## Development Class 10 Notes Social Science Economics Chapter 1

### The Story of Development

Development involves thinking about equality, better lifestyle through better administration and principles, more equitable distribution of resources and how these goals to be achieved. The way we live today is influenced by the past. Any change in the conditions has to be implemented keeping that in mind. Only through democratic political processes, these hopes and possibilities can be achieved in real life.

Different people have different aspirations for and notions of development. Each person seeks a different goal. They seek things that are most important for them, i.e., that which can fuLfil their aspirations or desires. Two persons or groups of persons may also seek things which are conflicting.

Important:
Examples of conflicting interests: A girl expects as much freedom and opportunity as her brother, and that he also shares in the household work. Her brother may not like this.

Similarly, to get more electricity, industrialists may want more dams. This may submerge the land and disrupt the lives of people who are displaced – such as tribals. w They may prefer small check dams or tanks to irrigate their land.

Two lessons are: different persons can have different developmental goals and what may be development for one may not be developed for the other. It may be destructive for other groups.

### Income and Other Goals

People desire regular work, better wages, and decent prices for their crops or other products that they produce. People also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect of others. They resent discrimination. Some people might also think that these may be more important than more income or more consumption. Material goods are not all that you need to live.

Money or material things are very crucial for our lives.
The quality of our life also depends on non-material things. Various values like freedom, equality and justice do not have material value and cannot be measured but are very important for our lives.

If you get a job in o fiar off place. before accepting it you would try to consider many factors, apart from income, such as facilities for your family, working atmosphere, or opportunity to learn. In another case, a job may give you less pay but may offer regular employment that enhances your sense of security. Another job, however, may offer high pay but no job security and also leave no time for your family. This will reduce your sense of security and freedom.

For development, people look at a mix of goals. For example, women are respected more in their houses if they are engaged in paid work. Women also expect help in household work. Along with that, they expect a safe and secure work environment which might encourage women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business. This proves that developmental goals that people have are not just about better income but also about other important things in life.

Example 1.
Complete the table given below:

 Developmental Goals of Different Categories of Persons Category of Person Developmental Goals Aspirations (A) Landless rural Labourers More days of work and better wages; Local school is able to provide quality education for their children; there is no social discrimination and they too can become leaders in the village. (B) Prosperous farmers from Punjab Assured a high family income through higher support prices for their crops and through hardworking and cheap Labourers they should be able to settle their children abroad. (C) Farmers who depend only on rain for growing crops (D) A rural woman from a landowning family (E) Urban unemployed youth (F) A boy from a rich urban family (G) A girt from a rich urban family She gets as much freedom as her brother and ¡s able to decide what she wants to do in life. She is able to pursue her studies abroad. (H) An adivasi from Narmada valley

(C) Farmers who depend only on rain for growing crops: Artificial irrigation technologies, better seeds and more water from canals.
(D) A rural woman from a landowning family: opportunities to work, higher education
(E) Urban employed youth: better employment opportunities
(F) A boy from a rich urban family: Opportunities to study in abroad, better jobs
(H) An Adivasi from Narmada valley: rights to the products of the forest, rights to their native lands, opportunities to preserve their culture

Example 2.
Why do different persons have different notions of development? Which of the following explanations is more important and why?
(a) Because people are different.
(b) Because the life situations of people are different.
(b) Because the Life situations of people are different.

Explanation: Different people have different life situations which make them aspire for different development goals.

Example 3.
Statement (I): People have different developmental goals.
Statement (II): People have conflicting developmental goals.
No

Explanation: They do not mean the same because different does not necessarily mean conflicting interests.

### National Development

The notion of national development is different among different people. People could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s development.
National development means thinking about various questions about conflicting ideas, chalking out a common path for holistic development of all.

### Comparison of Development Among Countries

Different criteria are used to compare different things. Between students, the primary basis of comparison
is upon their friendliness and spirit of cooperation, creativity or marks secured.

For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes. Countries with higher income are more developed than those with less income. It is based on the assumption that more income means development and a better lifestyle. Greater income will help people buy more. Hence, greater income itself is considered to be one important goal.

Important:
The income of the country is the income of all the residents of the country. This gives us the total income of the country.

Example 1.
Write a paragraph on your notion of what should India do, or achieve, to become a developed country.
India has a huge demographic where more than 60% of our population belongs to the age group of 18-40 years. Thus to achieve development, Indian government should begin capacity building exercises for these young people and offer employment opportunities.

Education has to be more diverse and vocational. More workshops will have to be set up for industrial training. Capacity has to be built up for the agricultural sector.

However, for comparison between countries, total income is not such a useful measure. Comparing total income doesn’t tell us what a person is likely to earn since each country has a different population. Thus, it is wiser to compare the average income which is the total income of the country divided by its total population. The average income is also called per capita income. In World Development Reports, brought out by the World Bank, this criterion is used in classifying countries.

Example 2.
Suppose records show that the average income in a country has been increasing over a period of time. From this, can we conclude that all sections of the economy have become better? Illustrate your answer with an example.
No, it does not guarantee that all the groups are progressing at the same pace. The average income of any country is an average of how all the sections are performing together not individually. Cumulative growth does not convey the performance of individual sections on the correct parameters of growth.

For example, despite growth, agriculture is still stagnant. Despite the growth, high-income inequality also does not talk about the pitiable condition of lower classes.

Important:
Countries with per capita income of US$12,056 per annum and above in 2017, are called rich countries and those with per capita income of US$ 955 or less are called low-income countries. India comes in the category of low-middle-income countries because its per capita income in 2017 was just US\$ 1820 per annum.

### Public Facilities

The rich countries, excluding countries of the Middle East and certain other small countries, are generally called developed countries.

