, Maharashtra, and Gujarat even collect land revenue on behalf of the government.

4. Mixed Sources. There are many other sources of income of Panchayats like income by selling waste of the village, income from panchayat land (hamlet), income from fairs, income from the property of the village, etc. Panchayats have a special source of income from a fishery in Andhra Pradesh and Punjab.

Question 21.
In a democratic form of government, political parties are key actors. Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2010)

  1. There is no denying the fact that in a democratic form of government, political parties are key actors and they play the most important role in democracy.
  2. Political parties defined as the organizations oriented towards getting legitimate control of the government through the electoral process.
  3. We cannot imagine democracy in the absence of political parties. It means that political parties are the backbone of democracy.
  4. In a democratic system, political parties bring the interests of different groups in front so that their interests could be protected.

Question 22.
Could the RTI be a means of forcing the state to respond to the people of India? Elaborate. (C.B.S.E. 2015)
Yes, RTI is a means of forcing the state to respond to the people of India in the following ways:

  1. RTI enacted by the Parliament in India in 2005 gives the right to any citizen to seek information from a public authority.
  2. Public authority should disseminate information as it leads to transparency.
  3. One can get information about spending of government funds.
  4. Citizens have a right to inspect documents, works, and records on public issues.

Question 23.
How is inequality a hurdle in the working of a democratic institution? (C.B.S.E. 2017 (O.D.))
Inequality is a hurdle in the working of a democratic institution because :

  1. Democratization is difficult to achieve in a society that is plural/diverse.
  2. Certain members belonging to a particular group are included.
  3. Decisions in developmental activities are made by a few leaving the rest.
  4. Democratic measures do not work out in practice because inequality is a result of the structural features of the society.

The Story of Indian Democracy Important Extra Questions Essay Answer Type

Question 1.
Give main features of Panchayati Raj System according to the 73rd Constitutional Amendment.
The new Panchayati Raj System was started in India. A bill of 73rd Constitutional Amendment was introduced in the Parliament to bring uniformity in the Panchayati Raj institutions of the whole of the country. It was passed by Lok Sabha on 22nd December 1992 and by Rajya Sabha on 23rd December 1992. It was also signed by the President of India on 23rd April 1993. The main features of new Panchayati Raj institutions are given below:
1. Three-Tier Structure. A three-tier structure of Panchayat was proposed for the whole country through the 73rd Constitutional Amendment. These three tiers are:
(a) Gram Panchayat (at village level)
(b) Panchayat Samiti (at block level)
(c) Zila Parishad (at district level)

2. Composition. Members of all three levels of the Panchayati Raj institution shall be determined by the state legislative assembly. Gram Panchayat, at the village level, shall have one Sarpanch and other members. The number of Panchs depends upon the state government. This number is different in different states.

3. Gram Sabha (Gram Sabha). All the adults of the villages are members of Gram Sabha which comes under one Panchayat. All these collectively form the Gram Sabha. Population for the establishment of Gram Sabha is different in different states.

4. Qualification of Members. Minimum age of 21 years is necessary to contest the election of Panchayati Raj institutions. Except this, the person should be eligible to contest the election of the State Legislative Assembly.

5. Direct Election. Members of Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti, and Zila Parishad are directly elected by electorates through the election. The minimum age to give a vote is 18 years.

6. Election of Chairperson and Vice-Chairpersons. The Chairperson of Gram Panchayat (Sarpanch) is directly elected by the people through direct election. But chairperson and vice-chairpersons of Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad are indirectly elected. It means that the chairmen of Zila Parishad and Panchayat Samiti are elected by members of these institutions.

7. Tenure. The tenure of every level of Panchayati Raj institution is 5 years. This tenure starts with the first meeting of Panchayat.

8. Function and Powers. A number of functions are given to all three levels of Panchayati Raj and these functions are generally related to the overall development of their respective areas. Certain judicial powers are also given to them.

9. Reservation. Some seats are reserved for scheduled castes, tribes, and for women. Seats for scheduled castes and tribes at all levels are reserved according to their proportion of the population in that particular area. One-third (1/3) of the total seats are reserved for women (including S.C.’s and S.T.’s). Reserved seats are changed by state from time to time. Laws of reservation are also applicable to the posts of chairperson and deputy chairpersons.

