NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Check the below NCERT MCQ Questions for NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties Pdf free download.

Political Parties Class 10 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 6

The Need For Political Parties

Political parties can be considered as one of the most visible institutions in a democracy. Common citizens look at them as synonyms of democracy. They are even more popular than the concept of democracy and the Indian Constitution in areas with less literacy. They are also considered as the representatives of democracy in the remotest parts of the nations.

However, they also invite a lot of criticism. Most people tend to be very critical of political parties. Political parties are blamed for the inefficient functioning of democracy and political life. Parties are identified with social and political divisions today. This raises a huge question about their relevance, efficiency and significance.

Political Parties Class 10 Notes Frequently Asked:
A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They have similar visions, policies and programmes for the development and welfare of the society and the country collectively.

Different parties have different ideas, goals and visions regarding the development of the country and society. To attain power to rule the nation, parties try to persuade people to agree with their ideologies and support them by voting. Popular support makes them victorious in the elections. This however means that parties reflect fundamental political divisions in society. Political parties involve division and partisanship. A party is recognised by the policies it supports, the sections of societies it identifies with and the interests it upholds.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Frequently Asked:
A political party has three components:

  1. the leaders,
  2. the active members and
  3. the followers

Political Parties Class 10 Notes Pdf Download Functions of a Political Party:
Political parties are very necessary because of the following reasons.
Political parties fill political offices and exercise political power by performing these functions:
1. Parties contest elections. They nominate their candidates who then fight for popular support.

2. Parties put forward different policies and programmes. The voters support the party they identify with the most.

3. Despite the fact that democracy gives recognition and attached significance to each opinion, a large number of similar opinions have to be grouped together to provide a general vision and aspiration based on which governments have to run the nation and formulate policies. A party reduces a vast multitude of opinions into a comprehensive vision and goal. The ruling party decides the course on which the country moves for the duration they are in power.

4. Parties play a decisive role in formulation of laws for a country. Laws might be debated and passed in the legislature. Most of the members belong to a political party, they go by the direction of the party leadership, irrespective of their personal opinions about the laws being formulated.

5. Parties form and run governments. Big policy decisions are taken by political executives which is also a product of political parties.

6. Parties recruit leaders, train them and then make them ministers to run the government in the way they want.

7. Parties which lose in the elections play the role of opposition to ruling parties. They give a contradicting yet important perspective to the government’s ideology by voicing different views and criticising the government (ruling party) for its failures or wrong policies. Opposition parties also mobilise opposition to the government.

8. Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight important events, ideas, approaches and issues which plague the functioning and development of the country. Parties have members and activists spread all over the country.

9. Most pressure groups are the extensions of political parties across different sections of society. Parties launch movements for the resolution of problems faced by various sections of the society. Opinions of the parties essentially affect the opinion of the public.

10. Parties facilitate people, the access to government machinery and welfare schemes.

11. Despite the distrust, it is easier for a citizen to approach a party member than an office or Bureaucrat.

12. Parties have to be responsive to people’s needs and demands.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Class 10 Political Parties Notes Important:
There are different ways of choosing these candidates.

  • In the USA, members and supporters of a party choose its candidates.
  • In India, top party leaders choose candidates for contesting elections.

Class 10 Civics Ch 6 Notes Example 1.
Mention the function of the political party the following cases depict.
(A) Activists of BJP Mahila Morcha demonstrate against hike in prices of onions and LPG in Visakhapatnam.
Opposition parties criticise the government (ruling party) for its failures or wrong policies.

(B) Minister distributes Rs. one lakh cheque to the families of hooch victims at their houses.
Parties facilitate people, access to government machinery and welfare schemes.

(C) Activists of CPI (M), CPI, OGP and JD (S) take out a rally in Bhubaneswar to protest against POSCO, the Korean steel company for being permitted by the State Government to export iron ore from Orissa to feed steel plants in China and Korea.
Opposition parties criticise the government (ruling party) for its failures or wrong policies.

Political Party Class 10 Notes Significance of Political Parties:
The necessity of political parties can be understood by imagining a political system without them. If there were no parties, every candidate in the elections would be independent. There would be no aggregation of interest and consensus on one model of development of the society. The government may be formed, but its stability will be questionable.

Elected representatives will only be accountable to their constituency for what they do for development. No one will be responsible for how the country will be run- just like the non-party based elections to the panchayat in many states. Despite the contestants not contesting formally, the village gets split into more than one faction, each of which puts up a ‘panel’ of its candidates.

To prevent this, political parties are found in every political system.
The rise of political parties is directly linked to the emergence of representative democracies. Large societies require representative democracy because there is a requirement of an agency to gather different views on various issues and to present these to the government. A mechanism and ways are needed to integrate and gather views on representative governments to support or restrain the government, make policies, justify or oppose them. Political parties fulfill these requirements that every representative the government has.

We can say that parties are a necessary condition for a democracy.

Ch 6 Civics Class 10 Notes Important:

  • Political parties are one of the least trusted institutions all over the world.
  • Vet the level of participation in the activities of political parties was fairly high. The proportion of those who said they were members of some political party was higher in India than many advanced countries like Canada, Japan, Spain and South Korea.
  • Over the last three decades the proportion of those who report to be members of political parties in India has gone up steadily.
  • The proportion of those who say they feel ‘close to a political party’ has also gone up in India in this period.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Pdf Example 2.
Consider the following statements on parties.
(A) Political parties do not enjoy much trust among the people.
(B) Parties are often rocked by scandals involving top party leaders.
(C) Parties are not necessary to run governments. Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) (A), (B), and (C)
(b) (A) and (B)
(c) (B) and (C)
(d) (A)and(C)
(b) (A) and (B)

Explanation: Parties are necessary for running the government.

Ch 6 Political Parties Class 10 Notes Example 3.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
He had argued that people’s movements should embrace politics openly. His argument was simple yet powerful. Movements focused on a single issue are suitable as long as we wish to achieve limited changes in a particular aspect of life. But if we wish to bring about a fundamental social transformation, or basic change even in one aspect of life, we would need a political organisation. People’s movements must establish a new political formation to act as a moral force in politics. This was an urgent task, he said, because all the existing political parties had become irrelevant for social transformation.

“But Kishenji never clarified what that organisation will be. He talked of an alternative political formation or a third force in politics. But did he mean a political party?’’ said Gracy. She felt that an old style political party was not the right instrument for social change. Sudha agreed with her. “I have thought about it several times. I agree that all the struggles that we are involved with – the struggle against displacement, against globalisation, against caste and gender oppression and for an alternative kind of development – all this is political. But the moment we form a party, all the goodwill we have earned all these years will be lost.

People will think of us as no different from other politicians.” “Besides”, added Karuna, “we have seen that a lot can be achieved by putting pressure on the existing political parties. We tried putting up candidates in panchayat elections, but the results were not very encouraging. People respect our work, they even adore us, but when it comes to voting they go for the established political parties.” Shaheen did not agree with them: “Let us be very clear. Kishenji wanted all the people’s movements to forge a new political party. Of course he wanted this party to be a different kind of a party. He was not for political alternatives, but for an alternative kind of politics.”

Civics Class 10 Chapter 6 Notes

(A) Why are single-issue movements not effective?
(a) Single issue movements only help achieve single benefits.
(b) Single issue movements end quickly.
(c) Single issue movements do not attract a lot of supporters.
(d) Single issue movements cannot be used for bigger reformation or change in society.
(d) Single issue movements cannot be used for bigger reformation or change in the society.

Explanation: Single issue based movements do not highlight greater or more fundamental issues in the system and cannot be used to cure these infirmities.

Notes Of Political Parties Class 10

(B) Which of the following issues have been highlighted by Karuna?
(a) People do not trust new political parties despite their hard work.
(b) People are focused on the leaders and not political parties.
(c) People do not trust political parties at alL
(d) Political parties cannot bring change in society.
(a) People do not trust new political parties despite their hard work

Explanation: Karuna says that people do not trust new political parties. They trust the established ones.

Political Parties Class 10 Ncert Notes

(C) Which institution could put pressure upon political parties?
Pressure Groups or Interest Groups

Chapter 6 Civics Class 10 Notes

(D) Assertion (A): To bring about a fundamental social transformation, or basic change even in one aspect of life, we would need a political organisation.
Reason(R): A political organisation is powerful.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

Explanation: A political organisation is the most visible institution in a democracy and very powerful in terms of popularity among the masses. It can directly control the state and introduce changes and reforms post-winning elections. It can play a direct role in helping society change for the better.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Chapter 6 Political Parties Class 10 Notes Party Systems Across The World

Any citizen can form a party in a democracy. Due to this, there are multiple political parties in each country. More than 750 parties are registered with the Election Commission of India.

Despite the large number, only some parties effectively contest elections.
Not all countries have the same number of political parties. In some, only one party is allowed to control and run the government. These are called one-party systems. For example in China, only the Communist Party is allowed to rule. Even though people are free to form political parties, the electoral system does not permit free competition for power. This is not a democratic approach.

For a functioning democratic system, at least two parties must be allowed to compete in elections. This provides a fair chance for the competing parties to come to power. These are called two-party systems or the Bi-Party systems.
Several other parties may exist, contest elections and win a few seats in the national legislatures. The two main parties have a serious chance of winning a majority of seats to form government. For example, the United States of America and the United Kingdom. Systems where multiple parties exist and where more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength or in alliance with others, is called as a Multi-party system. For example, India has a multi-party system.

Notes Of Civics Class 10 Chapter 6 Frequently Asked:
When several parties in a multi-party system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power, it is called an alliance or a front When such parties win the elections, they form Coalition governments.

Ncert Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Important:
India had three such major alliances in 2004 parliamentary elections- the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) and the Left Front (LF).

The multiparty system has been criticised to be very messy and politically unstable. This system allows a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation.

Party system evolves over a long period of time and depends on the nature of society, its social and regional divisions, its history of politics and its system of elections. Each country develops a party system moulded by its unique social and economic circumstances. Indian multi-party system evolved to accommodate the Large social and geographical diversity which could not have been absorbed otherwise.