People also think of ideals such as security, respect for others, equal treatment, freedom, etc. as criteria for development.

There is more to a nation’s development than just the average income of its people.

1. Money cannot buy all the goods and services required to live well and hence income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use.
2. Money cannot buy a pollution-free environment or unadulterated medicines, it can only buy you a house in a better community.
3. Money may also not be able to protect people from infectious diseases unless mass prevention and precautions are in practice.

The cheapest and best way to ensure the provision of goods and services to people is to provide them collectively. It will be cheaper to have collective security for the whole locality or for each house to have its own security. However, the same cannot be said for basic amenities like education, public health services, medical facilities, food, water etc.

Some people are not willing to study while many other children want to study. Many people believe that the government should open schools and provide other facilities so that all children have a chance to study. Despite that, children, particularly girls, are not able to go to high school because the government/society has not provided adequate facilities.

Important:
Kerala has a low Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) because it has the adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.

Example 1.
Lets look at the figures of Per Capita Net State Domestic Product at Current Prices for 2016-17. Let us ignore what this complicated term exactly means. Roughly, we can take it to be the per capita income of the state. We find that of the three, Haryana has the highest per capita State Per Capita Income (in Rs.) Haryana 1,80,174, Kerala 1,63,475 and Bihar 34,409 income and Bihar is at the bottom.

This means that, on an average, a person in Haryana earned Rs. 1,80,174 in one year whereas, on an average, a person in Bihar earned only around Rs. 34,409. In Kerala, out of 1000 children born, 10 died before completing one year of age but in Haryana the proportion of children dying within one year of birth was 30, which is two times more than that of Kerala. On the other hand, the per capita income of Haryana is more than that of Kerala as shown in Table.

 Table: Per Capita Income of Selected States State Per Capita Income (in Rs.) 1. Haryana 1,80,174 2. Kerala 1,63,475 3. Bihar 34,409

(A) Which of the following states are most developed on the basis of per capita income?
(a) Kerala
(b) Haryana
(c) Bihar
(d) All three are equally developed because income does not decide development.
(b) Haryana

Explanation: On average, a person in Haryana earned Rs. 1,80,174 in one year, which is greater than Kerala. Hence, on the basis of this, Haryana is the most developed.

(B) Which of the following states have richer citizens?
(a) Kerala
(b) Haryana
(c) Bihar
(d) All three are equal.
(b) Haryana

Explanation: It’s per capita income is the highest, which means it has richer people than average.

(C) What is per capita income?
Per capita income is the average income of a citizen in a state/city/country.

(D) Assertion (A): Haryana is more developed because it has more number of children dying within one year of birth.
Reason (R): People in Haryana are not as educated.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.

Explanation: People in Haryana are less developed because they do not have appropriate medical facilities to save their infants, which makes Haryana less developed. That is, if you look at development from the perspective of child mortality rate.

The Public Distribution System (PDS) ensures the provision of food grains to underprivileged people at subsidized rates. The Health and nutritional status of people in such states is certainly likely to be better.

Sri Lanka, a smaller country than India, is much ahead of India in every respect and a big country like ours has such a low rank in the World Development Index. Though Nepal and Bangladesh have a lower per capita income than that of India, yet they are better than India in life expectancy. Many improvements have been suggested in calculating HDI and many new components have been added to the Human Development Report the name makes it very clear that the development of people, their health, their well-being, is the most important thing for a country.

Maintenance of development and growth is desirable. However, since the second half of the twentieth century, a number of scientists have been warning that the present type, and levels, of development, are not sustainable.

Important:
Health and education indicators are important indicators used by certain commissions to measure development. The Human Development Report published by UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.

Body Mass Index (BMI) measures our nutrition levels. To calculate weight and height are necessary. Weight is to be calculated in Kgs. The height recorded is to be converted from centimeters into meters. Divide the weight in kg by the square of the height. This is used to check whether a student is malnourished or not.

Example 2.
The development of a country can generally be determined by:
(a) its per capita income
(b) its average literacy level
(c) health status of its people
(d) all of the above
(d) all of the above

Example 3.
Which of the following neighboring countries has better performance in terms of human development than India?
(b) Sri Lanka
(c) Nepal
(d) Pakistan
(b) Sri Lanka

Example 4.
Assume there are four families in a country. The average per capita income of these families is Rs. 5000. If the income of three families is Rs. 4000, Rs. 7000 and Rs. 3000 respectively, what is the income of the fourth family?
(a) Rs. 7500
(b) Rs. 3000
(c) Rs. 2000
(d) Rs. 6000
(d) Rs. 6000

### Sustainability of Development

Groundwater is an example of renewable resources. These resources are replenished by nature as in the case of crops and plants but even these resources may be overused. Non-renewable resources are those which will get exhausted after years of use. We have a fixed stock on earth that cannot be replenished. We do discover new resources. New sources in this way add to the stock of resources discovered already. However, even these resources will get exhausted.

Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries; this issue is no longer region or nation-specific. Our future is linked together.

Sustainability of development is comparatively a new area of knowledge in which scientists, economists, philosophers and other social scientists are working together.

In general, the question of development or progress is perennial. The debate on development is incessant.

→ HDI: Human Development Index.

→ Life Expectancy: This between birth denotes, as the name suggests, average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.

→ Per Capita Income: Average income of each person in a country/state.

→ BMI: Body Mass Index

→ Sustainability: It is the ability to exist constantly without harming the current condition.

→ Infant Mortality Rate: Infant Mortality Rate indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that particular year.

→ Literacy Rate: It measures the proportion of the literate population in the 7-and-above age group.

→ Net Attendance Ratio: It is the total number of children of age group 14 and 15 years attending school as a percentage of a total number of children in the same age group.

→ Perennial: Permanent