Question 2.
What do you know about Gram Sabha? Explain it.
Gram Sabha is the foundation of the new Panchayati system. A minimum of 18 years of age is required to become the members of Gram Sabha. All adults of the village, whose names are there in the voter list, are automatic members of Gram Sabha. Different states have made laws and fixed the number of members of Gram Sabha. A number of members of few states are given below:

  1. Himachal Pradesh – 1500-4500
  2. Haryana – 500-4500
  3. Punjab – 200-4500

Session. It is necessary to call two sessions of Gram Sabha in one year. But when these should be called, this is determined by every state. For example, the session of Gram Sabha in Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan is called in summer and winter. Except for this special session of Gram Sabha can be called if one-fifth of the total members demand so. A quorum of sessions is one-tenth of the total members. That is why one-tenth of the total members are necessary for the session of Gram Sabha. The session is presided by the chairperson of Gram Panchayat and the chairperson of Gram Sabha is Sarpanch.

Functions of Gram Sabha. Its function is given below:

  1. Gram Sabha passes its yearly budget according to its income.
  2. One copy of the expenditure of Panchayat is being given to Gram Sabha so that it could be discussed in its session.
  3. Gram panchayat can impose some sort of taxes but they should be sanctioned by Gram Sabha.
  4. Gram Sabha elects Sarpanch of village panchayat and members of village panchayat as well,
  5. Gram Sabha can remove Sarpanch from its post.

Except these, making plans for the development of its area, collection of money for public welfare works are some of its other functions.

Question 3.
What do you know about Gram Panchayat? Give briefly.
What are Panchayats? What are some of their powers and responsibilities? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
Gram Panchayat is at the lowest level of the three-tier structure of Panchayati Raj.
1. Composition. There is one Sarpanch and 5-13 members of Gram Panchayat and these members are known as Panch. The number of members of the Panchayat is determined according to the population of that state and it is determined by the state.

2. Direct Election. Sarpanch and panch of village panchayat are elected by members of Gram Sabha and they are elected through the process of direct election. All the members of panchayat are elected for the tenure of 5 years.

3. Reservation. Some seats of the total seats of Panchayat are reserved for scheduled castes and tribes and this number is according to their proportion of the population. Except this, one-third of the total seats are reserved for women.

4. Tenure. Tenure of Gram Panchayat is fixed for 5 years by the 73rd Constitutional amendment. But if the government thinks that any panchayat is not working properly then it can dissolve that panchayat. But re-election within six months is necessary.

5. Qualifications. Following qualifications are necessary to become a member of Gram Panchayat:
(а) He should be a citizen of India.
(б) His age should be more than 21 years.
(c) He should not be declared insane or bankrupt.
(d) He should not be on any governmental post.

Every Gram Panchayat has a Sarpanch who is elected directly by members of Gram Sabha. Sarpanch presides over the meetings of Panchayat and checks the developmental functions of the village.

6. Meetings. Two meetings in a month are necessary. But it can be called by the majority if it is required.

7.Functions of Gram Panchayat. Gram Panchayat has to do the following functions:
(a) It makes the budget of Panchayat and presents it to Gram Sabha.
(b) It encourages dairy farming and poultry farming.
(c) It tries to plant more and more trees on both sides of the roads.
(d) It encourages cottage industry in rural areas.
(e) It arranges for drinking water for the village.
(f) It builds new bridges and repairs the old ones.
(g) It takes care of funeral places (cremation grounds).
(h) It takes care of wells and ponds of the village.
(i) It arranges for fairs and markets.
(j) It maintains the roads in the villages.

Question 4.
What do you know about Panchayat Samiti? Write briefly.
Panchayat Samiti is at the 2nd level of the three-tier system of the Panchayati Raj. All the Panchayats, which come in the area of a block, are the members of Panchayat Samiti and the Sarpanchs of these Panchayats are its members.
1. Composition. According to the new Panchayati Raj, Panchayat Samiti can be established at the block level and it has the following members:
(a) Directly elected members of Panchayat Samiti.
(b) Members of Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assembly who are related with that
(c) One-fifth of the total Sarpanchs of that block.
(d) Members of Rajya Sabha.