No one system can prove to be ideal for all countries and all situations. It depends on the country’s history, social and cultural structure.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Class 10 Civics Political Parties Notes Example 4.
Let us apply what we have learnt about party systems to the various states within India. Here are three major types of party systems that exist at the state level. Can you find the names of at least two States for each of these types?
(A) Two-party system
Two-party system: Rajasthan and Gujarat

(B) Multiparty system with two alliances
A multiparty system with two alliances: Kerala and Maharashtra

(C) Multiparty system
Multiparty system: Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

National Parties

Democracies with federal systems have two types of parties—parties that participate in only one of the federal units and parties that are present in few or all units of the federation. India has some pan-India parties, which are called ‘National parties’. These parties have their units in various states. All the units follow almost similar policies, programmes and strategies that are decided at the national level.

Every party in the country has to register with the Election Commission.
The Commission offers some special facilities to large and established parties. These parties are given a unique symbol – only the official candidates of that party can use that election symbol. These parties are ‘recognised’ by the Election Commission. They are called recognised political parties.

The Election Commission has laid down detailed criteria of the proportion of votes and seats that a party must get in order to be a recognised party.

  1. A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in an election to the Legislative Assembly of a State and wins at least two seats is recognised as a State party.
  2. A party that secures at least six per cent of the total votes in Lok Sabha elections or Assembly elections in four States and wins at least four seats in the Lok Sabha is recognised as a national party.
  3. In 2018, about 7 National Parties were registered with the Election Commission.

All India Trinamool Congress (AITC):

  1. Mamata Banerjee launched the AITC on 1st January 1998 which was recognised as a national party in 2016. The party’s symbol is flowers and grass.
  2. It is committed to secularism and federalism.
  3. It has a strong presence in Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Tripura and has been ruling Bengal since 2011. It received a total of 4.07 per cent votes and won 22 seats, making it the fourth largest party in the Lok Sabha in 2019 General Elections.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP):

  1. Kanshi Ram formulated the party in 1984.
  2. It represents the interests of Bahujan Samaj (the dalits, Adivasis, OBCs and religious minorities) and aims to secure their welfare and development.
  3. It continues to draw inspiration from the teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma Phule, Periyar Ramaswami Naicker and Babasaheb Ambedkar.
  4. Mainly based in Uttar Pradesh, it has a significant presence in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Delhi and Punjab.
  5. In General Elections 2019, it polled about 3.63 per cent votes and secured 10 seats in the Lok Sabha.

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP):
1. BJP was founded in 1980 by reviving the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Sangh which in turn was formed by Syama Prasad Mukherjee in 1951.

2. BJP finds its inspiration to resurrect the glory and prominence of India in the world from India’s ancient culture and values; and Deendayal Upadhyaya’s ideas of integral humanism and Antyodaya. Cultural nationalism (or ‘Hindutva’) is one of its most important philosophical thoughts in its conception of Indian nationhood and politics.

3. It advocates for a uniform civil code for all people living in the country irrespective of religion and ban on forced religious conversions. Its support base has multiplied exponentially since the 1990s.

4. The party has expanded its base in the entire country today. It rose to power in 1998 as the leader of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) including several regional parties.

5. It has emerged as the largest party with 303 members in the 2019 Lok Sabha elections. It currently Leads the ruling NDA government at the centre.

Communist Party of India (CPI):

  1. It was formed in 1925. Its approach is heavily inclined towards Marxism-Leninism, secularism and advocates democracy.
  2. It opposes the forces of secessionism and communalism. Despite following Marxism, it has accepted parliamentary democracy as a means of promoting the interests of the working class, farmers and the poor.
  3. It went through a nasty split in the party in 1964 post which CPI(M) was formed.
  4. It shows a significant presence in the states of Kerala, West Bengal, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
  5. It secured less than 1 per cent votes and 2 seats in the 2019 Lok Sabha elections showcasing its loss of popularity.
  6. It advocates building an alliance involving all left parties as a strong left front.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M):

  1. It was founded in 1964 and has a firm belief in Marxism-Leninism. Like CPI, it supports socialism, secularism and democracy and opposes imperialism and communalism.
  2. It has accepted democratic elections as a useful and helpful means for securing the objective of socio-economic justice in India.
  3. It shows a promising presence in West Bengal, Kerala and Tripura, especially among the poor, factory workers, farmers, agricultural labourers and the intelligentsia.
  4. The party is critical of the free market policy and free flow of foreign capital and goods into the country. It ruled West Bengal for 34 years without a break. It won about 1.75 per cent of votes and 3 seats in the 2019 General Elections.

Indian National Congress (INC):
1. It is popularly known as the Congress Party and was founded in 1885. It is one of the oldest parties of the world.

2. It has undergone multiple splits. It has been one of the most dominant players in Indian politics at the national and state level for several decades before and after India’s Independence.

3. The Party aspires to build a modern secular democratic republic in India. The party ruled at the centre till 1977 and then from 1980 to 1989. Post that period, it has lost popularity but continues to maintain a strong presence, cutting across social divisions.

4. Congress in its ideological orientation is centrist. It espouses secularism and welfare of weaker sections and minorities.

5. The INC supports new economic reforms keeping in mind the welfare of all sections of the society. It led the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government from 2004 to 2019.

Nationalist Congress Party (NCP):

  • It was formed in 1999 following a split in the Congress party.
  • It espouses democracy, Gandhian secularism, equity, social justice and federalism. It advocates that offices in government be confined to natural-born citizens of the country.
  • It has a major significance in Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Manipur and Assam. It is a coalition partner of Congress in the state of Maharashtra. Since 2004, it has been a member of the United Progressive Alliance.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Example 5.
Match List I (organisations and struggles) with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

List I

List II

(1) Congress Party Democratic Alliance (A) National
(2) Bharatiya Janata Party (B) State party
(3) Communist Party of India (C) United Progressive (Marxist) Alliance
(4) Telugu Desam Party (D) Left Front

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties 1
(c) CADB
Explanation: Congress Party is the leader of the United Progressive (Marxist) Alliance Bharatiya Janata Party is the leader of the National Democratic Alliance Communist Party of India leads the left front. Telugu Desam Party is a state party.

Example 6.
Who among the following is the founder of the Bahujan Samaj Party?
(a) Kanshi Ram
(b) Sahu Maharaj
(c) B.R. Ambedkar
(d) Jotiba Phule
(a) Kanshi Ram

Example 7.
What is the guiding philosophy of the Bharatiya Janata Party?
(a) Bahujan Samaj
(b) Revolutionary democracy
(c) Integral humanism
(d) Modernity
(c) Integral Humanism

State Parties

State parties are also referred to as regional parties. However, they need not be regional in their ideology or outlook. They can also be all India parties which happen to have succeeded only in some states. Parties like the Samajwadi Party and Rashtriya Janata Dal have national level political organisations with units in several states. Biju Janata Dal, Sikkim Democratic Front, Mizo National Front and Telangana Rashtra Samithi are conscious about their state identity. State Parties have risen in numbers from the past few years
making Indian Parliament representative and more diverse.

No party could achieve an absolute majority between 1990s-2014. To form governments, national parties had to form alliances with state parties. Since 1996, nearly every State party has had an opportunity to be a part of a national level coaLition government.

It strengthens federalism and democracy in our country.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Challenges to Political Parties

Political parties are crucial for the working of democracy. People blame parties for improper functioning of administration and political set up because they are the visible faces of democracy. People express strong dissatisfaction with the failure of political parties to perform their functions well. Popular dissatisfaction in working of political parties has been basically over 4 different problems areas. To maintain their image as an effective instrument of democracy, they have to work upon these infirmities.
1. The first challenge is lack of internal democracy within parties. In most political parties, power tends to concentrate in the hands of the topmost leaders. Proper registers of membership are not maintained and internal elections and organisational meetings are not conducted regularly.

Flow of information within the party is not fluid or regular. Members do not have the means or the
connections needed to influence the decisions. Leaders automatically assume greater power to make decisions on behalf of the party. Due to accumulation of paramount power in the hands of few leaders, dissenters find themselves out of the party, if they try to raise their voices. Personal loyalty to the Leader becomes a significant criterion for continuing the membership of the society.

2. The second challenge of dynastic succession is closely related to the first challenge Ordinary workers find it almost impossible to rise to the top in a party due to the lack of transparency in working or functioning of the party. Leaders favour their families and friends and often appoint them at topmost and important positions in the party. This is unfair to the members without influence- also bad for democracy because inefficient members are appointed without any adequate experience or support at influential positions. Even in the oldest democracy, this challenge can be seen.

3. The growing role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during elections is another challenge. Parties tend to use dishonest methods to win elections including nomination of those candidates who have or can raise lots of money. Rich industrialists and companies funding the parties have an undue influence on the policies and decisions of the party. Parties even support criminals who can win elections. This is concerning for advocates of democracy.

4. The fourth challenge is that parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters. Parties must be significantly different in terms of ideology and approaches.
Recent years have seen a steep decline in the ideological differences among parties in most
parts of the world. For example, Labour Party and Conservative Party of Britain are not different ideologically. They differ very minutely only in details on how policies are to be framed and implemented.

In India, the differences among all the main parties on the economic policies have declined. Dissenters do not have many options to choose from. At times, even leaders keep shifting from one party to another, thereby reducing choice among candidates too. Shifting from one party to another is called defection.

The different challenges faced by a political party are different from each other but can prove to be confusing. Students must take extreme care to understand the concept of each challenge welL
The different challenges faced by a political party are not to be confused with challenges faced by a democracy.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

Ways to Reform Parties

Political parties require reformation. The leaders who represent political parties are the final decision makers in a democracy. To reform them, the entire party has to agree and decide to reform.

Some recent developments and suggestion for reformation are:
1. The Constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from frequently changing parties. Defection had become a common practice for political leaders- either in hunger of political influence or cash rewards. If any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she is suspended and their seat in the legislature is lost. This amendment has helped to bring down the cases of defection. On the negative side, it has made dissent against the Leaders even more difficult. MPs and MLAs have to accept whatever the party leaders decide.

2. The Supreme Court passed several orders and laws to reduce the influence of money and criminals making it mandatory for every candidate who contests elections to file an affidavit declaring his assets- details of his property and criminal cases pending against him. This system has made several details regarding the candidate’s public stature. A mechanism to scrutinise this declaration and verify the details is yet to be developed. The trends and consequences of this law have not yet been released.

