Here we are providing Class 12 Sociology Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 6 Globalisation and Social Change. Sociology Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 6 Important Extra Questions Globalisation and Social Change
Globalisation and Social Change Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is meant by World Trade Organisation?
World Trade Organisation is an international organization which was established by member states of the United Nation in 1955. This organization regulates international trade and services through different laws, rules and policies. Its headquarter is in Geneva.
What is meant by the Synthesis of Culture?
This is the age of globalization in which the living style of the people across the globe is the same. Due to this product of their consumption are also the same. This is known as a synthesis of culture.
What is meant by a Globalised village?
Transnational companies, these days, are establishing different companies in different countries to increase their trade and relations. It has changed the world into a global village. It has been given the name of the globalized village, as the world is now just like a village.
What are the views of people about Globalisation?
There are two types of views of the people about globalization. Some are of the view that the world will be changed into*a better world through globalization. But some people are of the view that it provides profit to the rich people and the condition of the poor will deteriorate further.
What is the impact of globalization on the social sector?
Globalization has greatly affected social relations and religious identity. It has greatly affected fashion, eating habits, nature of consumption, and the living styles of the people. Now everything in one part of the world is available in another part of the world.
What is meant by the culture of consumption?
These days, the culture of consumption is increasing in the world due to globalization. Today’s modern society is the society of consumption and everyone consumes the same type of things. This culture of consuming society is known as the culture of consumption.
What is meant by the policy of Liberalisation? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Removal of unnecessary restrictions of a controlled economy is known as liberalization. Removal of unnecessary restrictions from industries and trade is liberalization so that the economy can become more competitive, progressive and open. It is an economic process in society.
What is meant by Economic Reforms?
The steps or reforms taken for the liberalization of the economy is known as economic reforms. These reforms occurred in all the major sectors of the Indian economy.
What are Transnational Companies?
State the features of transnational corporations. (C.B.S.E. 2015)
Transnational companies are companies that produce goods or market services in more than one country. These may be relatively small firms with one or two factories or could be huge international ones whose operation criss-cross the globe.
Give two assumptions of Globalisation.
(i) Opening up of the country’s economy for foreign trade because it permits free trade among different countries.
(ii) Custom duty is reduced to such an extent so that foreign-made foods are not costlier than local goods.
What is Corporate Culture? (C.B.S.E. 2010, 2011)
Corporate culture is a branch of management theory that seeks to increase productivity and competitiveness through the creation of a unique organizational culture involving all members of a firm.
What is meant by the globalization of finance? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
Globalization of finance has been made possible due to the information technology revolution. Globally integrated financial markets undertake billions of dollars worth of transactions within seconds in the electronic circuits.
What was the significance of the Silk Route? (C.B.S.E. 2010)
Centuries ago, Silk Routes connected India to the great civilisations which existed in China, Persia, Egypt, and Rome. With the help of these routes, people from different parts came here, sometimes as traders, conquerors, migrants, etc. These routes helped in the trade between different countries.
Name any two INGO’s. (C.B.S.E. 2012, 2013)
Give examples of INGO’s. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D))
Some of the best known INGO’s are Greenpeace, The Red Cross, and Amnesty International Medecins Sans Frontiers, etc.
Mention any two adverse impacts of liberalization. (C.B.S.E. 2015)
- Small and local industry/manufacturers exposed to MNCs and could not compete.
- Some sectors like automobiles and electronics did not benefit from the policy of liberalization as they cannot compete with foreign products.
Differentiate between Fordism and Post-Fordism. (C.B.S.E. 2015)
The meaning of Fordism is the mass production of goods at a centralized location and is popularized by Henry Ford. Whereas the meaning of post-Fordism is a system of flexible production at dispersed locations.
In what way advertisement in technology led to revolutionary changes in global communities. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D))
The scope of the answer to WHAT is asked in the question is VERY LARGE. The question requires a connection between “advertisement in technology” LEADING TO” revolutionary changes “IN” global communities”.
How were silk spinners and twisters of Bihar affected by globalization? (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D))
Affect of globalization on silk spinners and twisters of Bihar
- Lost their jobs because of Chinese / Korean silk yarn that entered the market.
- Preference of the Chinese / Korean silk yarn, as it is somewhat cheaper and has a shine.
Globalisation and Social Change Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What is meant by Liberalisation?
Explain the economic policy of Liberalisation. (C.B.S.E. 2012)
Removing of unnecessary restrictions of the controlled economy is known as liberalisation. Removing of unnecessary restrictions from trade and industries, so that the economy can become more competitive, progressive and open, is called liberalisation. It is a process in which different countries of the world are motivated to provide such facilities with which free trade could develop among them. One of its main objectives is to reach the objective of a better international economic relation. This policy increases the working capacity of the economy and private companies have the ability to give better results than public enterprises.
