The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes Social Science History Chapter 1
Sorrieu’S Democratic and Social Republics
In 1789, post French Revolution, during which the idea of nationalism and liberty came into being, multiple artists visualised the concept of national states. Frederic Sorrieu. one such French artist created a series of prints envisaging a world comprising Democratic and Social Republics in 1848. His vision was utopian and represented smashing of absolutist notions and institutions.
The painting showcased (in Example 1) many important features such as:
- Citizens of different nations were grouped together and shown marching towards the Statue of Liberty. Marching first were United States of America and Switzerland, two countries that had aLready attained Liberty.
- France came next, followed by Germany. Following the German people were citizens of Austria, the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia.
- All the nations bore identification marks in the form of their flags and national colours/symbols.
- The Statue of Liberty in Sorrieu’s vision symbolises Liberty. She bore the torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of the Rights of Man in the other.
- On the foreground, the shattered remains of the symbol of absolutist institutions were seen lying.
In what way do you think, this print depicts a utopian vision?
A Utopian vision is generally known to be on an idea, and ideal situation. It does not have much to do with the real situation.
Frederic Sorrieu imagined a world (which was still heavily divided into kingdoms and autonomous states) comprised of nation-states with united citizens and represented the same through his prints even though most of these states did not exist as nation-states during the time of this print. His vision was thus a far-fetched dream.
The French Revolution And The Idea of The Nation
With the radical constitutional changes that followed after the transfer of sovereignty from monarchy to a body of elected French citizens (National Assembly) in the wake of the French Revolution, the French revolutionaries introduced measures to unify French citizens.
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
The French Revolutionaries introduced various measures to invoke in the French people, a sense of collective shared identity for their nation.
- Notions of le citoyen (the citizen) and La patrie (the fatherLand) were introduced.
- A new French flag, the tricolor, replaced the former royal standard.
- New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs were remembered.
- A new centralised administrative system formulated uniform laws for all citizens and abolished internal duties.
- They introduced a uniform set of weights, measures and currency to allow ease of trade.
- Regional dialects were discouraged and French was made the common language of the nation.
With the aim of liberating surrounding European nations from despotism and making them nation-states, French armies moved from country to country – Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy carrying the idea of nationalism. Jacobin clubs were set by educated middle classes to prepare the way for these armies.
Napoleon extended the implementation of the administrative reforms he had introduced in France to territories he had conquered, to make the system more efficient and smooth.
For example, he introduced The Civil Code of 1804 or the Napoleonic Code, comprising the following features:
- Simplification of administrative divisions to encourage uniformity.
- Abolition of all privileges based on birth.
- The establishment of equality before law and right to property was secured.
- Abolition of the feudal system. He freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
- Removal of restrictions on guilds in towns.
- Improvement of the transport and communication systems.
- Establishment of universal laws, standardization of weights and measures and a common national currency to facilitate the movement and exchange of goods from one region to another.
French Armies were received with mixed reactions in these territories. Initially welcomed as harbingers of peace and liberty, the French armies were later subjected to hostility. The local people had understood that the introduced administrative reforms were not accompanied by political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship and forced admission to French armies were forced upon the citizens along with the administrative reforms. This left a bad taste among locals.
French Revolution has been given the credit of being the first cry of nationalism in Europe. Ancient regimes were abolished in favour of establishment of constitutional monarchy in France.
The main power was supposed to be in hands of elected government which was instructed to rule according to the Constitution which embodied spirit of representative and liberal society. Monarchy was only a seal of approval. w Before 1789, France was an absolute monarchical kingdom, divided into multiple autonomous kingdoms. After 1789, it was converted into a constitutional monarchical republic where the government was elected. Napoleon was appointed as the first Consul in 1799.
Napoleon lost the Battle of Leipzig in 1813. In a painting, he was portrayed as a courier postman of Rhineland who is shown as losing all the letters from his bag as he moves back to France. The letters represent lost territories.
The Making of Nationalism in Europe
Contemporary nation-states were autonomous Cantons and Duchies in mid-eighteenth century Europe. Eastern and Central Europe hosted diverse ethnic groups who did not share any common identity or a feeling of belongingness among themselves.
