Here we are providing Class 12 Sociology Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 5 Change and Development in Industrial Society. Sociology Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 5 Important Extra Questions Change and Development in Industrial Society
Change and Development in Industrial Society Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is meant by unorganised or informal sector?
People in an unorganised or informal sector do not enjoy most of the benefits as given to the employs of the public sector such as permanent employment, fixed wages, recreational benefits, gravity, medical benefits, etc. Around 90% of the Indian population is engaged in the unorganised sector.
What is meant by small scale industry?
Government has defined small scale industry according to the investment of capital made in it. These days, that industry is known as small scale industries in which capital of up to Rs. 1 crore is invested. This limit was Rs. 5 Lakh in 1950.
How small scale industries are encouraged by the Government?
- Small scale industries are given loans on less rate of interest and on easy instalments.
- Things produced by these industries are kept in a tax-free zone.
- Focal points in different cities are established to develop small scale industries.
What is meant by the condition of alienation in the industrial sector?
According to Marx, what is alienation or alienated labour? (C.B.S.E. 2010, 2013)
Industrialisation involves a detailed division of labour. People often do not see the end result of their work because they are producing only one small part of a product. The work is often repetitive and exhausting. Yet, even this is better than being unemployed. Marx called this situation alienation, when people do not enjoy work, and see it as something they have to do only in order to survive, and even that survival depends upon whether the technology has room for any human labour.
What was the impact of industrialisation on mutual relations?
People left their families in villages and move towards cities to work in industries. After settling there and after they got a job, they called their families and settled in big towns and cities permanently. It leads to the disintegration of joint families and nuclear or small families came up.
On which assumption, the policy of protection is based?
There is one assumption that local goods would not be able to compete with foreign goods. That is why protection should be given to local industries so that they could compete with foreign-made goods. Thus, they are protected and the policy of protection is based on this assumption.
What is meant by disinvestment?
There are certain public sector undertakings in a mixed economy which are under the direct control of the government. When the government sells its equity of public enterprise to any private industry, then, it is known as disinvestment. For example, NALCO, IPCL, VSNL, etc.
What is meant by Labour Union?
When all the labourers of any industry or factory come together and form a union or organisation to protect their interests then this union is known as a labour union. All the labourers working in the industry are its members.
What is meant by outsourcing service?
When any multinational company gives some of its work to smaller companies of developing countries so that it could be done at cheaper rates then it is known as outsourcing service. Many multi-national companies are outsourcing their work to smaller Indian companies.
Differentiate between Strike and a Lockout. (C.B.S.E. 2010)
In response to harsh working conditions, sometimes workers use a method against mill owners which is known as strike so that their demands could be met. But lockout is a method used by management against the strike in which they shut the gate and prevents workers from coming in the factory.
Write a note on the home-based industry with suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2010, 2013)
The home-based industry is an important part of the economy. This work is mainly done by women and children. Homeworkers are paid on a piece-rate basis, depending on the number of pieces they make. We can take the example of carpets, zari or brocade, bidis, Agarbatis etc.
How did the planters live? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
- The planters are in huge bungalows, set on sturdy wooden stills to save and guard the inmates against wild animals. They lived in luxury and comforts.
- A number of bars his, malis and bearers were trained by the planters to serve them to perfection.
In an industrial set-up, how can a manager make the workers produce more? (C.B.S.E. 2017 (O.D.))
There are two ways of making workers produce more:
- To extend the working hours
- To increase the amount that is produced within a given time period
How does industrialisation lead to de-industrialisation? (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D))
Industrialization led to de-industrialisation in India
- Industrialisation leads to setting up of factories in Britain – the emergence of machine production.
- De-industrialisation – unlike Britain, traditional manufacture and export declined in India and people turned to agriculture.
Change and Development in Industrial Society Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What are the impacts of industrialisation on society?
- Division of labour. Division of labour occurred due to industrialisation by which things were produced in stages. Every person does a different type of works.
- Development of means of transport. Means of transport were developed due to this. These means were developed to bring raw material and to take a furnished product to the market.
- Increase in production. Production reached factories from homes because of the use of machinery. Machines are producing finished products very quickly with which production increases.
- The decline of the Caste system. People in industries work with each other which faded away from the caste system.
Explain the phase of industrialisation during the early years of India’s Independence.