3. The Election Commission passed an order making it necessary for political parties to hold their organisational elections and file their income tax returns. The implementation has not been rigid though. Thus it is unclear if this has made the situation good or worse.

Example 8.
Suggest some reforms to strengthen parties so that they perform their functions well?
Some other suggestions to reform political parties are:
1. A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties.

2. Registration of each member and proper regulation of membership, stringency to follow its own constitution, to have an independent authority and act as judges in case of party disputes, to hold open elections to the highest posts should all be ensured.

3. Reservation of one-third seats in political parties and decision making bodies for women candidates should be ensured.

4. State funding of elections should be ensured. The government should give parties support in cash or kind for their election expenses. Cash could also be given on the basis of votes gained during the elections.

These suggestions have not yet been accepted by political parties. Legal solutions to political problems should be carefully drafted. Over-regulation of political parties can be counterproductive. This could force parties to use the loopholes in these Laws. Political parties might not agree at all to pass such stringent laws.

Some More Ways to Reform Parties
Political parties can also be reformed through:
1. Pressure from the people: People can put pressure on political parties. This can be done through petitions, publicity and agitations.

2. Ordinary citizens, pressure groups and movements and the media can play an important role in this. The fear of losing support from the public can encourage political parties to reform themselves.

3. Political parties can improve if future participants make it a point to reform these parties.
The quality of democracy depends on the degree of public participation. Political participation alone can lead parties on a path of reformation. The problem of bad politics can be solved by better politics.

→ Omnipresent: Present everywhere, widespread.

→ Collective good: Interest of the society, community or a big group.

→ Partisan: Strong supporter of a party, prejudiced against something.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

→ Political Executive: Executive at the head of the government or ministers.

→ Panchayat: Local self-governing bodies at the village.

→ Factions: Groups.

→ Antyodaya: Rise of the last man, development of the most vulnerable.

→ Humanism: A rationalist outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.

→ Secessionism: The policy of those advocating secession.

→ Socialism: A political or economic theory of social organisation which advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community.

→ Leftist: Relating to left wing, left wing generally supports socialist tendencies- upliftment of the worker and labour class.

→ Rightist: Relating to right wing, right wing generally supports liberalism, free trade and free economy.

→ Centrist: Relating to central attitude- balance of two wings.

→ Paramount: Ultimate.

→ Dissenters: One who debates and disagrees.

→ Counterproductive: Harmful.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 6 Notes Political Parties

→ 1885: Indian National Congress was formed

→ 1925: CPI was founded

→ 1951: Bharatiya Jana Sangh was formed

→ 1964: Split in CPI, CPI M was formed

→ 1980: BJP was formed

→ 1984: BSP was formed

→ 1998: AITC was formed

→ 1999: Nationalist Congress Party was formed

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Outcomes of Democracy Class 10 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 7

Assessment of Democracy’s Outcomes

Democracy is a better form of government when compared with dictatorship or any other alternative.
We feel that democracy was better because it

  • Promotes equality among citizens;
  • Enhances the dignity of the individual;
  • Improves the quality of decision making;
  • Provides a method to resolve conflicts; and
  • Allows room to correct mistakes.

Most people support democracies over the rule by a monarch, military or religious leaders in theory. Democracy is seen to be good in principle, but not considered as efficient in practice.

More than a hundred countries across the world claim to practice some kind of democratic politics. This is facilitated through formal constitutions such as elections and the presence of political parties.

These states have also guaranteed rights to citizens. Despite the similarities, these democracies are different from one another in terms of their social situations, their economic achievements and their cultures. Consequently, the ideals achieved or not achieved under each of these democracies will be very different.

Our generic expectations from democracy are that it can address all socio-economic and political problems. Any underachievement pushes us to complain about the principle of democracy. We question the idea or existence of democracy itself.

It is necessary to recognise that democracy is just a form of government. It can only create conducive conditions for achievement of some goals. To realise them, citizens have to avail those opportunities and achieve those goals.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Accountable, Responsive and Legitimate Government

In a democracy, it is important to ensure that people have the right to choose their rulers and people have control over the rulers. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should be able to participate in making decisions on matters that affect them all. The most basic outcome of democracy should be to produce a competent government, accountable to the citizens and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens.

It is a common belief that democracy produces less effective government. Non-democratic rulers do not have to bother about deliberation in assemblies or worry about consensus and public opinion and thus the decision-making is quick and simple, and the implementation, efficient and effective.

The following are a few features of democracies:
1. Democracy is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation.

  • Democracy ensures that decision-making will be based on norms and procedures. It is bound to take some time to reach a consensus and decide.
  • Even though the decisions are slow because the procedure takes a lot of time, they are popular and accepted by the public- which leads to greater compliance. The cost of time that is paid by democratic governments is thus worth it.

2. A democratic government has to be transparent. It should facilitate its citizens if they want to know whether a decision was taken through the correct procedure, right information within a decent time period.

Every citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making. This factor is often missing from a non-democratic government.

3. A significant outcome of a democracy is to produce a government that follows procedures and is accountable to the people.

It can be expected that the democratic government develops mechanisms for citizens to hold the government accountable. It should also build mechanisms for citizens to participate in decision making whenever they think fit.

Frequently Asked:
To measure if a country does well on these parameters, the following institutions or practices must be checked:

  • Regular, free, and fair elections;
  • Open public debate on major policies and legislations:
  • Citizens’ right to information about the government and its functioning. Democracies show an average performance on these parameters.


  • Democracies have had greater success in setting up regular and free elections and in setting up conditions for open public debate. Most democracies fall short of free and fair elections.
  • Democratic governments do not have a very good record when it comes to sharing information with citizens. Democratic governments are better than non-democratic governments in this respect.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Example 1.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
The routine tales of corruption are enough to convince us that democracy is not free of this evil. At the same time, there is nothing to show that non-democracies are less corrupt or more sensitive to the people.
There is one respect in which democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives: democratic government is legitimate government. It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean.
But a democratic government is the people’s own government. That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world. As the accompanying evidence from South Asia shows, the support exists in countries with democratic regimes as well as countries without democratic regimes.
(A) Which country in South Asia shows less support for democracy?
(a) India
(b) Bangladesh
(c) Pakistan
(d) Sri Lanka
(c) Pakistan

(B) Why is democratic government a legitimate government?
Democratic government is a legitimate government because it has been elected by popular support.

(C) Which of the following evils are not found in a democracy?
(a) Casteism
(b) Economic Inequalities
(c) Political Inequality
(d) Corruption
(c) Political inequality

Explanation: Democracy is based on political equality. It provides so by universal adult franchise.

(D) Assertion (A): Democracy is slow and inefficient.
Reason (R): It is a rule of minority.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(c) (A) is correct but (R.) is wrong.

Explanation: Democracy is a rule of majority. It is slow because to get the consent of the majority and think of every citizen’s well-being requires deliberation and hence cannot be taken without proper procedures and discussions.

Support for Democracy:
A democratic government should be attentive to the needs and demands of the people. It is also very common to expect a democracy to be largely free of corruption. However, democracies do not fare well on these two counts. Democracies frustrate the needs of the people and often ignore the demands of a majority of its population. Democratic governments and administration are filled with corrupt officials. However, no study proves that non-democracies are less corrupt or more sensitive to the needs of the people.

Democratic government is certainly better than its alternatives in one respect- it is a legitimate government.
It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean. It is however a popular government. A democratic government is people’s own government. Democracy is supported all around the world.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Democracy is preferred over dictatorships everywhere except in Pakistan.
With accompanying evidence South Asia shows, this support exists in countries with democratic regimes as well as countries without democratic regimes. People wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them. Democracy’s ability to generate its own support is one of the most important outcomes of democracy.

On an average dictatorial regime have had a slightly better record of economic growth. But when we compare their record only in poor countries, there is virtually no difference.
Within democracies there can be a very high degree of inequalities. In democratic countries like South Africa and Brazil, the top 20 per cent people take away more than 60 per cent of the national income, leaving less than 3 percent for the bottom 20 per cent population. Countries like Denmark and Hungary are much better in this respect.

Economic Growth and Development

Democracies are expected to produce both good governance and development. However, democracies have not been able to fulfil these expectations. During the period between 1950-2000, a comparison between democracy and dictatorships shows that dictatorships have a slightly higher rate of growth.

The inability of democracy to achieve higher economic development is concerning. However, the concept of democracy can just not be rejected because it gives slightly less economic growth.

Economic development depends on several factors:

  1. A country’s population size,
  2. Its global situation,
  3. Cooperation from other countries
  4. Economic priorities adopted by the country, etc.

The difference in the rates of economic development between less developed countries with dictatorships and democracies is negligible. Democracy cannot be called a guarantee of economic development. However due to the nature of democracy, people expect democracy not to lag behind dictatorships in terms of economic development.

Frequently Asked w Despite differences in the rates of economic growth between countries under dictatorship and democracy, it is better to prefer democracy as it has several positive outcomes.

Reduction of Inequality and Poverty

It is reasonable to expect democracies to reduce economic disparities. It is a common dilemma whether a democratic country achieves economic growth, so that the wealth will be distributed in a way that benefits all classes of citizens equally. It is a common question whether a democracy will lead to a just distribution of goods and opportunities. Questions such as will the wealth be distributed in such a way that all citizens of the country have a better life will be in minds of people.

Economic growth in democracies is accompanied by increased inequalities among the people.
Democracies lead to a just distribution of goods and opportunities. Democracies are based on political equality. All individuals have equal weight in electing representatives. Parallel to promoting political participation, economic inequalities grow in a democracy.

A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a large amount of wealth and income. This share keeps increasing. The poorest classes do not have much resources to depend upon. Their incomes have been declining to the point that sometimes meeting basic needs of life, such as food, clothing, house, education and health becomes difficult.

However, democracies are not very successful in reducing economic inequalities. The poor voters make or break a party in elections but even then, the democratically elected governments do not appear to be as keen to address the question of poverty. In most countries, the situation is terrible.

In Bangladesh, more than half of its population live in poverty. People in several poor countries are now dependent on the rich countries even for food supplies.