2. Tenure. Like Village Panchayat, the tenure of Panchayat Samiti is also 5 years but if the government wants it can dissolve it even before the completion of its tenure.

3. Reservation. Some seats are reserved in Panchayat Samiti for S, C.’s, and S.T.’s but the reservation is according to their proportion in the total population. Except this, one-third of the total seats are also reserved for women.

4. Election of Chairman and Deputy Chairman. After taking the oath of the office, all the members of Panchayat Samiti elect one Chairman and one Deputy Chairman out of them.

5. Qualifications. Following qualifications are required to become a member of Panchayat Samiti:
(a) He should be a citizen of India.
(b) He should not be declared as mad or bankrupt.
(c) His age should be more than 21 years.
(d) He should not hold any office of profit under the government.

6. Functions of Panchayat Samiti. Panchayat Samiti has to do the following functions:
(а) Developing different arts, cottage industries, etc., in its area so that industrial development of the area can take place.
(b) Implementing developmental plans in its area and try to produce more opportunities for employment.
(c) Checking the functions done by Panchayats of its area and also to check their budget and expenditure.
(d) Making arrangements for the establishment of health centers and maternity centers.
(e) Arranging for drinking water and to make roads of its area.
(f) Working for an arrangement of fairs and markets.

7. Meetings. At least two meetings should be held of Panchayat Samiti in a year. Not more than 6 months gap should be there between two meetings. But if any need arises, the majority of members can call a meeting before the scheduled time.

Question 5.
What do you know about Zila Parishad? Explain briefly.
Zila Parishad is the Panchayati Raj Institution at the district level. Every district has one institution of Zila Parishad. The whole of the area of the district, except the area of the municipality, is included in the area of Zila Parishad.
1. Composition of Zila Parishad. Every Zila Parishad has the following members:
(a) Directly elected adult members of Zila Parishad.
(b) Member of Lok Sabha of district and M.L.A’s of that district.
(c) That member of Rajya Sabha whose name is included in the voter list of the district.
(d) All the chairmen of Panchayat Samitis of the district.

2. Reservation. Like lower levels, this level also has some reserved seats for S.C.’s and S.T.’s and this reservation is according to their proportion in the total population. One-third of the total seats are reserved for women as well.

3. Meetings. At least four meetings of Zila Parishad should be held in a year and there should be a gap of not more than three months between two meetings. Chairman presides over the meetings of Zila Parishad and in his absence, Deputy Chairman presides over the meetings. An emergency meeting can also be convened on the demand of one-third members of Zila Parishad.

4. Tenure. Basically, the tenure of Zila Parishad is fixed at 5 years by the 73rd Constitutional Amendment. But it can be dissolved by the State government before the completion of its term on the basis of charges of corruption or inability.

5. Functions of Zila Parishad. Zila Parishad does the following functions in its area:
(a) Its main function is to check the functions done by Panchayat Samiti of its area. With this, it also tries to maintain a balance between functions of all the Panchayat Samitis.
(b) It makes development plans for Panchayat Samitis and tries to apply those plans.
(c) It checks the budgets of Panchayat Samitis and gives its approval to them.
(d) Government gives many powers and responsibilities to the Zila Parishad.

Question 6.
What is the importance of Panchayati Raj? Write in detail.
1. Rule of the People. Panchayati Raj System can be called the rule of the people because people play the most important role at every level of Panchayati Raj. At the time of the election, everything is in the hands of the people who elect the representative of their choice. Those elected representatives will have to work to solve the problems of the people. Every level of Panchayati Raj will have to provide basic facilities of drinking water, electricity, health, education, etc., to the people. Elected representatives know about the fact that if they do not take care of the problems of the people then they will not be re-elected. In this way, the elected representatives will have to work for the welfare of the people and therefore the rule is always in the hands of the people.