Explain the process of Globalisation. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Globalisation is that process in which the economy of one country is attached with economies of other countries. The unrestricted exchange of goods, services, capital and labour of one country with another country is known as globalisation. There is an open and free exchange of trade between different countries. In this way, the unification of world economies is called globalisation. The world has become a village due to globalisation.
How electronic economy underpins economic globalisation?
The electronic economy is one of the major factors which underpins economic globalisation. Banks, corporations, fund managers and individual investors just click the mouse to transfer funds internationally or anywhere in the world. Yet, this quick move of electronic money has certain risks as well. In India, this is generally discussed with reference to rising share markets and also quick dips because of foreign investors buying stocks, making a profit and then selling them off. This type of transaction can happen only because of the communication revolution.
What is the relation of globalisation with employment?
One of the major issues of globalisation and labour is the relationship between employment and globalisation. Here we can see the impact of globalisation. Globalisation and IT revolution have opened up new career opportunities for the middle-class youth of urban areas. They are learning computer languages at computer institutes rather than routinely picking up B.Sc. / B.A. / B.Com degree from college and are taking up jobs at call centres or at BPO companies. They are also working as a salesperson in shopping malls and are working at different restaurants that have opened up. But many times, globalisation becomes one of the reasons for the loss of employment of people of lower classes.
What do you know about Trans-national companies?
Write two features of Transnational Corporations. (C.B.S.E. 2011, 2012)
Write about the features of transnational corporations. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Transnational companies are those companies which produce goods or market services in more than one country. TNC’s could be small firms with one or two factories outside their native countries or could be gigantic international ones which operate across the globe. Coca-Cola, General Motors, Pepsi, Colgate, Palmolive, Kodak, Mitsubishi and a number of others are some of the examples of multi-national companies. They are oriented global markets and take in global profits even if they have a clear national base. Some Indian corporations like Tata, Infosys, Reliance, etc. are also becoming transnational.
Why is the number of cellphones continually increasing in India?
Cellphones in India were started in 1995. At that time, mobile service was quite costly and it was not possible for everyone to buy this service. But gradually, this service became cheap. Later on, new mobile service providers came into the market and as a result, the competition started between them. The Telecom department has made a regulatory authority called TRAI which has kept control over these companies. First of all, incoming calls became free and later on, outgoing calls became quite cheap. Now the customer is required to pay only 1 paisa per second on outgoing calls. The monthly rental has reduced a lot. Mobile companies are giving new interesting schemes so that the customers are satisfied. That is why now everyone has a mobile. Even rickshaw puller have mobiles. This is the reason because of which cellphones are continuously increasing in India.
Differentiate between Fordism and Post-Fordism. (C.B.S.E. 201S, 2015)
Fordism-It is a system of production, made popular by the American industrialist in the early part of the 20th century. He popularized the assembly line method of mass production of cars. This age also led to the payment of better wages to workers and social welfare policies were being executed by both the state and industrialists.
Post-Fordism-It refers to the method of flexible production adopted by multinational companies who either off-shore their production units or outsource the whole process of production and distribution it to the third world countries because of availability of cheap labour. This period is also known as the growth of the financial sector and the growth of the culture.
Discuss the changes that have emerged in Indian industries after globalization and liberalization. (C.B.S.E. 2015)
Globalization and liberalization have brought many changes in Indian industries such as:
- Private companies especially foreign firms are encouraged to invest in sectors earlier reserved for government.
- Now there is no need for licenses to open industries.
- Government is selling out public sectors or government companies.
- Now Indian companies are becoming multinational companies and are selling their products all over the world.
“Globalisation affects different people differently.” Explain.
Globalisation affects different people differently:
- Products from outside countries flooded the markets which affected the people.
- Industries, farmers, small manufacturers, traders etc. face tough competition from foreign agencies/countries.
- The gap between rich and poor increasing.
- Impact on fishermen, weavers, traditional craftsmen etc.
- Cheaper foreign products replace the indigenous product e.g. gum from Sudan replaces gum from Gujarat etc.
- Entertainment explosion replaced traditional entertainers and techniques.
Globalisation and Social Change Important Extra Questions Essay Answer Type
What is Globalisation? Explain in brief.
The process of Globalisation is a wide economic process which has spread in all the societies and countries. Different countries have free trade and economic relations in this process. Every country is inter-dependent on other countries to fulfil their basic needs. It is because of this mutual dependence, mutual relations developed between different countries and one idea come into being to increase relations of free trade in each other’s country. This idea of increasing economic relations and free trade is given the name of Globalisation. The concept of Globalisation is the concept of liberalisation in which different countries are opening their doors for other countries to have duty free trade relations among them.