Accommodation of Social Diversity

It is a fair expectation that democracy should produce a harmonious social life. Democracies accommodate various social divisions. Belgium has successfully negotiated differences among ethnic populations. A harmonious social life can only be attained in case of accommodation and provision of equal respect to all social groups and tribes.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Frequently Asked:
Democracies develop a procedure to conduct their competition. This reduces the possibility of these tensions becoming explosive or violent.

No society is capable of resolving conflicts among different groups.
We have to learn to accommodate the differences and evolve mechanisms to negotiate the differences.
Democracy is best suited to produce this outcome. Non-democratic regimes suppress internal social differences. Ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts is thus a definite plus point of democratic regimes.

The situations in Sri Lanka reminds us that a democracy must fulfil two conditions in order to achieve this outcome:
1. Democracy is not simply ruled by majority opinion. The majority has to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view. Majority and minority opinions are not permanent.

2. It is also necessary that rule by the majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion or race or linguistic group, etc. Rule by majority might make that government despotic. In case of every election, different persons and groups may and can form a majority. Democracy can be called democracy only as long as every citizen has a chance of being in majority at some point of time. If there is discrimination in those terms, then the democratic rule ceases to be accommodative for that person or group.

Example 2.
In the context of democracies, which of the following ideas is correct – democracies have successfully eliminated:
(a) conflicts among people.
(b) economic inequalities among people.
(c) differences of opinion about how marginalized sections are to be treated.
(d) the idea of political inequality.
(d) the idea of political inequality

Explanation: Democracies provide political equality through universal adult franchise. It promotes equality of treatment.

Example 3.
In the context of assessing democracy which among the following is odd one out. Democracies need to ensure:
(a) free and fair elections.
(b) dignity of the individual.
(c) majority rule.
(d) equal treatment before law.
(c) majority rule
Explanation: Democracy ensures rule of the will of the people.

Example 4.
Studies on political and social inequalities in democracy show that:
(a) democracy and development go together.
(b) inequalities exist in democracies.
(c) inequalities do not exist under dictatorship.
(d) dictatorship is better than democracy.
(b) inequalities exist in democracies.
Explanation: Inequalities exist but they are better accommodated.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

Dignity and Freedom of The Citizens

Democracy is superior to any other form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the individual. Conflicts arise among individuals if they feel they are not being treated with respect. The passion for respect and freedom are the basis of democracy. Democratic governments recognise that, at least in principle.

Non-democratic societies are built on the basis of subordination and domination. They are unable to recognize that all individuals are equal. Most societies across the world were historically male-dominated societies.

Long struggles by women have changed the mindset of the society. It has now been established that respect and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society. However, women are not actually always treated with respect. Recognition of a principle makes it easier for women to wage a struggle against unacceptable behaviour legally and morally. In a non-democratic set up, this unacceptability would not have legal basis because the principle of individual freedom and dignity does not have the legal and moral force there. This can also be said in case of caste inequalities.

Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity.

Instances of caste-based inequalities and atrocities are still reported, but these lack the moral and legal foundations. The recognition of their claims makes ordinary citizens value their democratic rights.

Frequently Asked:
Expectations from democracy can be used as parameters to judge any democratic country. For a democracy, its examination is never over. As democracy passes one test, it produces another test. As people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more and want to make democracy even better.

Example 5.
Give arguments to support or oppose the following assertions:
1. Industrialised countries can afford democracy but the poor need dictatorship to become rich.
Dictatorships guarantee better economic growth but they do not guarantee reduction of economic inequality. Dictatorships are not dedicated to promote the dignity of each individual or provide them equal opportunities for development.

2. Democracy can’t reduce inequality of incomes between different citizens.
Democracy makes effort to reduce inequalities and at least recognises its intention of doing so. Dictatorships do not make an effort.

3. Governments in poor countries should spend less on poverty reduction, health, education and spend more on industries and infrastructure.
Governments in poor countries should spend equally on both to encourage development both economically and that of lifestyles and standards.

4. In democracy all citizens have one vote, which means that there is absence of any domination and conflict.
Conflicts are present but they are better accommodated. Domination is also possible but again better accounted for.

Because its test never ends, people always come up with more expectations, and many complaints.
The fact that people are complaining is itself a testimony to the success of democracy: Because it shows that people have developed awareness and the ability to expect and critically analyse power holders and people with authority.

A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows that a democratic project is successful: it transforms people from the status of a subject into that of a citizen. Individuals have begun to believe that their votes make a difference to the way the government is run and to their own self-interest.

→ Dictatorship: A type of government in which a state is ruled by one person and all authority resides in him.

→ Military rule: A type of government in which the control of the state/government is with the military.

→ Accountable: Responsible and answerable.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 7 Notes Outcomes of Democracy

→ Deliberation: Discussion and debates.

→ Transparency: State where all procedures of the government and administration are open to the examination of the citizens.

→ Legitimate: Approved by majority.

→ Atrocities: Incidences of violence against citizens.

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 4

Gender And Politics

Gender division is a form of hierarchical social division expressed usually but studied occasionally in political science. Gender division tends to be understood as natural and unchangeable. In practice, it is not based on biology but on social expectations and stereotypes.

Children are taught to believe that Sexual division of labour is natural and organic- that women are meant to be the caregivers, housewives and do stereotypical chores like washing clothes, tailoring, cleaning etc.

Example 1.
Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated against or disadvantaged in India.
People are made to believe that men are supposed to work outside the homes- earn and provide for the family. Cleaning and cooking at their houses are just roles cut out for women- if the similar roles were paid, men should and would take these jobs too.

In villages, women fetch water, collect fuel and work in the fields. In urban areas, poor women work as domestic helpers in middle class homes, while middle class women work in offices. Most women indulge in some jobs apart from their daily chores. This work is not valued ar.d recognised.

Although women constitute half of humanity, their role in public Life, especially politics, is minimal. Only men were allowed to participate in public affairs, vote and contest for public offices until very recently.

Eventually, the gender issue was raised in politics when women in different parts of the world organised and agitated for equal rights. One of the issues was the extension of voting rights to women. Women revolutionaries demanded strengthening the political and legal status of women. They wanted to improve their educational and career opportunities.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Example 2.
When we speak of gender divisions, we usually refer to:
(a) Biological difference between men and women
(b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women
(c) Unequal child sex ratio
(d) Absence of voting rights for women in democracies
(b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women

A few radical women movements aimed at equality in the personal and family sphere. These movements have been called Feminist movements.

Political expression of gender division and political mobilisation on this issue improved the status of women. Women received their due share of opportunities to work as scientists, doctors, engineers, Lawyers, managers and college and university teachers- jobs that were strictly restricted to men before. This development however has not been uniform all around the world.

Frequently Asked:

  • In Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of women in public life is very high.
  • In India, women still lag much behind men despite some improvement since Independence. Indian Society can still be called male dominated, Patriarchal society.

Women have to face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression in various ways:
1. The literacy rate among women is only 54 per cent compared with 76 per cent among men.

2. Dropout rates in higher educational institutions among girl students is significantly higher than that of males. Despite being good students, girls have to drop out due to lack of resources, orthodox, conservative thinking and parent’s prejudice for a son as their heir.

3. The proportion of women in highly paid jobs is very less.

4. Despite working harder than men, women Labourers are paid significantly less than their male counterparts. The Equal Remuneration Act of 1976 provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work without any discrimination on basis of gender, caste or creed. Despite that women are paid less in various fields ranging from sports and cinema to factories and fields.

5. Indian parents prefer to have male children over female children. Sex-selective abortion leads to a decline in Child Sex-Ratio in the country to merely 919 for every thousand. In select states, the ratio is even lower.

6. Various kinds of harassment, exploitation and violence against women everywhere, especially in urban areas, which have become particularly unsafe for women. Domestic violence has destroyed their peace and security at their homes too.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Women’s Political Representation:
Issues like these have been ignored for centuries. This ^ has led to many feminists and women’s movements to the conclusion that to attract adequate consideration and attention, women will have to gain power. One way to empower them is through political k empowerment. In India, the proportion of women in the legislature has been very low.

Frequently Asked:
The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha touched 14.36 per cent of its total strength for the first time in 2019 elections. Their share in the state assemblies is still less than 5 per cent. India is among the bottom group of nations in the world in women participation in the public sphere.

In this regard, India is behind the developing countries of Africa and Latin America. Cabinets are largely all-male in Central or state legislatures even when a woman becomes the Chief Minister or the Prime Minister. A step taken to introduce reforms in this matter was to reserve one-third of seats in local self-government bodies (in panchayats and municipalities) for women. Today, there are more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies. Women’s organisations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least one third of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women.

A bill with this proposal has been pending before the Parliament for more than a decade. The bill has not been passed owing to the lack of consensus.

Gender divisions drive home the point that some form of social division needs to be expressed in politics. It expresses that disadvantaged groups benefit when social divisions become a political issue.

Example 3.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
One way to solve this problem is to make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. This is what the Panchayati Raj has done in India. One Third of seats in local government bodies – in panchayats and municipalities – are now reserved for women. Now there are more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies. Women’s organisations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least one third of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women.

A bill with this proposal has been pending before the Parliament for more than a decade. But there is no consensus over this among all the political parties. The bill has not been passed. Gender division is an example that some form of social division needs to be expressed in politics.
(A) Which of the following is the best performing country in terms of womens’ participation in political movements?
(a) Norway
(b) Russia
(c) Saudi Arabia
(d) India
(a) Norway

(B) Do you agree “Gender division is an example that some form of social division needs to be expressed in politics”?
Yes. It has helped women mobilise and speak up for themselves.

(C) One way to solve this problem is to make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. How has this been achieved through Panchayati Raj in India?
(a) Through reservation of l/6th of seats for women in local self government bodies.
(b) Through removal of l/6th of seats from the legislatures to reduce competition.
(c) Through reservation of l/3rd of seats in local self government bodies.
(d) Through increasing the number of seats in order to accommodate more men.
(c) Through reservation of 1/3 rd of seats in local self government bodies.
Explanation: Reservation of seats has helped to accommodate more women in local self governance bodies and institutions of decision making.

(D) Assertion (A): Women do not participate enough in public and political life in India.
Reason(R): India is a matriarchal society.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

Explanation: India is a patriarchal society. Most families still consider that women should be caregivers and homemakers. Hence their participation is less in the political sphere.