2. Democracy. Panchayati Raj gives strength to democracy. The meaning of democracy is the rule of the people and Panchayati Raj has been made with the purpose that they should rule over themselves. People themselves elect their representatives and can meet them at any time and call for the solution of their problems. Gram Sabha exists at the village level whose members are all the adults of the village. It has to meet at least twice a year in which discussion takes place about the functions, planning, budget, and expenditure of the Panchayat. In this way, people come to know about the identity of their representatives which is a symbol of democracy.

3. To make the people self-reliant. Another important objective of Panchayati Raj is to make villages self-dependent. While making laws related to this, every care must be taken that all the levels of Panchayati Raj should get powers according to their needs. Every Panchayat has been given enough rights for the solution of the problems of the village. A village panchayat makes a number of developmental plans for the village and presents them before the Gram Sabha. The local self-government collects taxes from the village and uses them for the village’s development. In this way, the village becomes self-dependent.

4. Knowledge of Rights and Duties. Through Panchayati Raj System, people come to know about their rights and duties towards their village. Knowledge about their rights as voters and as members of Gram Sabha is known at the time of the election and at the meetings of Gram Sabha. If Gram Sabha imposes any taxes on the village then the villagers pay it willingly as they know that money will be used for the development of the village.

5. Development of Agriculture. Panchayati Raj has played an important role in the development of agriculture. One of the important functions of Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti, and Zila Parishad is that they work for the development of agriculture and increase production in their respective area. They have many government officials at their disposal whose main work is to give information on new seeds, machines, urea, etc., to the people so that they could increase their production.

Apart from this, Panchayati Raj institutions also arrange for new seeds and fertilizers for their respective areas. With this, the country becomes self-dependent in the field of food production and people also develop economically. In this way, Panchayati Raj Institutions play an important role in the economic development of the people.

Question 7.
Which changes came in society due to different laws? Explain.
1. Change in the Status of Women. The social status of women has been improved due to these laws. Females had very limited right over their husband’s property but after the Hindu Succession Act of, 1956 they got equal right in husband’s property. Widows got the right to remarriage under the Widow Remarriage Act. They got the right to adopt any child. Dowry Prohibition Act was made. Some seats have been kept reserved for them in Panchayati Raj Institutions. That is why many changes came in the status of women due to these laws.

2. Change in the forms of Marriage. Many customs of marriage prevailed in Indian Society for ages, like polygamy, polygyny, polyandry, etc. By Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 polygamy was declared illegal. Monogamy was given legal sanction and court marriage was also given legal sanction.

3. Decline in obsolete Conventions. Many social evils prevailed in Indian society like Sati Pratha, Dowry, Child marriage, Untouchability, etc., Sati Pratha has been declared illegal through Sati Prohibition Act. This Pratha has been eliminated from society. Taking and giving dowry has been declared as a crime through Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 and 1986. Child marriage has been banned and the legal age of marriage has been fixed for boys and girls. Untouchability has also been eliminated through the Untouchability Offenses Act, 1955, and Civil Rights Protection, 1976.

4. Change in Inter-Caste Relations. Inter-caste relations have also been changed through social laws. Inter-caste marriages have been sanctioned through Hindu Marriage Act, 1955. The government is giving encouragement to such types of marriages. Untouchability has been declared illegal. That is why interaction between all the classes has increased and they are living with each other with peace and harmony.

5. Change in Rules of Marriage. Traditionally, Hindu marriage has been considered a religious sacrament. But due to certain laws, it has been changed into a social contract. Other rules related to marriage have also been changed. Inter-caste marriage has been sanctioned by law and the minimum age for the marriage has also been fixed.

Question 8.
What can be done to bring reforms in Panchayati Raj?
1. People of rural areas should know about their rights and duties to bring reforms in Panchayati Raj. If rural people become conscious about their rights then they will be able to participate in Gram Sabha which in turn will enable them to know about some of their other rights.

2. Another necessary step is that all the levels of Panchayati Raj should be given complete freedom so that they could be able to work for the development of their respective areas. The government should not interfere in their function so that they could work for their areas, without any fear.

3. Government should not keep unnecessary control over the functions of these institutions and on them as well. Control results in a decline of work and officials are unable to work in a proper way.