Habsburg Empire ruled over Austria-Hungary and included Alpine regions-the Tyrol, Austria,
Sudetenland and Bohemia with German-speaking aristocracy, and the Italian-speaking provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. Hungarians majorly spoke Magyar, Aristocrats of Galicia spoke Polish while peasant classes of these countries spoke various regional dialects. This difference did not give them the opportunity for political unity. Their allegiance to the Emperor was their only binding factor.
The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class:
The continent of Europe was dominated by Landed Aristocrats who were united across the regions due to their common way of life. Numerically small, this estate-owning class spoke French and owned townhouses in the countryside. They were connected among themselves through ties of marriage. Peasants, serfs and landless tenants formed the majority of the population. They cultivated the estates of aristocrats.
In Western and parts of Central Europe, the growth of industrial production and trade led to growth of towns and emergence of commercial classes whose existence was based on production for the market. New social groups of working class population and middle classes including industrialists, businessmen and professionals came into existence. The idea of national unity , which were closely allied to ideology of Liberalism gained popularity among the educated and liberal middle class.
The term ‘Liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word Tiber’ meaning free.
Politically, liberalism endorsed:
- Freedom of individual and equality of all before the law.
- Establishment of government by consent.
- A Constitution and representative government through Parliament.
- End of autocracy and clerical privileges.
- Inviolability of private property.
The new middle class asserted the significance of Liberalism.
Despite this assertion, Universal suffrage was still not considered or granted. Right to vote and to contest elections was given exclusively to property¬owning men. Men without property and women were excluded completely.
During a brief period under Jacobins, all males were granted right to vote. This was revoked with Napoleonic Code which granted limited suffrage. Women were treated as minors and inferiors and were subject to the control of males. Multiple opposition movements were staged by women and non-propertied men during nineteenth and early twentieth century for equal rights.
Economically, liberalism emphasised upon:
- Freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
- Abolition of custom barriers and standard weights, measures and currency in all regions.
- Demand of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital
In 1834, Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia for German confederacies. It was a customs union created to bind Germans into a nation economically. It abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies, establishing a uniform platform for trade.
A New Conservatism after 1815
After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, European governments inferred that established traditional institutions of state and society like monarchy, the church, social hierarchy, property and the family had to be preserved. They asserted that a modern army, an efficient bureaucracy coupled with a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies of Europe.
A treaty was drawn up by delegates of the countries which defeated Napoleon in 1815 to undo all the administrative and political changes brought about by Napoleon. Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 in a congress hosted by Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
The key features of this treaty were:
- The Bourbon dynasty, deposed during the French Revolution, was restored to power.
- France lost its territories annexed under Napoleon; these territories were redistributed. Only the German confederation of 39 states was left untouched.
- The Kingdom of the Netherlands, which included Belgium, was set up in the north and Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
- Prussia was given new territories on its western frontiers, including Saxony while Austria was given control of Northern Italy.
- In the east, Russia was given part of Poland.
- Numerous territories were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent its expansion in future.
The main intention of the Congress of Vienna was to restore the monarchies overthrown by Napoleon and to establish a new conservative order. These conservative regimes were very autocratic and repressive. Dissent was not tolerated. Censorship laws were imposed upon media (books, songs, and plays) and newspapers that reflected ideas of liberty and freedom of French Revolution. Memories of French Revolution inspired liberals to demand for freedom of press despite the repression meted out by conservative orders.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states. Each of these possessed its own currency, and weights and measures. A merchant travelling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods would have had to pass through 11 customs barriers and pay a customs duty of about 5 per cent at each one of them. Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods. As each region had its own system of weights and measures, this involved time-consuming calculation. The measure of cloth, for example, was the elle which in each region stood for a different length. An elle of textile material bought in Frankfurt would get you 54.7 cm of cloth, in Mainz 55.1 cm, in Nuremberg 65.6 cm, in Freiburg 53.5 cm.
(A) Which of the following statement describes the market and trade of the given area the best?
(a) Market of the given area was integrated and trade was free and easy.
(b) Market of the given area is highly diverse due to absence of a single standardised currency, measures or weights.
(c) Having multiple measuring standards made trade profitable.
(d) Varieties of standards helped in stabilising the market during Napoleon’s times.
(b) Market of the given area is highly diverse due to absence of a single standardised currency, measures or weights.
