Here we are providing Class 12 Sociology Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Suggestions for Project Work. Sociology Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 7 Important Extra Questions Suggestions for Project Work
Suggestions for Project Work Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Which method is generally used for project work?
The social survey method is generally used for project work.
Who propounded the project work method?
W.H. Kilpatric is known as the propounder of the project work method.
What is meant by project work?
Project work is the method of getting new experience and knowledge and is related to planning and system.
What is the main objective of project work?
The main aim of project work is to obtain knowledge.
Who prepares reports in the project work method?
Students prepare the report in the project work method.
How many levels of project work are there?
There are four levels of project work method.
What is the first level of project work?
The first level of project work is the arrangement of project work.
What is the last level of project work?
The last level of project work is to publish the facts and prepare the report.
What is Planning?
When an individual arranges his resources for the purpose of achieving his objective it is known as planning.
How many types of planning are there?
There are two types of planning-Social planning and economic planning.
Suggestions for Project Work Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Write any four objectives of the project work method.
- To provide an opportunity to students for their development.
- To give practical knowledge to students.
- To give knowledge to students about problems of society and mentality of the people.
- To help the students in establishing a relationship with the society and its members.
How many stages of the project work method are there?
There are four stages of the project work method and these are:
- Planning of project work
- Collection of data or facts
- Analysis and interpretation of facts
- Presentation of data.
Which things should be kept in mind while preparing a report of the project work method?
- The language of writing the report should be simple so that it is understandable to everyone.
- Facts should be produced systematically and clarity of thoughts should be there.
- A clear and simple definition of technical terms should be given.
- Facts should not be written repeatedly.
- Necessary headings, sub-headings, etc., should also be given.
Write any four merits of the project work method.
- This method helps the students to develop themself.
- All activists or students get equal opportunities for development.
- Social feelings develop among the students through this method.
- Social contact of activists increases with this method.
- Conclusions taken out of this method are real.
What are the demerits of this method?
- A large amount of money is required for this method as it is a very expensive method.
- It is very difficult to find proper project work.
- A systematic study is not possible in this method.
- A lot of time is required in this method.
- This method is not according to the location of schools.
What is Observation?
The term ‘Observation’ means knowing about mutual causal effects to minutely observe the naturally occurring phenomena. According to P.V. Young, “Observation is the objective study with eyes which can be used as a method of minute study of different units of making collective behavior and complex social institutions and also a data collector,”
What is the social survey method?
The social survey method is considered as one of the special methods in social research. The survey is a research method in which the researcher himself goes to the place of the event and scientifically observes any specific event and does research about that event. The researcher in this event comes in direct contact with the event and more objectivity comes to his conclusions.
What is an Interview method?
An interview means an effective and formal conversation with that individual who is directly related to any particular event. This conversation takes place for any particular objective but it is pre-determined and is limited to a definite area. A conversation takes place in a good atmosphere in which the respondent openly speaks about the event.
Suggestions for Project Work Important Extra Questions Essay Answer Type
What is meant by the project work method? Explain it with definitions.
A number of methods are used in researches, being done in Sociology, for the collection of data, and many conclusions are drawn on the basis of those facts. This is why the method of project work is very important in the field of Sociology. Under the method of project work, the researcher himself goes to the field to know about the nature of any social problem. He collects the data in a scientific way: After the collection of data, it is observed, classified, and checked so that conclusions could be drawn out of it.
That is why work is done according to the social survey method which is one of the most important methods of study in social sciences. Social problems are studied on a scientific basis in this method. Useful and practical knowledge is obtained through the project work. The most important objective of this method is that the data collected by this method is useful for other methods as well.
W.H. Kilpatric is known as the founder of this method. A project is also known as the plan which is a method of obtaining new knowledge and experience in actual social circumstances. Its main objective is to get knowledge on a practical level. It is made up of two words ‘Project and ‘work’. Project means to plan and work means system or method. In this way, the literal meaning of project work is the system of the plan.