4. Government officials and members related to these institutions should be given training from governmental and non-governmental institutions so that they can work for the people. The advantage of this training should reach directly to the people so that they could use it on their agricultural land.

5. Officials working in these institutions should be given good salaries so that they work wholeheartedly for the development of the village and do not become corrupt.

6. There should be a good balance between all the three levels of Panchayati Raj so that they can develop in their respective areas in a proper way.

7. Gram Sabha should be made more powerful by giving more rights to it so that it can check the functioning of Panchayat and people’s participation could be increased.

8. Educated candidates should be appointed at those posts which are related to the institutions of Panchayati Raj so that they could be able to understand the problems of the villages.

9. These institutions should be given more grants by the state and central governments so that they can do their work without any problem of finance.

Question 9.
What are the advantages of Planned development?
1. Saving of time. Time can be saved if development is done with planning. It is quite possible that time and resources could be wasted in the absence of planning and we can move away from our objectives. With planning, we know of the fact that in a direction in which we have to work. It not only saves time but saves our resources as well.

2. Achievement of objective in less duration. Some objectives are always determined while making the plan of any work. Even planners fix the time to achieve those objectives. If no plan is made then they will keep on working without any direction and may get distracted from their objective. Therefore, objectives can be achieved in less duration only through planned development.

3. All-round Development. If the work is done in a planned way then all the sectors can develop in a better way. If the work is done without proper planning, then it may happen that one sector can develop completely and the other sector remains undeveloped. Therefore, planned work is necessary for the development of any sector. That is why the whole area is taken as a unit and all of its sectors are kept in mind.

4. Industrial Development. If industries of our country are required to be developed then proper planning is necessary. We need planning to establish any industry. Capital required to establish industry, the raw material to manufacture goods, labor to make goods, the arrangement of the market to sell goods, etc., needs a lot of planning. The industry cannot run in a proper way in the absence of planning. If more capital will be required, if more raw material will be required, if goods will not be sold then what will happen? These are some of the questions which require planning. Therefore, planned development can lead to the industrial growth of the country.

5. For Agricultural Development. Agricultural development also requires proper planning. Arrangement of good seeds, urea, to arrange for good technology, to increase and sell the produce, etc., needs a lot of planning. Non-planning of one sector may spoil
the entire work. Therefore, planned development is essential for the development of the agricultural sector as well.

6. Development of Lower Classes. The lower classes of our country have been exploited for ages. So proper planning was required to uplift their status. The plan was made and a reservation was kept for them in the Constitution. Five Year Plans have also done a lot for their welfare. Today, lower castes people are standing with higher castes people and their status has improved a lot. All this has happened due to proper planning.

Question 10.
In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?
What role do pressure groups play in Indian democracy? (C.B.S.E 2017, (D)
Pressure groups are organized and unorganized groups that try to influence governmental policies and promote their interests. Movements also try to influence politics but they both did not take part in direct elections. They both try to influence politics in one way or the other. They affect politics in the following ways:

  1. These pressure groups and movements start to campaign on any particular issue so that public support could be gained. Both of them take the help of mass media so that more public attention could be given to them.
  2. They generally call for a strike, march, or protest and try to disrupt the governmental programs. They often call for strikes and dharnas to raise their voice. Most of the federations and unions used to take this route to influence governmental policies.
  3. Generally, business groups form a lobby of the people with common objectives so that the government could be pressurized to change its policies.

Question 11.
Describe the forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties.
Generally, pressure groups are those groups of people who try to influence governmental policies. They make their aims and try to achieve those aims by exerting pressure on the government. Their main aim is to influence governmental policies. Generally, the members of these groups are those people who have some of their common interests, goals, aims, etc. They never try to contest the elections but form their own ideology. The forms of relationship between pressure groups and political parties are given below:

  1. In many cases, these pressure groups are formed or led by political parties. These pressure groups act as extended arms of those political parties. For example, labor unions formed by different political parties.
  2. Many a time, movements give birth to political parties. If the struggle of aims becomes too long then at times, it takes the form of a political party. For example, the roots of DMK and AIADMK can be seen from the movements.
  3. Generally, political parties and interest groups stand against or in front of each other. Their relations are not direct but dialogue and negotiations are there. Their views and ideas are usually opposite to each other.