First modem industries of India were cotton, jute, coal mines and railway. After Independence, the government stressed on the progress of the economy. Defence, transport and communication, power, mining and other projects were under the control of the government while others were open to private sectors. The government in its mixed economic policy tries to determine through licensing policy that industries should develop in different regions. After Independence, places like Baroda, Bangalore, Coimbatore, Pune, Rajkot and Faridabad became important industrial centres. The government also tried to encourage small scale industries through special assistance and incentives. Many items like stationery, paper and wood products, glass and ceramics were reserved for the small scale sector. In 1991, 72% of people were employed in small scale and the traditional industry as compared to 28% in large scale industries.
What were the changes that came in Indian industries due to globalisation and liberalisation?
Discuss the changes that have emerged in Indian industries after globalisation and liberalisation. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (O.D.))
- Indian industries were made open for foreign investment and foreign companies started to undertake Indian industries.
- Foreign-made goods were now easily available on Indian shops which were not available earlier.
- The government started to disinvest public sector companies by selling them to private companies. Private owners started to scrutinise and retrenching government officials.
- Most of the companies started to scrutinise their permanent workers and outsourced their work to smaller companies at cheaper rates.
What is Taylorism or Industrial Engineering?
In this system, all work was broken down into the smallest repetitive elements and divided between workers. Workers had to complete work in the fixed time limit. A stopwatch was also used for this purpose. Production was further speeded up by the introduction of the assembly line. Each worker sat along a conveyor belt and assembled only one part of the final product. The speed of the work could be set by adjusting the speed of the conveyor belt. In the 1980s, attempts were made to shift from this system of direct control to indirect control, where workers were supposed to monitor and motivate themselves. But, generally, we find the old Taylorist processes survive.
What is the negative impact of industrialisation on labourers?
Highlight the condition of migrant workers in industries by giving suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
- Very few people are given work in more mechanised industries. Whatever the number of people works in it, have to work like machines which alienate them from their work.
- Very less time for rest is given to workers during their working hours. That is why they become frustrated when they reach the age of 40 and take voluntary retirement.
- Companies outsource their work to smaller companies. This brings forward the situation of alienation when the workers are involved in monotonous and exhausting jobs.
- Late supply leads to late production. It creates problems among workers and management.
Explain the division of Indian industries.
According to the Indian Industrial Policy 1956, Indian industries are divided into three following categories:
- Primary Category: Industries related to defence, railway, post, production and control of nuclear power falls under this category. Central government regulate and control them.
- Secondary Category: 12 industries like machines tools, pharmaceuticals, rubber, water transport, fertiliser, road transport, etc. were kept in this category. Government has more share in these.
- Tertiary Category: All those industries were included in it which were kept for the private sector. Although, the private sector develops these industries the government can also establish them.
How labourers are exploited in mines?
What are some of the problems faced by the mineworkers? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
- Rules are not followed in smaller mines and quarries. Labourers are kept under a contractual system and are not given proper wages.
- Many contractors do not maintain proper registers of workers, thus, avoiding any responsibility for accidents and benefits.
- Labours have to work under the earth in mines because of which labourers have to face many breathing problems.
- The rate of mining accidents in India is higher but labourers are hardly compensated.
The more mechanised and industry gets, the fewer people are employed. Explain by giving a suitable example. (C.B.S.E. 2012)
The more mechanised and industry gets, the fewer people are employed, but these people too have to work at the pace of the machine. For example, in Maruti Udyog Ltd. two cars roll off the assembly line every minute. Workers get only 45 minutes rest in the entire day – two tea breaks of 7.5 minutes each and one lunch break of half an hour. Most of them are exhausted by the age of .40 and take voluntary retirement. While production has gone up, the number of permanent jobs in the factory has gone down. The firm has outsourced all services like cleaning and security, as well as the manufacture of parts. The parts suppliers are located around the factory and send the parts every two hours or just-in-time. Outsourcing and just in time keep cost low for the company, but the workers are very tense because if the suppliers fail to arrive, their production targets get delayed and when they do arrive they have to run to keep up. No wonder they get exhausted.
Explain the circulation of labourers. (C.B.S.E. 2015)
- Seasonal agricultural labourers are in great demand in prosperous agricultural regions.