This concept of Globalisation is not very old. It is 10-15 years old which has taken the whole world in its fold. That’s why the world is shrinking these days. We can get foreign-made goods while living in our small town or city. We can look at any part of the country. For example, many foreign cars like Mercedes, General Motors, Rolls Royce, Ferrari, Honda, Mitsubishi, Hyundai, Skoda, Toyota, etc. came to India, which were not available in the decade of 1980s.
It is happening because of Globalisation and liberalisation because of which market of our country has been opened up for foreign companies. In this way, a lot of foreign-made goods and Indian goods are present in our country. It is due to Globalisation that different countries are opening their doors for foreign companies and are encouraging free trade. These days, the world is shrinking and now it is just like a small village or town. Government is increasing Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in every sector. This is called Globalisation.
What are the basic principles of Globalisation?
1. World Trade: The first and necessary condition of Globalisation is world trade. It is the main base of business of the world. It unites the people of different sectors living in different countries and gives them business. For example, India has a surplus of tea. That’s why different countries of the world are importing tea from India. In the same way, almost all the countries of the world depend upon Arabian countries for crude oil. In this way, with the exchange of goods and because of trade, they are coming closer to each other. People of India depend upon Arabian people and they depend upon us. That’s why world trade and Globalisation has increased.
2. Economic Globalisation: Globalisation has established a new economy in the world. Now the economy of one country depends upon the economy of another country. That’s why the concept of world economy came into being. Different countries unite with each other because of the economy and the exchange of cultural traits starts to take place between them. Investment, exchange of division of labour, specialisation, production, consumption, etc. have an important role in this trade. Economic Globalisation has encouraged capitalism. Now people are thinking about the international economy and structure.
3. Globalisation of Market: Globalisation has increased the market to a great extent. Now Globalisation of the market is not being done only on the basis of production but also on the basis of consumption. Now companies are producing things while keeping in mind the market of other countries or the international market. Even some countries depend on others for consumption. In this way, production and consumption depend upon the foreign market. With this, the business with other country increases and foreign exchange enters the country. In this, the way the market depends upon foreign countries. We can find a number of foreign goods in our market. Even eatable things are available in a can In this way, the market is has expanded with globalisation.
4. Division of Labour: Globalisation has encouraged the division of labour. Now people are trying to be placed in foreign countries. For example, people are doing a number of computer courses so that they can earn money in foreign countries. We see many types of advertisements in newspapers that specialists in different countries are required. Division of labour is encouraged because specialists are in great demand in different countries. It is the feature of globalisation that it has encouraged the division of labour.
5. Migration of Labourers to Another country: Another feature of globalisation is the migration of workers from one country to another country in search of work. Generally, people, specialists in different sectors from South Asian countries are going to western countries for work because they think that they can earn more in western countries. Workers from different countries are working in different countries and are earning money. In this way, because of globalisation people from different countries are able to migrate to other countries.
6. World Economy: Another feature of globalisation is the encouragement of world economy. Now the economy of one country is not restricted only to that country because its economy is affected by the economies of other countries. With the increase in business, economies depend upon each other. In this way, because of interdependence, the world economy and world trade have increased.
What was the impact of Globalisation on the Indian Economy?
1. Increase of Indian Share in world export: With the process of globalisation, the Indian share in world export has increased. Indian goods and services in India for the decade 1990-2000 has increased by 125%. In 1990, the Indian share in the world’s export of goods and services was 0.55% which increased up to 0.75% in 1999.
2. Foreign investment in India: Foreign direct investment is an important feature of globalisation because foreign investment increases the capacity of production of any economy. Foreign investment in India is continuously increasing. From 1995-96 up to 2000-01, it has increased by 53% and during this time, 500 crores annually have been invested in India.
3. Foreign Exchange Reserves: Foreign exchange is necessary for import. In June 1991, foreign exchange reserves in India was 1 Billion Dollars which was enough to fulfil the needs of the country for only two weeks. After this, India adopted new economic policies, Globalisation and liberalisation were encouraged because of which foreign exchange reserve increased very quickly. Now our foreign exchange reserve in near to 350 Billion Dollars.
4. Growth of Gross Domestic Product: Because of globalisation, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country has increased. In 1980, it was 5.63% which increased to 5.80% in 1990. At present, it is around 7%.