Question 12.
Explain how the activities of pressure groups are useful in the functioning of a democratic government.
Is the influence of pressure groups and movements healthy for democracy? Comment.
A pressure group is a group of people which tries to achieve its aims by influencing governmental policies. People with common aims, occupations, etc., form these groups. At the start, it seems that these pressure groups are not good for democracy because they try to influence the governmental policies to achieve the aims of one particular group. In a democracy, the government has to take care of the interests of all sections of society. Another factor against it is that these groups are trying to get powers but without taking any responsibility.

Like political parties, these groups are not bound to face the people in elections and are not accountable to anyone. They do not get any support or money from the masses. Many a time, due to their wealth, but little public support, they try to gain public sympathy in favor of their narrow agenda.

But on the other hand, pressure groups and movements are very much necessary for democracy. If everyone in the country is getting equal opportunity then it is not unhealthy for society. Generally, the government comes under pressure from these rich and influential people. Movements and public interest groups can play a useful role to reduce this undue control and they can tell the government about the needs of the ordinary people from time to time.

Every pressure group and interest group is generally associated with a political party. These groups help the political parties wholeheartedly at the time of elections so that their objectives could be achieved after elections.

Whenever any bill is introduced in Parliament then that bill is sent to permanent committees of the Parliament so that they could study the merits and drawbacks of that bill. These pressure groups influence the members of these committees so that the main features of this bill could be changed according to their interests.

Even different sectional interest groups can play an important role in it. If any interest group tries to influence the government to achieve its aims, then another interest group can also counterattack on the first group and can create hurdles in the desires of the first group. From this, the government can come to know about the needs of the people and can accommodate all of them with conflicting interests.

Question 13.
What is the difference between a pressure group and a political party?
A pressure group can be an organized and unorganized group that tries to influence governmental policies and tries to promote its interests. They have some of their aims and they try to achieve those aims by exerting pressure on the government. Generally, the members of these groups are those people who have some of their common interests. They try to control the power with their influence.

But the political party is an organized body that tries to attain the political power of the country by contesting direct elections and by winning the majority. Members of one political party have their common goals and a common ideology.

The main difference between pressure groups and political parties is that pressure groups never try to contest the elections but they want to control the powers indirectly. On the other hand, the political party directly contests the elections to take power into its hands. A pressure group can be organized as well as unorganized but a political party is always an organized group.

Question 14.
What is Democracy? Explain its characteristics, merits, and demerits.
Democracy is a form of government in which the people are supposed to govern. In it, the representatives of the people are elected by the voters on the basis of a universal adult franchise. It believes in the concepts like liberty, equality, and fraternity and these are its functional bases. In it, there should be maximum scope for the individual and collective development of society and personality. It has the following characteristics:

  1. Rule of the people. Administration in a democracy is directly or indirectly run by the people and every decision in a democracy is taken by the majority.
  2. The interest of the people. In a democracy, the administration is run in the interest of the people, and the interest of the weaker sections are properly taken care of by the government.
  3. Principle of Equality. The basic principle of democracy is the principle of equality. In a democracy, every person is considered equal. No discrimination is done on the basis of birth, education, wealth, etc. All the citizens are given equal political rights. Every person has been given the right to vote through the universal adult franchise.
  4. Rule of Majority. Democracy is the rule of the majority. Every decision in a democracy is taken by the majority. That party forms the government which gets a majority in elections.

Merits of Democracy-Democracy, in modern times, is considered as the best rule. That is why most of the countries have adopted this concept of democracy. It has certain merits which are given below:
1. It is based on public opinion. Democracy is that system of rule which is based on public opinion and the rule is being run according to the wishes of the people. No importance is given to public opinion in a monarchy and dictatorship and laws are also formed according to public opinion.

2. It is based on the principle of equality. All humans in a democracy are considered equal. No one gets special privileges on the basis of birth, caste, religion, sex, and wealth. General masses are given the right to take part in the decision-making process. All are considered equal.