According to Prof. Stevenson, “A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting.”
According to Ballard, “A project is a bit of real-life that has been imported into school. ”
So the given description clarifies that project work is a method of getting knowledge in which an individual gets practical knowledge and experience. The researcher, in this, picks up any social problem and does a social survey on it. During the survey, data is collected and conclusions are drawn on the basis of that collected data. In the end, activists prepare the report under the directions of the researcher itself. In this, students or researchers themselves move in the field, collect data with which they get practical knowledge about the social circumstances. From this, he gets complete information about that problem.
How many stages of project work are there? Explain them briefly.
The first work of starting any work is to make plans related to that work because if we start working without any plan then a lot of hard work is necessary which requires more time and money. Making plans helps in the saving of time, money, and labor. The whole of the process of project work goes through the following four stages: ‘
A. Planning of project work
B. Collection of data
C. Analysis and interpretation of data
D. Presentation of data.
A detailed explanation is given below:
A. Planning of Project Work. There are certain stages of planning of project work and these are:
1. Selection of Problem. The first stage of starting any project involves the selection of problems. It means which problems would be studied and what type of data would be collected. The following things should be kept in mind while selecting the problem.
(a) That problem should be selected in which the researcher himself is interested and would be able to do more hard work.
(b) Researcher should have some knowledge about the problem and other related aspects so that the work could be done properly.
(c) Objective should be kept in mind while selecting the problem.
(d) Selection of the topic should be done while keeping in mind the limits of resources.
2. Determination of Objective. The second stage of planning is the setting up of objectives. If the objective has been set then we can think about the methods to be used for collection. The design of the survey could be made very easily once the objectives are set down.
3. Organisation of Survey. After the setting up of the problem and objective, there is a need to make a proper organization for that work. One survey committee is being made for an organization in which the director and the main observer of the survey are there. It helps in the achievement of objectives and uniformity comes in the survey.
4. Delimitation of the Field of Study. If the researcher wants to bring objectivity in his study then it is a must for him not to collect all the available data but only collect that data that is necessary for his study. That is why he needs to delimitate his field of study.
5. Preliminary Preparations. A researcher needs to do some preliminary preparations for his study like to get knowledge about related subjects of the survey, meeting the experts, thinking about obstacles which would come in the study, informal conversation with people, etc.
6. Selection of Sample. The study could be affected if the selected units of a sample could be right or wrong. The selection of a proper sample depends on the intelligence of the researcher. Failure of the survey depends upon the selection of sample because the selection of sample leads to limiting the field of survey and saving of money, time, and labor. Researchers then can concentrate on other things.
7. Preparation of Budget. The next stage is of preparation of the budget which is very much necessary for the survey. If we want to run the survey in an efficient way then a balanced budget is required. Budget is made while keeping in mind the survey and resources unless the survey could be stopped halfway.
8. Preparation of Time Schedule. Setting up of time schedule is necessary for a survey because taking up more time can spoil the utility of the survey. Time schedule depends upon the nature and objective of the survey and the activists engaged in survey work.
9. Selection of Methods of Study. Methods of study, in project work, are always selected while keeping in mind time, resources, nature of the survey, activists, etc. Different methods are used for different types of problems. Two methods can also be used for one survey but these should be selected in advance.
10. Preparation of Study Tools. The tools used in the survey work play a major role in its success or failure. Tools like Questionnaire, Interview, Schedule, Observation, etc., should be carefully prepared unless the survey would become a failure. So the preparation of tools should be done for the success of the survey.
11. Selection and Training of Field Workers. The selection of activists, working in the field, and their training may also affect the survey. Selection of honest and loyal activists with the preparation of study tools should also be done. They should be trained to bring objectivity and uniformity in the study.
12. Pre-testing and Pilot Study. It is also necessary for the survey. Pre-testing can tell us about the utility of the tools. The pilot study states the obstacles that may come in the survey. In this way pre-testing and pilot study can tell us about the shortcomings of the study and these can be sorted out.