5. Increase in unemployment: Because of globalisation, unemployment in India has increased. During the decade of 1990-2000, the economic problem came in Mexico, South Korea, Thailand, Singapur, Indonesia, Malaysia and it come because of globalisation. That’s why millions of people lost their jobs and they had to live below the poverty line. At the start of 1990s, the rate of unemployment was 6% which increased up to 7% in 2000.
6. Impact on Agriculture: The share of agriculture and its related activities in the Gross Domestic Product of the country is 29%. But it is 2% in the U.S.A., 55% in Japan and France. If we look at the labour force then India’s 69% labour force is related to agricultural functions but the labour force in the agricultural sector in the U.S.A. and the U.K. is only 2.6%. In the near future, it is necessary for India to open its market for world companies in the agricultural sector which is in agreement with W.T.O. This time will be challenging for India.
7. Educational and technical development: Globalisation and Liberalisation have put a great effect on the education and technology sector which has seen a revolution. The world has shrunk due to the means of transport and communication. Internet and computer have brought a revolution in this sector.
What are the impacts of globalisation on our local culture?
Local culture is that culture which is restricted only to one country, society or geographical area. Yet many cultural groups exist in one country and they live with each other peacefully like in India. It has been said that India is a museum of many races, meaning many cultures live here. Unity and diversity can be seen here. So the traditional culture of a country or society is its local culture. It can also be called as the sub-culture.
Globalisation affects all those traditional cultures of societies or countries which come in contact with modern culture due to commercial relations. Because modern or western culture is developed in developed countries, that’s why English is the language of this culture. Globalisation exerts its impact on local culture and these impacts are given below:
Adopting Some Aspects of External Culture:
It has been said that wherever globalised culture has reached, the culture of that country has adopted some features of western culture according to their needs. For example, the general usage of the English language has increased in our country. Our ways of living, eating habits has also changed due to western culture. Even rural areas came under the impact of globalisation.
But one thing should be kept in mind, that although people have adopted the Western culture they still have maintained their own culture, customs, traditional ways of living, etc. So we can say that a globalised culture and local culture both are maintained side by side. We can give four steps to this:
1.People of the local culture are associated with their people on a community basis and they have emotional relations with the people of their regional community. That’s why people of local culture hardly adopt each and everything of external culture.
2. The main feature of local culture is that it is flexible and permanent. Local people are generally deeply associated with their own values, beliefs, traditions, languages, etc. That’s why people of the local culture are unable to adopt the external culture.
3. Humans are the result of different sub-cultures. That’s why a person is unable to mix himself with the globalised culture because people believe that they might become a slave of globalised culture. That’s why complete uniformity with the globalised culture cannot be established.
4. Many people give respect to cultural diversity for themselves. They like new ideas, new ways of living, etc. because they want some change in life and change is the law of nature. That’s why people of the local culture are unable to leave their old culture.
How communication system has been affected by globalisation?
Revolutionary changes come in global communication due to advances in technology and the world’s telecommunication infrastructure. In house and offices, we have multiple links to the outside world which include telephones, mobiles, fax machines, digital and cable T.V., internet and e-mail. In the world, there are a number of places which were unknown to us before the advent of communication systems. This is indicative of a digital divide. Despite this digital divide, these forms of technology do facilitate the compression of time documents to each other with the help of satellite technology.
These days, mobile phones are a part integral of the middle-class youth of urban areas as cellular telephony has grown enormously. There has been tremendous growth in the usage of mobile phones and a marked change in how its use is seen.
What type of change has emerged in the political scenario due to globalisation?
U.S.S.R. disintegrated in 1990 which was one of the largest change in itself. This event hastened the process of globalisation. It gave a specific economic and political approach to economic policies which encourage globalisation. These changes are also known as neo-liberalisation economic measures. Some concrete steps were taken in
India under the policy of liberalisation. Broadly speaking, these policies reflect a political vision of free enterprise which believes that a free reign to market forces will be both fair and efficient. That’s why it criticises both state subsidies and state regulations. In this sense, the existing process of globalisation doesn’t have a political vision as much as economic vision. However, the possibilities of different globalisation do exist. We thus have the concept of inclusive globalisation which includes all sections of the society.
One of the other major political development which accompanies globalisation is the growth of international and regional mechanisms for political collaboration. The European Union (EU), The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and South Asian Federation of Trade Association (SAFTA) are some of the examples which showed the increasing role of regional associations.
Another political dimension which came in front due to globalisation is the rise of International Governmental Organisations (IGO’s) and International Non-Governmental Organisations (INGO’s). An inter-governmental organisation is a body which is founded by participating member governments and is given the responsibility of regulating a specific domain of activity whose scope is transnational. W.T.O. is one of its examples which rules and governs the trade practices across the globe.