3. Responsible government. Governments in monarchy and dictatorship are not responsive to anyone but the government in a democracy is responsive to people and the Parliament. Government has to work according to public opinion and cannot work against it as people can remove it from power in the next elections.

4.(iv) Strong and efficient government. The government in a democracy is strong and efficient. The administration is run by the representatives of the people who have the support of the public. Rulers are encouraged by the support of people with which they apply their decisions with full strength. Rulers are controlled by public opinion and they are responsive to the people for their decisions. In this way, it works in an efficient way.

Demerits of Democracy: After looking at the merits of democracy, it seems that this rule is the best but it is not so. This system also has certain demerits which are given below:
1. Principle of equality is unnatural. The main base of democracy is the principle of equality but critics say that equality is unnatural. Even nature has not kept equality among humans. Some are fools, some are wise, some are powerful and some are weak. If nature has kept this type of discrimination then how social, economic and political equality can be kept. This is the biggest demerit of equality that all are given equal rights.

2. Gives importance to quantity than quality. Quantity is given more importance than quality in democracy. In other words, every decision in a democracy is taken by the people. If 100 fools will say anything is right and 99 wises will say this is wrong then the decision of 100 fools will be considered. Representatives of the people are also elected by the majority. Every fool and wise has the right to vote and any wrong person can become the representative of the people.

3. It does not establish a responsive government. The government in a democracy is responsive to people but practically it is not. Leaders hardly care about the people after elections and come back to the public only at the time of the next elections. The majority party hardly cares about the opposition or minority parties.

4. Unstable and weak government. The government in a democracy is unstable and weak. Governments change frequently in a multi-party system. In the absence of a majority, many parties come together to make the government. This type of mixed government can be broken at any time. At the time of a problem, democratic governments prove to be weak. Decisions take a lot of time to be implemented.

Question 15.
What is meant by Political Party? Explain with definitions.
Political parties have come to stay in every form of government. Their role is very significant in democracies, as compared with every other form of government. The scholars have attempted definitions of a political party in their own way but each good political party is required to have certain features or characteristics. Similarly, each political party is expected to perform some basic functions without which it cannot maintain its existence. Efforts have also been made to classify political parties but without much success. There are different types of party systems and each type has its own advantages as well as disadvantages.

Political parties have become an essential feature of every form of government. Being a link between the government and the people, these have assumed great significance. There are ideologically strong political parties that observe strong discipline. Although entry into such parties is difficult, those who once join it do not wish to leave it. On the other hand, ideologically weak political parties also exist whose members are not well disciplined.

Members can leave the party at any time. Whereas in some cases it is easy to enter a political party and rise as well, the reverse is the case in other systems. In some countries, there is a single-party system. In it, only one party dominates, and no other political party is allowed to be formed, whereas in other societies, there is the multi-party system and in still others, there is a mushroom of political parties.

The strength and Weakness of a political party, however, depends on the active participation and strength of its members. Its legitimacy depends on the way by which it has come to power. In a democracy, its popularity and mass base is reflected by the number of votes polled at the time of elections.

Each political party consists of persons who have a common program on political issues to which they have agreed and are prepared to implement that on a common line of action. Each political party tries to seek political power either single-handedly or in cooperation with any other political party or parties.

  1. According to Burke, “It is a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavors the national interests upon some political principles in which they all are agreed.”
  2. According to Gilchrist, “It is an organized group of citizens who profess to share the same political views and who by acting as a political unit try to control the government.”
  3. According to Finer, “A political party is an organized body with voluntary membership its concerted energy being employed in the pursuit of political power.”
  4. According to G. C. Field, “A political party is nothing else but a voluntary association of people for the purpose of attaining political power.”
  5. According to Prof. Gettel,” A political party consists of a group of citizens more or less organized who act as a political unit and who by the use of their voting power aim to control the government and carry out their general policies.”

In this way on the basis of these definitions, we can say that a political party is an organized group that is tied with certain rules. Its membership is optional and can be attained or left at any time. It is the association of the people whose only aim is to obtain political power because of which they collectively make some efforts. Views of its members are common because they all belong to one party.