Religion, Communalism And Politics

Religious divisions are not as universal as gender, but religious diversity is fairly widespread in the world today. Many countries including India host multiple religious groups.

Like in the case of Northern Ireland, despite belonging to the same religion, people can have difficulties over the way it is practiced. Religious differences are expressed in the field of politics. Gandhiji believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion.

Human rights groups have argued that most of the victims of communal riots in our country are people from religious minorities. They have requested that the government take special steps to protect religious minorities. Women’s movements have also argued that family laws of all the religions discriminate against women. They have demanded changes in laws to bring equality between the sexes.

Ideas, ideals and values drawn from different religions play a role in politics. People should be able to express in politics their needs, interests and demands as members of religious communities. Leaders should be able to regulate the practice of religion so as to prevent discrimination and oppression. Political acts are not wrong as long as they treat all religions equally.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Problems arise when religion is expressed in politics in exclusive and partisan terms, when one religion and its followers are instigated and played against another. When beliefs of one religion are presented as superior when compared to others, when state power is used to establish domination of one reLigious group over the rest and the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another, Communalism begins.
Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.

Communalism involves that the stakeholders believe:

  1. That the followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. Their fundamental interests are the same. Differences are trivial for community life.
  2. Followers of different religions cannot belong to the same social communities. Any commonalities among them are superficial and immaterial. Their interests are bound to be different and involve a conflict.

Communalism spreads the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal citizens within one nation. They can only live peacefully if one dominates the rest or else they have to form separate countries.

It is not necessary for all the people of one religion to have the same interests and aspirations in every context. There are many voices inside every community which have to be heard. Any attempt to bring up common features will destroy their individuality and uniqueness.

Example 4.
Consider the following statements on the meaning of communal politics. Communal politics is based on the belief that:
A. One religion is superior to that of others.
B. People belonging to different religions can live together happily as equal citizens.
C. Followers of a particular religion constitute one community.
D. State power cannot be used to establish the domination of one religious group over others. Which of the statements is /are correct?
(a) A, B, C, and D
(b) A, B, and D
(c) A and C
(d) B and D
(c) A and C

Explanation: Communal politics believes in superiority of one religion over the other and that the followers of a particular religion that constitute one community strictly cannot live together peacefully.

Forms of Communalism

Communalism can take various forms in politics:
1. Through everyday debates and conversations involving religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one’s religion over other religions. It is the most common form of expression of communalism. This takes the form of mdjoritarian dominance if corrupted. This also leads to separationist tendencies among the minorities. It can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit.

2. Another form is political mobilisation on reLigious lines. Sacred symbols, religious leaders, and emotional appeal are used to unify people in the name of religion under one political arena. Minority or majority appeasement is one of the main measures used for this purpose.

3. Communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. India and Pakistan suffered the same during Partition.
Secular state Communalism was and continues to be one of the major challenges to democracy in our country.

Secular State:
The model of Secular state was introduced in the Constitution to save India from division based on lines of religion.

Several Constitutional provisions in India reflect this idea:

  1. There is no official religion for the Indian state.
  2. The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any
  3. The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion. The Constitution allows the state to intervene in the matters of religion in order to ensure equality within religious communities. For example. The Constitution bans untouchability. In India, Secularism is not just an ideology of some parties or persons.
  4. Communalism should not be seen as a threat to some people in India. It threatens the very idea of India. Communism needs to be removed. Communal prejudices and propaganda need to be countered in everyday life and religion based mobilisation needs to be countered or kept away from politics.

Buddhism is the state religion in Sri Lanka, Islam in Pakistan and Christianity is the state religion in England.

Caste in Politics

The interaction of caste and politics has both positive and the negative aspects. Caste division is unique to Indian society. Social inequalities and forms of division of labour cause occupations to be passed on from one generation to another, which has further led to the emergence of Caste System. Hereditary occupational division has been sanctioned by rituals.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Example 5.
Social divisions based on ………………. are peculiar to India.

Members within a caste or community are supposed to practice similar occupations, get married within the caste group and not eat with members from other caste groups. Caste system has been based on exclusion of and discrimination against the ‘outcaste’ groups. This also caused the practice of untouchability. Political leaders and social reformers UkeJyotibaPhule, Gandhiji, B. R. Ambedkar and Periyar Ramaswamy Naicker advocated and worked to establish a society without caste inequalities.

The Census of India counts two social groups: the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. These broad groups include hundreds of castes or tribes whose names are listed in an official Schedule. Thus they are called Scheduled.

The Scheduled Castes commonly known as Dalits, include those that were previously regarded as ‘outcaste’ in the Hindu social order and were subjected to exclusion and untouchability. The Scheduled Tribes, often referred to as Adivasis, include those communities that led a secluded life usually in hills and forests and did not interact much with the rest of society. In 2011, the Scheduled Castes were 16.6 per cent and the Scheduled Tribes were 8.6 per cent of the country’s population.

Combined with their efforts, socio-economic changes, castes and caste system has changed drastically. With economic development, large scale urbanisation, growth of literacy and education, occupational mobility and the weakening of the position of landlords and Zamindars in the villages, the old rigid notions of Caste hierarchy are dying.

The Constitution of India prohibited any caste-based discrimination and laid the foundations of policies to reverse the injustices of the caste system. There have been major developments but despite the efforts, effects of centuries of these practices continue to be felt today.

Caste is an important source of economic inequality because it regulates access to resources of various kinds. For example, in the past, the so-called ‘untouchable’ castes were denied the right to own land, while only the so-called ‘twice born’ castes had the right to education.

The castes with access to older education have accepted modern education. Few groups continue to lag behind due to lack of opportunities. There is a disproportionately large presence of ‘upper caste’ among the urban middle classes in our country. Caste continues to be closely linked to economic status.

Like Communal politics with religion- Casteism is rooted in the belief that caste is the sole basis of social community. Just like religious groups, caste groups have been formed.

Caste is one aspect of our experience but it is not the only relevant or the most important aspect.

Frequently Asked:
Caste can take various farms in politics

  1. Parties nominate candidates from different castes to muster necessary support to win elections since people in India vote their caste, not cast their vote.
  2. When governments are formed, political parties ensure representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it.
  3. Political parties and candidates in elections appeal to casteist sentiments to muster support. Universal Adult Franchise and the principle of one-person-one-vote fbrce political parties to mobilise and muster public support.
  4. It brings consciousness among the people of Lower and deprived castes.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Example 6.
State reasons to saj that caste atone cannot determine election results in India.
Despite the huge role castes play in elections, elections and politics are not only just about Caste. This can be asserted:
1. No parliamentary constituency in the country has a clear majority of one single caste. Consequently, every candidate and party needs to win the confidence of various castes and communities to win elections.

2. No party wins the votes of all the voters of a caste or community. Many political parties may put up candidates from the same caste which may cause the votes to get divided. Some voters have more than one candidate from their caste while many voters have no candidate from their caste.

3. The ruling party and the sitting ministers or members of legislatures frequently lose elections in India. Hence caste vote bank is fluid and can turn any side.

4. The voters have strong attachment to political parties which is often stronger than their attachment to their caste or community. People belonging to different classes within the same caste vote differently.

5. People’s assessment of the performance of the government and the leaders are decisive in elections.

Politics in Caste

There is a two-way relationship between caste and politics. Politics too influences the caste system by politicising it.
It is not politics that gets caste-ridden but caste that gets politicised.

  1. Each caste group tries to gain membership by including states and neighbouring territories in their caste group.
  2. Caste groups form a coalition with other castes or communities to enter into a dialogue and negotiation and assert their significance and powers on others.
  3. New caste groups have come into society. These are labelled as ‘backward’ and ‘forward’ caste groups.

Caste plays different kinds of roles in politics . Where on one hand, expression of caste differences in politics helps disadvantaged communities in expring their needs and demands of their share of power. This improves their decision making process. Multiple organisations, institutions and groups have been demanding for an end to all kinds of discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities.

Excessive attention to certain caste groups has resulted in negative consequences. Like religion, politics based on caste based identity alone is not very healthy in a democracy. Caste division leads to tensions, conflict and violence. It diverts attention from real issues like poverty, development and corruption.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

Example 7.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:

List I

List II

(1) A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men.  (A) Communalist
(2) A person who says that religion is the principal basis of community.  (B) Feminist
(3) A person who thinks that caste is the principal basis of community.  (C) Secularist
(4) A person who does not discriminate against others on the basis of religious beliefs.  (D) Castiest

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste 1
(b) BADC

Example 8.
Which among the following statements about India’s Constitution is wrong?
(a) prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.
(b) gives official status to one religion.
(c) provides to all individuals freedom to profess any religion.
(d) ensures equality of citizens within religious communities.
(b) gives official status to one religion.

Explanation: The Constitution of India does not recognize any specific religion at our state religion.

→ Feminist Movements: A range of social movements, political movements, and ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes.

→ Mobilization: The act of encouraging, organizing, and making ready for use or action.

→ Patriarchal Society: Of relating to the male head of the family or society.

→ Oppression: A situation where people are governed in an unfair and cruel way.

→ Partisan: A strong supporter of a political party.

→ Secular: Not associated with a particular religion.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 4 Notes Gender Religion and Caste

→ Communalism: Allegiance to one’s own ethnic group rather than to the wider society.

→ Propaganda: Ideology used in a misleading way.

→ Occupational mobility: It refers to the ease at which a worker can leave one job for another in a different field.

→ Constituency: A group of voters in a specified area who elect a representative to a legislative body.

→ Apartheid: A policy of segregation or discrimination on grounds of race; prevalent in South Africa

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Federalism Class 10 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 2


One of the key changes made in the Constitution of Belgium was to devolve the powers of the central government to give these powers to the regional governments. This was different from their original arrangement where these powers were given to regional governments by the central government and could be withdrawn by the latter too.

Regional governments were made independent of the central government constitutionally in 1993. Belgium shifted from a unitary to a federal form of government.

Sri Lanka is still a unitary system where the national government has all the powers. Tamil leaders want
Sri Lanka to become a federal system.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Frequently Asked:
Federalism is a system of government in which the power is divided between a central government and various separately answerable to the people constituent units of the country. A federation has two levels of government.

One is the central/pan-nation government responsible for a few subjects of common national interest Regional/ Provincial governments at the level of provinces or states that look after general administration of their state. These governments enjoy their power independent of the other.