- Higher wages in prosperous agricultural regions attract labour from less developed regions.
- Migrant labourers mainly are from drought-prone areas – “footloose labour” (cheapest and easily exploited).
- The local labourers move out to big towns.
- There is the feminisation of agricultural force.
Discuss the changes that the Trade Unions bring out in the lives of workers. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D))
Trade union play an important role in the welfare of workers:
- In some cases, trade unions have been striving to overcome problems such as regionalism and casteism.
- Trade unions take up a number of issues pertaining to workers such as better wages, working conditions etc.
- It can also help to break strikes/lockouts.
- A forum to bring workers together.
- Act as a pressure group to make Govt, note their demands. Helps in resolving medical and accident claims/issues.
Change and Development in Industrial Society Important Extra Questions Essay Answer Type
Read the given accounts of the 1982 strike, held at Bombay, answer the questions given below.
Jayprakash Bhilare, ex-millworker, General Secretary of the Maharashtra Girni Kamgar Union: Textile workers were getting only their basic wage and DA, and no other allowance. We were getting only five days of Casual Leave. Other workers in other industries had started getting allowances for travelling, health benefits etc. and 10-12 days Casual Leave. This agitated the textile workers… On 22 October 1981, the workers of Standard Mills marched to the house of Dr Datta Samant to ask him to lead them. At first, Samant declined, saying the industry was covered by the BIRA and he did not know enough of the textile industry. These workers were in no mood to take no for an answer. They kept a night-long vigil outside his home and in the morning Samant finally relented.
Lakshmi Bhatkar, a participant in the strike: I supported the strike. We would sit outside the gate every day and discuss what was to be done. We would go for the morchas that were organised from time to time the morchas were huge – we never looted or hurt anybody. I was asked to speak sometimes but I was not able to make speeches. My legs would shake too much! Besides I was afraid of my children- what would they say? They would think here we are starving at home and she has her face painted in the newspapers There was a morcha to Century Mills showroom once. We were arrested and taken to Borivali. I was thinking about my children. I could not eat. I thought to myself that we are not criminals, we were mill workers. Fighting for the wages of our blood.
Kisan Salunke, ex-millworker, Spring Mills: Century Mills was opened by the RMMS barely a month-and-half after the strike began. They could do this because they had the full backing of the state and the government. They brought outsiders into the mill and they kept them inside without letting them out at all Bhonsle (Chief Minister of Maharashtra then) offered a 30-rupee raise. Datta Samant called a meeting to discuss this. All the leading activists were there. We said, ‘No, we don’t want this. If there is no dignity, if there is no discussion with the strike leaders, we will not be able to go back to work without any harassment.”
Datta Walker, President of the Mill Chawls Tenant Association: The Congress brought all the goondas out of jail to break the strike like Babu Reshim, Rama Naik and Arun Gawli. They started to threaten the workers. We had no alternative but to beat up strikebreakers. It was a matter of life and death for us.
Bhai Bhonsle, General Secretary of the RMMS during 1982 strike: We started getting people to work in the mills after three months of the strike Our point was, if people want to go to work let them, in fact, they should be helped About the mafia gangs being involved, I was responsible for that These Datta Samant people would wait at convenient locations and lie in wait for those going to work. We set up counter groups in Parel and other places. Naturally, there were some clashes, some bloodshed
When Rama Naik died, Bhujbal who was Mayor then had come in his official car to pay his respects. These forces were used at one time or other by many people in politics.
Kisan Salunke, ex-millworker: Those were very difficult times. We had to sell all our vessels. We were ashamed to go to the market with our vessels so we would wrap them in gunny bags and take them to the shop to sell… There were days when I had nothing to eat, only water. We bought sawdust and burnt if for fuel. I have three sons. Sometimes when the children had no milk to drink, I could not bear to see them hungry. I would take my umbrella and go out of the house.
Sindu Mariane, ex-millworker: The RMMS and goondas came to me too, to force me back to work. But I refused to go There were rumours going around as to what happened to women who went to stay and work in the mills. There were incidents of rape.
After reading these accounts of the 1982 strike answer the questions given below.