Explanation: Because of the numerous units of currencies, measures and weights, it became difficult for markets to integrate and it madetrade difficult. Trade was not free because of various categories of duties. This statement describes the market and business best in this confederation.
Trade Lost the opportunity of earning more profit due to closed doors and multiple standards.
(B) Which of the following is the correct definition of custom barrier?
(a) It is a measure of limiting trade across borders of different cities and principalities.
(b) It is a physical barrier between two cities.
(c) It is a tax collected at airports to boost exports.
(d) Custom duties decreased the price of products.
(a) It is a measure of limiting trade across borders of different cities and principalities.
Explanation: Custom barrier is a limiting influence/limit placed upon trade/business to regulate it.
(C) What happened to this confederation of 39 states after Treaty of Vienna of 1815?
After the Treaty of Vienna in 1815, the confederation of 39 states was left as it is. It was not distributed among the winning countries.
(D) Assertion (A): The measure of cloth, for example, was the elle which in each region stood for a different length.
Reason(R): Each of these possessed its own currency, and weights and measures.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
Fear of repression among nationalist-liberals gave birth to multiple secret societies in European states. These were dedicated to training of revolutionaries with the purpose of protesting against monarchical conservative regimes and fighting for freedom and liberty.
One such individual was the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini.
Write a note on Giuseppe Mazzini.
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary who asserted his influence to unify Italy and worked hard to achieve it.
- He was born in Genoa in 1807.
- He was a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.
- He was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
- He formed two secret societies, Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne in 1833, which admitted young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
- He opined that nations had to be natural units of mankind according to god and hence Italy should be a united nation instead of patchwork of kingdoms.
- Metternich called him “the most dangerous enemy of our social order.
Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini, though both Italian revolutionaries, should not be confused with one another.
Giuseppe Mazzini’s attempts to unify Italy failed. He formed two secret societies Young Europe and Young Italy. Giuseppe Garibaldi joined these secret societies and helped Otto Von Bismarck achieve the unification.
Through economic liberalism and reforms, economists wanted to unify the divided and autonomous kingdom into a single state. They talked about national economy and benefits of integrating economies of autonomous kingdoms into one alliance. They wanted to strengthen the nation materially as much by protecting its interests externally as by stimulating its internal productivity. It ought to awaken and raise national sentiment through a fusion of individual and provincial interests. A free economic system was their means to engender national feeling.
Describe the political ends that list hopes to achieve through economic measures.
Economists wanted to use economic reforms and measures to engender feelings of unity and nationalism among citizens. They believed that a common integrated economic system will bring people closer. They wanted to ease business and by doing so they wanted to reduce the ideological or psychological distances between the various states and kingdoms of Germany.
The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848:
In Europe, liberalism and nationalism inspired various revolutions in Italian and German states, provinces of the Ottoman Empire, in Ireland and in Poland. Liberal-nationalists belonged to the educated middle class. They were professors, school teachers, clerks and members of the commercial middle classes.
The Bourbon kings, who were restored to power earlier, were overthrown by liberal revolutionaries in an upheaval in July, 1830. A constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe as its head was placed at the apex. This revolution set a precedent for the rest of Europe. Belgium broke away from United Kingdom of Netherlands in another such revolution.
Greek War of Independence mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated class all across Europe.
Write a note on Greek War of Independence.
- Greek war of Independence of 1821 was a successful war waged for independence of Greece which had been a part of Ottoman Empire since fifteenth century.
- Revolutionary Nationalism inspired this struggle. West Europeans and Greeks in prison supported this struggle against the huge Muslim empire,
- Greek poets and artists used the rich ancient heritage and culture of Greece to mobilise public opinion.
- Treaty of Constantinople declared Greece Independent in July, 1832.
The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling
The idea of a nation was created with the help of culture- art and poetry, stories and music- apart from wars and territorial expansion. Cultural Movement of Romanticism emphasised upon emotions, intuition and mystical feelings to invoke a sense of shared cultural heritage and cultural past.
Romantics criticised glorification of reason and science. Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that
German culture and spirit could most authentically be found in common people- das volk. Volksgeist (true spirit of Nation) was embodied in folk stories, art forms and songs.
Vernacular language and native folklore was used to spread modern nationalist sentiments along with recovering ancient national spirit.