Federations are contrasted with unitary governments because unitary governments have only one level of government. If more levels are present, the sub-units are subordinate to the central government.

The central government delegates powers and orders to the provincial government. In a federal system, the central government does not have the authority to order the state governments to do anything, except in the interests of the territorial integrity of the nation. State government is not answerable or accountable to the central government.
The central and the state governments are both separately answerable to the people.

Features of Federalism

Key Features of Federalism
1. There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government.

2. Each tier has its own jurisdiction in matters of legislation, taxation, economic affairs and administration. Despite this, they govern the same citizens.

3. Their jurisdictions and powers have been lucidly laid down in the Constitution. Their composition, responsibilities and powers are constitutionally guaranteed.

4. The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally amended by any one level of government. Amendments affecting their jurisdictions have to be passed by both the levels of government.

5. Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government. The courts have been given responsibilities of dispute resolution,
custodianship of Fundamental Rights and that of the Constitution apart from other powers. They have also been made the neutral party to judge and resolve disputes between the centre and state or between states.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

6. The Constitution clearly lays down sources of revenue for each level of government. This ensures its independence and financial autonomy.

7. The Federal System thus has dual objectives: to safeguard and promote unity of the country, while at the same time accommodate regional diversity.

8. Governments at different levels should agree to rules of power sharing. They should have mutual trust among them.

9. An ideal Federal System has both aspects: mutual trust and agreement to live together. The composition and power separation varies from federation to federation.

  • This balance depends on the historical context behind the formation of the federation.
  • Federations are formed in two ways.
  • The first route involves independent states coming together by their own will to form a bigger unit.
  • They give up parts of their sovereignty. They retain identity but are able to increase their security in this way.
  • This type of ‘coming together’ federations include the USA, Switzerland and Australia.
  • All the constituent states usually have equal power and are strong vis-a-vis the federal government.
  • The second route is where a large country divides its power between the constituent states and the national government. India, Spain and Belgium are examples of this kind of ‘holding together’ federation.
  • The Central Government tends to be more powerful vis-a-vis the States.
  • Different constituent units of the federation have unequal powers.

Despite only 25 of the world’s 193 countries having federal political systems, their citizens make up 40 percent of the world’s population.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism


Example 1.
The distinguishing feature of a federal government is:
(a) National government gives some powers to the provincial government.
(b) Power is distributed among the legislature, executive and judiciary.
(c) Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government.
(d) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.
(d) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government.

Features of India As a Federal Country

India is a vast country. It hosts a huge variety of diversity in its territory. India emerged as an independent nation after partition where Muslim-dominated provinces were strung together to form Pakistan. The Constitution declares India as a Union of States. Indian Union is based on the principles of Federalism. The term Federation has not been mentioned or used in the Constitution.

All the features of federalism apply to the provisions of the Indian Constitution.

  1. The Constitution initially provided for a two-tier system of government- the Union/central government and the state governments.
  2. The third tier of federalism was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities. All tiers are tasked with responsibilities and their respective jurisdiction.
  3. The Constitution provides a threefold distribution of legislative powers between the Union Government and the State Governments in form of three lists:

The Union List contains subjects of national importance such as defense of the country, foreign affairs, banking, communications, and currency. This was done to ensure a uniform policy on these matters throughout the country. Only the Union government makes laws on subjects in the Union list.

The State List contains subjects of State and local importance. For example, police, trade, commerce, agriculture and irrigation. Only the state governments can make laws relating to subjects mentioned in this list.

The Concurrent List includes subjects of common interest to both the Union Government as well as the State Governments, such as education, forests, trade unions, marriage, adoption and succession. The Union as well as the State Governments can make laws on these subjects. In case of a deadlock, the law made by the Union Government will prevail.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Frequently Asked:
According to our constitution, the Union Government has the power to legislate on the ‘residuary’ subjects. Any subject introduced after the Constitution was drafted or left by omission. Most federations that are formed by ‘holding together’ do not give equal power to its constituent units.

Example 2.
A few subjects in various lists of the Indian Constitution are given here. Group them under the Union, State, and Concurrent Lists as provided in the table below.
A. Defence;
B. Police;
C. Agriculture;
D. Education;
E. Banking;
F. Forests;
G. Communications;
H. Trade;
I. Marriages

  • Union list: Defence. Banking and Communications
  • State List: PoLice, Agriculture and Trade
  • Concurrent list: Education, Forests, and Marriages

Different states enjoy different powers. Jammu and Kashmir enjoyed a special status under article 370 and 35A till 2019. Many provisions of the Indian Constitution were not applicable to this State without the approval of the State Assembly. Indians who were not permanent residents of this State could not buy land or reside here permanently. Few other states enjoy some special status too.

Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram enjoy special powers under certain provisions of the Constitution of India (Article 371) due to their peculiar social and historical circumstances.

Few territories or units of India which were too small to become an independent State but which could not be merged with any of the existing states enjoy very little power, for example, Chandigarh, or Lakshadweep or the capital city of Delhi. These are called Union Territories. They do not have the status or the powers of a State. The Central Government runs them through special provisions.

Power-sharing between the Union Government and the State governments is basic to the structure of the Constitution. The Parliament cannot unilaterally change this arrangement. For proposing and implementing a change, resolutions have to be passed by both Houses of Parliament with at least two-thirds majority. It has to be ratified by the legislatures of at least half of the total States.

The judiciary supervises the implementation of constitutional provision. The High Courts and the Supreme Court have the power and responsibility to resolve any dispute between centre and states or among states.
The Union and State governments have been given the power to raise resources by levying taxes in order to function and run their respective states.

Example 3.
Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.
Both India and Belgium possess and promote the separation of Powers and Decentralisation. In Belgium, like India, regional governments were given constitutional powers making them independent.

Unlike India, Belgium possesses a community government elected by communities separately that controls its cultural affairs. India does not have any such government.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Example 4.
(A) Pokharan, the place where India conducted its nuclear tests, lies in Rajasthan. Suppose the Government of Rajasthan was opposed to the Central Government’s nuclear policy, could it prevent the Government of India from conducting the nuclear tests?
No it cannot preventthe Central government because the subject of energy and national security is under the Union List. The action was a test to ascertain our potential for using nuclear power for peaceful purposes.

(B) Suppose the Government of Sikkim plans to introduce new textbooks in its schools. But the Union Government does not like the style and content of the new textbooks. In that case, does the state government need to take permission from the Union Government before these textbooks can be launched?
Yes. It is important because education is

  • a subject of the Concurrent list. In case of a
  • deadlock, the law or decision by the Union government is final.

(C) Suppose the Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha have different policies on how their state police should respond to the naxalites. Can the Prime Minister of India intervene and pass an order that all the Chief Ministers will have to obey?
No, because police is a state subject.

The Practice of Federalism

Only clearly laid out Constitutional provisions cannot guarantee the success of Federalism. The real success of federalism in India can be attributed to the nature of democratic politics in our country. The nature and practice of democratic politics in our country ensured that the spirit of federalism, respect for diversity and desire for living together become a shared ideal in our country.

Linguistic States:
The creation of Linguistic States was one of the most fundamental tests of democratic politics in our country.

Most old states have been divided to form new states. Areas, boundaries and names of the states have been changed. In 1947, the boundaries of several old states of India were delimited in order to create new states. This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same State.

Some states were created not on the basis of language but to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography. National leaders feared that if new states were created, it would lead to the disintegration of the country. The Central Government resisted the formation of linguistic states for some time.

The formation of linguistic states has actually made the country more united. It has also made administration easier.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Example 5.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
If you look at the political map of India when it began its journey as a democracy in 1947 and that of 2019, you will be surprised by the extent of the changes. Many old States have vanished and many new States have been created. Areas, boundaries and names of the States have been changed. In 1947, the boundaries of several old States of India were changed in order to create new States. This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same State. Some States were created not on the basis of language but to recognise differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography.

When the demand for the formation of States on the basis of language was raised, some national leaders feared that it would lead to the disintegration of the country. The Central Government resisted linguistic States for some time. But the experience has shown that the formation of linguistic States has actually made the country more united. It has also made administration easier.
(A) Which of the following states were made to recognise differences based on language or ethnicity?
(a) Bihar
(b) Goa
(c) Nagaland
(d) Rajasthan
(a) Nagaland

(B) When was the boundary of the states delimited for the first time after Independence?
(a) 1967
(b) 1947
(c) 1950
(d) 1953
(b) 1947
Explanation: For the first time, 600 provincia and British ruled units were combined to form a nation.

Related Theory:
The second linguistic reorganisation of states took place in 1956.

(C) What features of democracy could be realised with linguistic reorganisation of the states?
Recognition and accommodation of diversities and social divisions help maintain peace in the nation. This is one of the features of democracy, equal respect to all diversities.

(D) Assertion (A): When the demand for the formation of states on the basis of language was raised, some national leaders feared that it would lead to the disintegration of the country.
Reason(R): When people with similar identities stay together, isolationist tendencies might increase.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Explanation: Since people with similar identities are able to relate better, they are unable to associate themselves with other groups. This leads to inception of isolationist tendencies. It was a legitimate fear that these groups might try to isolate themselves.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Language Policy:
Our Constitution does not give the status of national language to any one language. Hindi was identified as the official language. It is the mother tongue of only about 40 per cent of Indians especially those residing in northern India. Therefore, there were many safeguards put in place to conserve the rest of the language. 21 other languages besides Hindi were recognised as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution.

Any Central Government level examination can be taken in any of these languages. States too have their own official languages. All the government work takes place in the official language of the concerned State.

Indian leaders unlike Sri Lankans made it a point to represent and recognise each linguistic diversity.
The Constitution mentioned that the use of English Language for official purposes was to stop in 1965. Most non-Hindi speaking states demanded that this use continue. In Tamil Nadu, this movement took a violent form. The Central Government responded by agreeing to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes.

Numerous critics believed that this step favoured the English speaking elite. However, the promotion of Hindi continues to be the official policy of the Government of India. The promotion does not force the language upon the citizens. The flexibility shown by Indian political leaders helped our country avoid the kind of situation that Sri Lanka finds itself in.