1. Describe the 1982 textile strike from the different perspectives of those involved.
Labourers of a Cloth Mill did strike in 1982 by taking up the issues of pay, bonus, holidays, etc. According to Jay Prakash Bhilare, the mill workers got their basic wages and DA but no other benefits related to health and travelling, Lakshmi Bhatkar was fighting for wages, Kisan Salunke was fighting for the dignity of mill workers, and for Datta Walker, it was a matter for life and death.
2. Why did the workers go on strike?
Workers of Mill were on strike on the demand of pay, dearness allowance, other resources and perks.
3. How did Datta Samant take up the leadership of the strike?
When labourers stressed a lot then Datta Samant took up the leadership of the
4. What was the role played by strike-breakers?
Strike-breakers played a great role in it. They had the support of government and the state and they forcibly opened the mill.
5. How did the mafia get a foothold in these areas?
The government freed many goondas of mafia from jail like Baba Rashim, Rama Nayak and Arun Gavi. All of these pressurised the others and made their foothold at these areas.
6. Who were women affected and what were their concerns during the strike?
Women were disrespected, they were sent to jail for taking out a procession. The main objective of women was to earn bread respectfully by doing labour.
7. How did workers and their families survive the period of a strike?
The period of the strike was very difficult. During this period, they sold utensils of houses, sold other things so that their families could survive.
Read the following extract taken from the book and answer the given questions:
Gandhi on Machinery, in Hind Swaraj 1924: “What I object to is the craze for machinery, not machinery as such. The craze is for what they call labour-saving machinery. Men go on ‘saving labour’ till thousands are without work and thrown on the open streets to die of starvation. I want to save time and labour, not for a fraction of mankind, but for all. I want the concentration of wealth, not in the hands of the few, but in the hands of all.”1934: “When as a nation we adopt the spinning-wheel, we not only solve the question of unemployment but we declare that we have no intention of exploiting any nation, and we also end the exploitation of the poor by the rich.”
(i) Give an example of how machinery creates a problem for workers.
It is a fact that machinery creates a problem for workers. We can take the example of a cottage industry of earlier times in which a number of family members were required to make a piece of cloth. Even then it required a lot of time to make a small piece of cloth. But when machines were invented then machines started to make cloth with great speed, in less time and with less cost. In this way work of cottage industry went over to machines of a textile mill and thousands of workers had to change their occupations.
(ii) What alternative did Gandhi have in mind?
Mahatma Gandhi was against the use of machines. He was of the view that labour oriented modern industries should be set up in India.
(iii) How does adopting the spinning wheel prevent exploitation?
If we will adopt the spinning wheel then everyone can spin cotton. We can weave cloth for our personal requirements. We can also spin cloth for the market. If everyone will adopt the spinning wheel then the production of the mechanical industry will be of no use. Everyone will get work at home and no one will be able to exploit others.
Question 3. Give the main features of Liberalisation.
Explain the economic policy of Liberalisation. (C.B.S.E. 2010)
New economic policy was implemented in India in 1991. Liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation were the main features of this policy. Process of liberalisation was started at the end of the 20th century. In India, liberalisation is an ongoing process from three decades but its policies and speed keep on changing due to change of government. Main aspects and features of liberalisation are given below:
- Making industries free from the licencing system so that more and more people could develop industries by investing their money.
- Reducing unnecessary restrictions on industries so that no one should hesitate while establishing any industry and industries could be developed very quickly.
- To encourage foreign direct investment so that more and more foreign capital and industries could come to India.
- Not keeping restriction on the production of anything so that no company should keep its monopoly over any product and prices of commodities should remain within reach.
- Giving permission to produce things according to the ability of industry and demand of the market.
- Making industries free of clutches of bureaucracy because it creates many obstacles in their way. The industry would develop quickly without any obstacles.
- To reduce government control over the economy so that people should come forward to establish an industry.
- Reduction of customs duty so that export and import could be encouraged. Increase in import will check price rise and increase in export will develop the internal business of the country.
- To lift unnecessary restriction from export-import of things and services so that business could be encouraged.
- Changing public enterprises into private enterprises because there is a lot of governmental control on public enterprises and they have less profit-making ability. But when this enterprise will go in private hands then its profit-making ability will increase. Private sector always takes care of earning more profit.
What was the impact of Globalisation on Indian Economy?