13. Preparing Community for Project. It is necessary to prepare a proper atmosphere before starting the survey so that people could be prepared for giving co-operation to the activists of the survey. Newspapers, radio, means of propaganda could also be used for this.
B. Collection of Data. Collection of data is being done in the field and the need to establish personal contacts with the people emerges so that they could be asked questions to collect data. This is a process of great care and the following steps are required to accomplish this:
- First of all, it is necessary to establish contact with the respondents whose names came in the sample.
- Then the information is collected through respondents by asking questions.
- Observation of activists, engaged in project work, is necessary so that they would be able to do their work with great loyalty and honesty.
C. Analysis and Interpretation of Data. The next level, after the collection of data, is the analysis and interpretation of data. This stage has the following three steps:
1. Weighting the Data. Some criteria are always kept in every survey on the basis of which the collected data is analyzed. With this, we can come to know about the utility and non-utility of the data.
2. Editing. The next step is the editing of the collected data. First of all, it is checked whether the information from all sources has been received or not. Then answers are verified whether any unfilled answer is there or not. With this, unnecessary facts are removed and the same type of facts are given a code number. For coding, numbers can also be used.
3. Classification and Tabulation. After facts are edited, the next step is to classify them under different groups on the basis of similarities and differences. This classification brings data into a brief form. The next step after classification is the writing of data into different tables which is known as Tabulation. Classification and Tabulation are of great importance in project work because with this we identify the facts very easily.
D. Presentation of Data. Data is presented in two ways.
1. Diagrammatic Representation. Diagrams are used for the easy representation of data which is being represented with the help of diagrams. Important facts can easily be represented with the help of diagrams.
2. Preparation and Publication of Report. The last stage of the project report, after the complete process, is the preparation and publication of the report. Simple language should be used while preparing a report so that everyone is able to understand it. Facts should be practically presented. Technical terms should be clearly defined and facts should not be repeated. Required headings and sub-headings should also be given and wherever required, notes should be made. Diagrams and tables should also be used to make the data easily understandable. After this, the report is published and presented.
In this way whole of the process of the project, the report goes through various stages.
Describe merits and demerits of Project work.
Merits of Project Work
Certain merits of project work are there which is why it has an important place in the study of society. It has the following merits:
1. Opportunity for self-development. Project work is one of the important means of self-development for activists and students. Students in this, think themselves, work and if required take direction from the researcher. In this way project work plays a very important role in increasing self-confidence among the students.
2. Development of social feeling. Any project work cannot be completed with one or two persons but is completed with the cooperation of many individuals. Social feeling develops through project work and when individuals work with each other, community feeling also develops among them.
3. Equal opportunity of development. All the activists are given equal opportunity while working for the project work. No discrimination takes place in this work. That is why everyone gets an equal opportunity of development.
4. Practical knowledge. All the activists of project work get practical knowledge from the project work. In this, different problems are taken and plans are made. Then these problems are studied. Data is collected in the field because of which we get every type of practical knowledge.
5. Psychological satisfaction. Individual gets psychological satisfaction after completing this work. A person gets knowledge with an open heart through this.
Demerits of Project Work
- More expensive. A plan is made in project work and activists work according to that plan. But a number of activists are required to complete this work. Because of more activists, their expenses, etc., require a lot of money and it is one of its major demerits.
- Difficulty in finding the right project work. First of all, there is the need to find the right project work which is very difficult. If one is unable to find proper project work then this type of study is not useful.
- Absence of sequel study. To do this type of work, a sequel study of the related problems is necessary which hardly takes place in this. It is also a demerit of this type of study.
Prepare an interview scheduled to be used in project work.
In project work, the researcher or activist collects data with the help of a schedule and this schedule is made under the guidance of experts. Here we are giving a model of that schedule which was being used in a village of Himachal Pradesh to know about the status of women in Panchayats.