The census of 1991 recorded more than 1500 distinct languages which people mentioned as their mother tongues. They have been grouped together under major Language groups. Post grouping, the aggregate is 114 major languages. Of these, 22 languages are now included in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution and are therefore called ‘Scheduled Languages’.

Others are called ‘non- Scheduled Languages’. In terms of languages, India is perhaps the most diverse country in the world.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Center-state Relations:
Restructuring and strengthening the Centre-State relations has also helped in concretisation of federal practices. The constitutional arrangements for sharing power depends on how the ruling parties and leaders follow these arrangements majorly. During early years post-Independence, one political party dominated both the Centre and the States. This left state governments with minimum powers to exercise as autonomous federal units.

When the ruling party at the state Level was different, the parties at the centre attempted to undermine them. The Constitution was used as a tool to dismiss the state governments that were controlled by rival parties which belittled the spirit of federalism.

Post 1990s, with the rise of regional political parties in many states of the country, the era of Coalition governments was born. In situations, when no single party got a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, the major national parties wouLd enter into an alliance with other like minded parties including several regional parties to form a government at the Centre.

A new culture of power sharing began. The respect for the autonomy of State Governments grew.
The Supreme Courts gave various decisions to make it difficult for the Central Government to dismiss state governments in an arbitrary manner. Federal power sharing has become more effective than it was before.

Decentralization In India

In a vast country like India, it is necessary to have multiple tiers of government to allow better and effective administration. States in India are as large as independent countries of Europe. They are internally diverse.
Power-sharing within these States was essential. Federal power sharing in India which required a tier below that of the State governments became the rationale for decentralisation of power. Thus, resulted in a third-tier of government, called the local government.

In terms of population, Uttar Pradesh is bigger than Russia, Maharashtra is about as big as Germany.

When power is taken away from Central and State governments and given to the local government, it is called Decentralisation. A large number of problems and issues are better settled at the local level and hence decentralization is important to empower people who are the smallest unit of a democracy. People have better knowledge of problems in their localities and better ideas on where to spend money and how to manage things more efficiently. Direct public participation is only possible at the lower level of governments.

Local Self Governments

Local Government helps us realise the important principle of democracy- local self-government.
The need for decentralisation has been recognised in our Constitution. To realise this, multiple efforts have been undertaken. Panchayats in villages and municipalities in urban areas were set up in all the states, directly under the control of state governments.

Elections to these local governments have not been held regularly. Local governments depend on state governments for all resources and powers. There was not much decentralisation. In an effort to truly realise the concept of decentralization, a major step was taken in 1992.

The Constitution was amended to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective.

  1. It has been made mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies by the Constitution.
  2. Seats are reserved in the elected bodies and the executive heads of these institutions for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes.
  3. One-third of alL positions are reserved for women.
  4. Independent State Election Commissions have been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.
  5. The State governments are required to devolve some powers and revenue with local government bodies. The nature of sharing varies from State to State.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

Example 6.
State any two differences between the local government before and after the Constitutional Amendment in 1992.
Constitutional Amendments gave constitutional status to decentralization making it compulsory for the states to devolve powers. This was not mandatory before.

  • The structure of the local government was decided by this step.
  • State Election Commissions were given the responsibility to conduct elections. States had the power before.
  • Rural local government is popularly known by the name Panchayati Raj.
  • Each village or group of villages has a Gram Panchayat. This is a council consisting of several ward members called Panch, and headed by a president or Sarpanch. They are directly elected by all the adult population (above 18 years of age) living in that ward or village.
  • It is the decision-making body for the entire village.

The panchayat works under the overall supervision of the Gram Sabha. All the voters in the village are its members. It has to meet at least twice or thrice in a year to approve the annual budget of the Gram Panchayat and to review the performance of the Gram Panchayat

The local government structure goes right up to the district level. A few gram panchayats are grouped together to form what is usually called a Panchayat Samiti or block or Mandat The members of this representative body are elected by all the panchayat members in that area. All the Panchayat Samitis or Mandals in a district together constitute the Zilla (district) Parishad.

Most members of the Zilla Parishad are elected. Members of the Lok Sabha and MLAs of that district. Its members include some senior level officials from other districts as well. Zilla Parishad is headed by a chairperson.
Local bodies for urban areas are called Municipalities. Municipalities are set up in towns. Big cities have municipal corporations. Municipalities and Municipal Corporations are controlled by elected bodies consisting of people’s representatives. Municipal chairperson is the political head of the Municipality. Mayor heads the Municipal Corporation. This new system of local government is the largest experiment in democracy in the world.

Constitutional status for local governments has helped to deepen democracy in our country. It has also increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism


  • Brazil’s tryst with Democracy
  • Porto Alegre in Brazil has carried out an experiment by combining decentralization with participative democracy. It set up a parallel organization operating alongside the municipal council, enabling local inhabitants to take real decisions for their city.
  • The city has been divided into many sectors or what we call wards. Each sector has a meeting, like that of the Gram Sabha, in which anyone living in that area can participate. There are some meetings to discuss issues that affect the entire city. Any citizen of the city can participate in those meetings. Municipality takes the final decisions.
  • In our own country, a similar experiment has taken place in some areas in Kerala. Ordinary people have participated in making a plan for the development of their locality.

Issues with Local Self Governments:
Gram Sabha sessions are often very irregular. Most state governments have not transferred significant powers to the local governments. They are in lack of funds, functionaries and functions which have to be devolved by the State government.

Some states do not have proper maintained structures of these bodies. Numerous representatives are unable to use their powers due to discrimination based on caste, creed or gender.
It will take India a long time in realising the ideal of self-government.

Example 7.
Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:

List 1

List II

1. Union of India A. Prime Minister
2. State B. Sarpanch
3. Municipal Corporation C. Governor
4. Gram Panchayat D. Mayor

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism 1
(c) ACDB

→ Constitutional: Authorised by the Constitution.

→ Unitary: A system of administration where all the power is vested in one central government.

→ Jurisdiction: Area over which some institution/person has Legal authority.

→ Unilaterally: Of doing something involving only one side, without involving the other.

→ Autonomy: Independence or freedom.

→ Federation: A political entity which has a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central federal government which devolved powers to them through the Constitution.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 2 Notes Federalism

→ Linguistic states: States divided and created on basis of language.

→ Disintegration: The process of something becoming weaker or being destroyed by breaking into smaller parts or pieces.

→ Decentralisation: It is referred to as an organisational structure where the delegation of authority is by the top management to the middle and lower levels of management in an organisation.

→ 1956: Linguistic reorganization of States in India.

→ 1992: Regional Governments in India were given constitutional powers and status.

→ 1993: Regional Governments in Belgium were given constitutional status and powers.

Class 10 Social Science Notes

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

Power Sharing Class 10 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 1

Belgium and Its Peculiar Ethnic Composition

Belgium, situated in Europe, covers less area than the state of Haryana. It shares its geographical borders with the Netherlands, France and Germany. Its population is half of that of Haryana. Belgium is an ethnically diverse country. A major portion of its population- 59 percent, lives in the Flemish region and speaks Dutch while about 40 percent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French. Only 1% of the Belgians speak German.

The capital Brussels is dominated by French-speaking communities (about 80 %) while 20 percent are Dutch-speaking. In Brussels, the minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. Despite that, the Dutch-speaking community could experience the benefit of economic development and education way later than the French-speaking minority community. This fuelled tensions between Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s-60s.


  • The Dutch-speaking people constituted a majority in the country, but a minority in the capital, Brussels.
  • In Belgium, the Dutch community could take advantage of its numeric majority and impose its will on the French and German-speaking population for selfish benefits leading to greater conflict among communities. In that case, Brussels could come in the middle of this communal conflicts-disrupting the administration of the country.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

Example 1.
Source Based:
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later. This led to tensions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s. The tension between the two communities was more acute in Brussels. Brussels presented a special problem: the Dutch-speaking people constituted a majority in the country, but a minority in the capital. Let us compare this to the situation in another country. Sri Lanka is an island nation, just a few kilometres off the southern coast of Tamil Nadu. The leaders of the Sinhala community sought to secure dominance over government by virtue of their majority. The democratically elected government adopted a series of majoritarian measures to establish Sinhala supremacy.
(A) Why did the Dutch-speaking community resent the French-speaking community?
(a) They were the minority and they were rich.
(b) There were the minority community and enjoyed all the benefits for their welfare despite being rich.
(c) They were the majority community.
(d) French community was different in terms of religious practices.
(b) There were the minority community and enjoyed all the benefits for their welfare despite being rich.

Explanation: The Dutch-speaking community were insecure of the favours received by the minority French community, despite the latter being affluent and powerful.

(B) Which of the following reasons best describes why Brussels presented a separate problem in Belgium?
(a) Brussels was located on the outskirts of mainland Belgium which made it difficult to administer.
(b) Brussels was dominated by a French-speaking community which formed a minority in the rest of Belgium.
(c) Brussels was divided into two territories- One was dominated by a French-speaking community and the other by Dutch speaking community.
(d) People of Brussels wanted to be a separate region.
(b) Brussels was dominated by a French-speaking community which formed a minority in the rest of Belgium.

Explanation: The problem would have been severe because if the majoritarian government were to assert their power throughout the country, Brussels would suffer even worse and result into disruption in administration.

(C) Mention one similarity between the countries of Sri Lanka and Belgium with respect to their ethnic composition.
Both Sri Lanka and Belgium house ethnically diverse communities.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

(D) Assertion (A): Belgium managed to accommodate its diversities.
Reason(R): It took care of the interests of both French and Dutch-speaking communities.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Explanation: Belgium accommodated the diversities by taking care of the communities by amending the constitution four times.

Sri Lanka And The Ethnic Tensions

Sri Lanka is an island nation, situated close to the southern coast of Tamil Nadu. Its population is almost equal to that of Haryana. Sri Lanka has an ethnically diverse population. Sinhala-speakers (74 percent) and Tamil-speakers (18 percent) are the two major ethnic groups.

The Tamil citizens are further divided into two sub-groups. Native Tamils are called ‘Sri Lankan Tamils’ (13 per cent) and those Tamils who migrated to Sri Lanka from India as plantation workers during the colonial period, are called ‘Indian Tamils’ (almost 3-4 %). Sri Lankan Tamils are concentrated in the north and east of the country.