Economic reforms in India were started in 1991 and the process of globalisation and Indian economy was encouraged. Effects of globalisation on different sectors of the Indian economy are given below:
1. Increase of Indian share in world export. With the process of globalisation,
the Indian share in world export has been increased. Indian goods and services, in the decade of 1990-2000, has been increased by 125%. In 1990, Indian share in the world’s export of goods and services was 0.55% which was increased up to 0.75% by 1999.
2. Foreign investment in India. Foreign direct investment is an important feature of globalisation because foreign investment increases the capacity of production of any economy. Foreign investment in India is continuously increasing. From 1995-96 to 2000¬01, it has been increased by 53% and during this time 500 crores have been invested in India annually.
3. Foreign Exchange Reserves. Foreign exchange is necessary for import. In June 1991, foreign exchange reserves in India was 1 Billion Dollars which was enough only to fulfil the needs of only two weeks of the country. After this, India adopted new economic policies, globalisation and liberalisation were encouraged because of which foreign exchange reserve was increased very quickly. Now, the foreign exchange reserve in nearly 350 Billion Dollars.
4. Growth of Gross Domestic Product. Because of globalisation, the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country has been increased. In 1980, it was 5.63% which was increased to 5.80% in 1990. Now, it is around 7%.
5. Increase in unemployment. Because of globalisation unemployment in India has been increased. During the decade of 1990-2000, the economic problem came in Mexico, South Korea, Thailand, Singapur, Indonesia, Malaysia and it was because of globalisation. That is why millions of people lost their jobs and they had to live below the poverty line. At the start of the 1990’s decade, the rate of unemployment was 6% which was increased up to 7% by 2000.
6. Impact on Agriculture. The share of agriculture and its related activities in the Gross Domestic Product of the country is 29%. But it is 2% in the U.S.A., 55% in Japan and France. If we look at the labour force then India’s 69% labour force is related to agricultural functions but the labour force in the agriculture sector in the U.S.A. and the U.K. is only 2.6%. In the near future, it is necessary for India to open its market for world companies in the agricultural sector which is in agreement with W.T.O. This time will be a challenging one for India.
7. Educational and technical development. Globalisation and liberalisation have put a great effect on the education and technology sector which has brought about a revolution. The world has been shrunk due to means of transport and communication. Internet and computer brought many changes.
8. Change in the form of classes. Globalisation has changed the form of different classes. In the 20th century only three main classes, i.e., higher class, middle class and lower class were there but now the number of classes has been increased.
9. Privatisation. One of the good effects of globalisation can be seen in the form of privatisation. Many Public Sector Undertakings (P.S.U.’s) like V.S.N.L., I.P.C.L., NALCO are now in the hands of private parties because of which they are earning more profits.
10. Development of industries. Foreign direct investment is very helpful in achieving a higher rate of economic development. It gives not the only advantage to industries but consumers are getting products of better quality and better technology. It gives motivation to Indian industries to compete with foreign companies in the international market.
Thus, the process of globalisation is very good in bringing social change and giving good quality products to consumers.
Throw light on the role of a labour union in India and discuss any longest strike of Indian industry.
What were the demands of workers in the Bombay textile strike of 1992? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
Many labour unions work in our country for the interests of labourers but many labour unions are facing problems of regionalism and casteism. Many a time, workers go for a strike due to improper working conditions. They do not go to work, in case of a lockout, owners shut the gate and prevent workers from coming. To call a strike is a difficult decision as managers may try to use substitute labour. Workers also find it hard to sustain themselves without wages.
Here, we can discuss one famous strike, the Bombay Textile strike of 1982.
Dr Datta Samant led this strike who was the leader of a trade union. It affected around a quartet of a million workers and their families. This strike lasted for around two years. The demand of the workers was the right to form their union and they wanted better wages. According to the Bombay Industrial Relations Act, a union had to be approved if it has gone up the idea of strikes. The Congress-led Rashtriya Mill Mazdoor Sangh (RMMS) was the only approved union and it helped in breaking the strike as it brought workers from outside. The Government hardly listened to the demands of workers. Gradually, after two years, people started going back to work as they were desperate. Around one lakh workers lost their jobs. They either went back to their villages or took up casual labour. Some of them moved to smaller towns like Malegaon, Bhiwandi and Icchalkaranji, to work in the power loom sector.