Question 16.
Explain certain features of the political party.
1. In a democracy, every political party wants to create its own identity among other political parties of the country.

2. Since the Political interests and views of the members differ, therefore, policies and programs of each political party also differ. Each party separates itself from the other on the basis of its political program. The aim of each political party is to capture the power and if already in power, to retain it.

3. A political party should be well organized and its members should gladly accept the codes of conduct of the party. The members should keep party discipline above everything else.

4. Another characteristic of a political party is that its members should believe in some common program to which they have already agreed. They uphold the soundness of that at every stage.

5. It should have continuity in its activities and programs. It should organize itself on the basis of some programs because if the charisma of the leader is the basis of a party then it cannot remain in existence for long. It will end as soon as the charisma of the leader fades away.

6. The members of a good party should be agreeable on some common line of action for the implementation of their agreed programs. If that is not the case, then conflicts are bound to arise which can lead to its disintegration.

7. It should be prepared to shoulder responsibilities and should not be satisfied by having been in the opposition or by criticizing the party in power. It should be prepared to form the government either on its own or in coalition with other like-minded political parties. Not only this but it should use all legal means to capture the power and by all means try to convince the electorates that its programs are not only mere theories but if given a chance, these can be put into practice as well.

8. A political party should try to have the mass base or popular support because without that the electorates will never return it to power and it shall not be in a position to implement its political programs.

9. It should try to protect national over regional or local interests and for this purpose, it should try to get the support of citizens and not involve the foreigners or those who are anti-national. It is, however, left to each political party to identify the areas of national interest and fix its priorities.

10. It should always have faith in constitutional means a political party that beliefs in extra-constitutional means will never be allowed to function in any form of government and its activities will immediately be banned.

Question 17.
Explain different functions of political parties.
1. Formation of Public Opinion. The electorates usually cannot have the same opinion. These may have constructive individual opinions that are of no use to the nation. It is the function of the political parties to consolidate public opinion and give that a constructive shape. If political parties do not come to the front there will be a multitude of opinions without any channels of expression. It is only through the change of these parties that multitudes of these ideas are molded, formulated, and given a definite and clear shape.

2. To Impart Political Education. The people are usually busy and have no resources to get proper political education. With ever-growing economic needs, the people are forced to devote much of their time and attention to solve their economic problems. It is only at the time of elections that the political parties organize vast and large-scale meetings, seminars, etc., by which the people get very much politically educated. They come to know about the various aspects of the problems facing the nation only through political parties.

3. Link between the Elected and Electorates. Political parties act as a link between the elected and the electorates. Without these parties, the elected have no methods of knowing the feeling of the electorates. Similarly, the electorates have no method to tell their grievances to the elected without this channel. The members of political parties always remain in close touch with the electorates, know their feelings, ideas, views, and opinions, and convey them on to their party leaders. Thus, they are a useful link between the elected and electorate.

4. Help in the Selection of Candidates. Political parties help in the selection of candidates at the time of general elections. The voters personally do not know the candidates and their views and ideas about political problems. Without them, it would have been rather impossible to select suitable candidates. It is through these parties that the candidates can most conveniently be selected. A candidate is known by the label of this political party. In fact, he is not voted for his individual views but for the views of his political party. He is responsible to the political party for all his deeds and misdeeds.

5. Help in Redressing the Grievances of the People. Each political party helps in getting the grievances of the people redressed. Parties try their best to see that the people do not feel very much hard-pressed about their problems. They also see that through their agency, the difficulties are redressed so that all credit goes to them. More particularly, the political party in power is very much careful about this. It knows completely well that even a little slackness on its part can result in the dissatisfaction of people who may not vote for them at the time of the next general elections, thereby unseating it from power and authority.

Similarly, parties in opposition are also careful in this regard. They are well aware that active work on their part can bring satisfaction to the people who will vote for them at the time of general elections and thus can bring them in power and authority.

6. These are responsive to Public Opinion. Political parties make the party in power responsive to public opinion. The party clearly knows that it must respect the sentiments of the public and its wishes if it is to enjoy the confidence of the masses. Any failure in this regard can result in serious troubles and consequences.