Frequently Asked:
Most Sinhala-speaking people are Buddhist, while most of the Tamils are Hindus or Muslims. About 7 per cent of Christians, who are both Tamil and Sinhala. The Sinhala community could impose its will on the entire country since it enjoys a drastic majority over the Tamils.

Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka Sri Lanka gained Independence in 1948.
To secure dominance over the government by virtue of their majority, Sinhalas, who were the democratically elected government, adopted a series of majoritarian measures. This established supremacy of Sinhalas.

  1. In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language. Tamil was disregarded.
  2. The governments followed preferential policies that favored Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.
  3. The constitution declared that Sri Lanka officially recognized Buddhism as its state religion. It promised to promote and foster that.These measures made the Tamils feel alienated and isolated in their own nation. They believed that none of the major political parties led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders were sensitive to their language and culture and that the constitution and government policies deprived them of equal political rights and opportunities of employment and development.

The Sinhala- Tamil camaraderie only worsened with time.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

Frequently Asked:

  • Despite the multiple parties and struggles for the recognition of Tamil as an official language, for regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs launched by Sri Lankan Tamils, their demand for more autonomy to provinces populated by the Tamils was repeatedly denied.
  • Consequently, several political organizations were established to demand an independent Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.

The rising conflict between the communities fuelled by the feeling of mistrust soon turned into a Civil War.
The Civil war killed thousands of people belonging to both communities. Livelihoods were lost Various families fled the country to save their lives. There was an influx of refugees from Sri Lanka in India due to this war. Sri Lanka’s excellent record of economic development, education and health encountered a terrible setback as a result of this war and ethnic tensions.

Accommodation in Belgium:

  • The Belgian Leaders recognised the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. To adopt the idea of inclusive growth, they amended their constitution four times between 1970 and 1993 to enable everyone to live together within the same country peacefully.
  • The arrangement is innovative and efficient.

Following are some of its features:

  1. The Belgian Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government.
  2. Some special laws require the support of the majority of members from each linguistic group. Thus, no community can make decisions unilaterally.
  3. The state governments are not subordinate to the Central Government. State governments of the two regions have been given powers of the Central government for better governance.
  4. Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central Government.
  5. A third kind of government has been established by the constitution. This is the ‘community government’ – which is elected by all the people belonging to the individual language communities-Dutch, French and German-speaking, irrespective of their places of residence.
  6. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational, and language-related issues.
  7. The Belgian model, though complicated, has proven to be very effective. They helped to avoid civic strife between the two major communities and even partition of the country on linguistic lines.
    Brussels was chosen as the headquarters of European Union. This shows that the country has been successful in establishing peace and camaraderie among its people.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

The European Union is an international organization comprising 26 European countries (Post the exit of Britain). It governs the common economic, social, and security policies of the region. The EU was created by the Maastricht Treaty, which entered into force on November 1, 1993. The EU’s common currency is the Euro.

Though democratic, both Belgium and Sri Lanka deal with the question of power-sharing differently.
Belgian leaders realised that the unity of the country is possible only by respecting the feelings and interests of different communities and regions. They created mutually acceptable arrangements for sharing power.

The example of Sri Lanka shows that if a majority community wants to force its dominance over others
and refuses to share power, it can undermine the unity of the country.

Example 2.
Consider the following statements about power sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.
(A) In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority people tried to impose their domination on the minority French-speaking community.
(B) In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala-speaking majority.
(C) The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power sharing to protect their culture, language and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.
(D) The transformation of Belgium from unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) (A), (B), (C) and (D)
(b) (A), (B) and (D)
(c) (C) and (D)
(d) (B), (C) and (D)
(d) (B), (C) and (D)

Explanation: The Dutch-speaking majority community were displeased because they could enjoy the benefit of economic development and education later than the French-speaking minority community could. This made them resent the minority community.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

Example 3.
Annette studies in a Dutch medium school in the northern region of Belgium. Many French-speaking students in her school want the medium of instruction to be French. Selvi studies in a school in the northern region of Sri Lanka. All the students in her school are Tamil-speaking and they want the medium of instruction to be Tamil. If the parents of Annette and Selvi were to approach respective governments to realise the desire of the child who is more likely to succeed? And why?
If both of their parents were supposed to request their respective governments, the Belgian government was more likely to solve the problems of medium of instruction through appropriate deliberation. Since the Belgian government is more inclined towards recognition and democratic solutions to ethnic tensions. The Sri Lankan government does not believe in this and asserts its authority over Tamils, declaring their language to be a foreign language.

Power Sharing

Power-sharing is desirable because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
Social conflict often leads to violence and political instability. Power sharing ensures the stability of political order. Imposing the will of the majority community over others undermines the unity of the nation.
Tyranny of the majority is both oppressive for the minority and brings ruin to itself as well.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

Frequently Asked:
A democratic rule implies sharing power with those affected by the exercise of these powers, and with those who have to live with its effects. Democracy means that the people have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.

A legitimate government is one where citizens participate enthusiastically and organically in the system.
The first reason is the prudential reason while the second can be considered moral. The prudential reasons stress that power-sharing will bring out better outcomes. The moral reasons emphasise that the very act of power-sharing as valuable.

Power-sharing is the spirit of democracy.

Forms of Power Sharing

The concept of power sharing emerged in opposition to the notion of undivided political power.
Before the introduction of the concept of power sharing, power was accumulated in one person. It was preferred that the Government reside in one person or group of persons located at one place. This was done to ensure quicker and stable decisions.

The situation was drastically altered by the emergence of democracy. The concept of democracy states that people are the source of all political power and they rule themselves through institutions of self-governance.
Due respect and recognition is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society. Every citizen has a voice in the shaping of public policies. It follows the principle that democratic political power should be divided among all.

Example 4.
What are the different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.
Power-sharing arrangements take many forms in modern democracies. Following are some of these forms:
1. Power is shared among the three principal organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary.

  • This places different organs of government placed at the same level to exercise different powers and hence can be called Horizontal level of Power-sharing.
  • This prevents accumulation of power and arbitrary use of unlimited power.
  • This results in a balance of power and establishes a system of checks and balances among various institutions.
  • Ministers and government officials are responsible to the Parliament or State Assemblies. Even though Judges are appointed by the executive, they can check the functioning of executive or laws made by the legislatures.

2. Power is also shared among governments at different levels- union government for the entire country and governments at the provincial or regional level. This is the Federal form of Government.

  • The central/national government is called the federal or Union government. The governments at the provincial or regional level are called by different names in different countries.
  • In India, we call them State Governments. Not all countries have state or provincial governments- the system with a single government is called the Unitary system of government.
  • In Federal countries, the constitution recognizes and clarifies powers of different levels of government. Belgian government did the same by amending their constitution. This is called federal division of power.
  • The same principle is also extended to levels of government lower than the State government- Local Self government brHies in its and villages. This is called the vertical division of power.

3. Power may also be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups. For example- ‘Community government’ in Belgium is one such form of sharing.

4. The constitutional and legal arrangements whereby vulnerable sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration is also a form of power-sharing.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

5. The system of ‘reserved constituencies’ in assemblies and the parliament of our country share power and this can also be a form of power-sharing. This arrangement enables the representation of diverse social groups in government and institutional bodies and prevents rise of feelings of isolation and vulnerability. This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power.

6. Political parties, pressure groups and movements control or influence those in power- this is also a form of power-sharing arrangements.

7. Power is also shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups since political parties are always competing for an opportunity to form governments. Political parties also share powers directly, where two or more parties form an alliance to contest elections. On winning, they form a coalition government.

8. Interest groups of traders, businessmen, industrialists, farmers and industrial workers also share governmental power, either through participation in government-instituted committees or by asserting influence on the decision-making process.

UK, France, Italy and Japan are unitary states. India, US are Federal states.

Example 5.
Here are some examples of power-sharing. Which of the four types of power-sharing do these represent? Who is sharing power with whom?
1. The Bombay High Court ordered the Maharashtra state government to immediately take action and improve living conditions for the 2,000-odd children at seven children’s homes in Mumbai.
This showcases power-sharing on a horizontal level- between different organs of the government placed at the same level- Judiciary and the State Legislative assembly in this case.

2. The government of Ontario state in Canada has agreed to a land claim settlement with the aboriginal community. The Minister responsible for Native Affairs announced that the government will work with aboriginal people in a spirit of mutual respect and cooperation.
The power-sharing arrangement followed here is the form with different social and ethnic groups.

3. Russia’s two influential political parties, the Union of Right Forces and the Liberal Yabtoko Movement, agreed to unite their organizations into a strong right-wing coalition. They propose to have a common list of candidates in the next parliamentary elections.
This power-sharing arrangement is between 2 political parties. A Coalition government is formed after alliance formation.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

4. The finance ministers of various states in Nigeria got together and demanded that the federal government declares its sources of income. They also wanted to know the formula by which the revenue is distributed to various state governments.
This is the vertical form of government. Power is shared between the union government and the state.

Example 6.
After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why? Give your reasons in about 50 words.
Thomman: Power sharing is necessary only in societies that have religious, linguistic or ethnic divisions.
Mathayi: Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisions.
Ouseph: Every society needs some form of power-sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions.
We can agree with Ouseph’s conclusion when he says that every society needs power sharing irrespective of social divisions because power-sharing prevents accumulation of powers in the hands of a person or in a group and reduces chances of possible tensions in future.

→ Ethnic: Of relating to a common and distinctive culture, religion, language etc. People belong to distinct ethnic groups and communities.

→ Majority: A community which dominates the other owing to its large size. In a country, the majority community is the one which has the largest number of people identifying or belonging to it.

→ Minority: A community which is dominated by other communities due to its small size or distinct culture.

→ Majoritarian: When a majority community gathers powers and begins to assert the same through political actions and orders, it is said to have asserted majoritarianism.

NCERT Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Notes Power Sharing

→ Civil War: War between communal groups within a country.

→ Eelam: Tamil word for state.

→ Community government: Government elected by community groups for regulation of ethnic and linguistic affairs

→ Tyranny: Despotic rule

→ Coalition government: Dovernment formed by alliance of two or more parties.

→ 1948: Sri Lanka gained Independence

→ 1956: Sri Lanka passed the Official Language Act recognising Sinhala as the only offcial language

Class 10 Social Science Notes