It was through music and language that nationalist sentiments were kept alive despite the breaking down of territories as in case of Poland. Karol Kurpinski tuned folk dances into nationalist symbols to spread message of rationalism amongst Polish people.
The language was used as a symbol for nation-building.
Discuss the importance of language and popular traditions in the creation of national identity. [NCERT ]
Language became a popular tool of nation-buiLding along with local folklore, cultural rituals and traditions.
In Poland, many members of the clergy used language as a weapon of national resistance against Russian dominance. Use of native language brought citizens closer and made spreading of nationalistic ideas and messages among the uneducated classes easier. Revolutionaries used language and tradition as a common symbol of the nation across the nations to develop a sense of shared identity and collective belongingness.
Jacob and Wiihelm Grimm spent years collecting traditional folk and fairy tales from various villages. They wrote and compiled them together publishing the first edition in 1812 under the title Grimm’s Fairy Tales. Later, they supported Freedom of Press movement. They saw French domination as a threat to German culture and believed that the folktales they had collected were expressions of a pure and authentic German spirit.
Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt
A lot of economic hardship hit Europe in 1830s.
- The population was increasing.
- Job opportunities were decreasing; cities were becoming overcrowded due to mass migration.
- Native producers of partly mechanized businesses like textiles were facing stiff competition from imports of cheap-machine-made goods.
- Peasants struggled under feudal dues and obligations in rural areas of Europe.
- Food prices were rising exponentially.
- Bad harvest caused widespread pauperism in town and country.
Unemployment and food shortage instigated revolutionary sentiments among citizens of France in 1848. Post this uprising of peasants, King Louis Philippe fled and a republic was established by National Assembly.
Suffrage was granted to males above 21, and right to work was guaranteed. National workshops for employment were set up.
Earlier, another revolt was led in Silesia by weavers in 1845.
Describe the cause of the Silesian weavers’ uprising. Comment on the viewpoint of the journalist.
Silesian weavers revolted against contractors because they cheated them by drastically reducing their payments after placing orders of finished textiles and providing them raw materials.
Journalist Wilhelm Wolff described their drastic and miserable conditions after being deceived. Workers attacked the house of the contractor, destroying and plundering the storehouse and forcing the contractor to flee. Later, the army was requisitioned and weavers were shot dead for revolting.
1848: The Revolution of the Liberals
- In many European countries, the educated liberal middle classes revolted in 1848.
- These events brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed.
- In Germany, Italy, Poland, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire -the middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with nationaL unification. They pushed their demands for the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
The educated middle class led the Revolution of Liberals in 1848. They emphasised upon the following ideals:
- Politically, they stressed on the establishment of government by consent, freedom of press.
- Socially, they asserted the abolition of all hereditary privileges.
- Economically, they stood for abolition of trade restrictions imposed by the state.
- Middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt to vote for an all-German National Assembly.
Write a note on Frankfurt Parliament.
On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt Parliament convened in the Church of St. Paul.
- A Constitution was drafted which instructed the German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament.
- King of Prussia, Friedrich Wilhelm IV joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.
- The social basis of parliament eroded as opposition grew stronger.
- The parliament was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support.
- Assembly was later disbanded.
Women were denied suffrage despite their enthusiastic participation in the liberal movement. During the movement, they had formed associations, wrote newspapers and taken up the cause of revolution with equal vigour. Even then, they were admitted only in the visitor’s gallery during the convening of Frankfurt Parliament. Different scholars were of different opinions regarding provision of equality and rights to women.
Despite the suppression of liberal movements, old conservative order could not be restored. To discourage rebellions, the Monarch considered granting of concessions to liberal nationalist revolutionaries. Like it was before 1815, serfdom and bonded labour were abolished both in the Habsburg dominions and Russia.
The Habsburg rulers granted more autonomy to the Hungarians in 1867.
Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers cited above. What do they reveal about liberal ideology?
- Liberal politician Carl Welcker believed women and men were assigned different roles and functions according to their strength, while men, the stronger sex of the two, were providers; women, the weaker sex required protection. The two could not be treated equally.
- Louise Otto-Peters (1819-95) was a political activist who founded a women’s journal and a feminist political association. She opined that liberty was indivisible and should mean equal freedom for both men and women.
- Another scholar opined that women performed various functions without enjoying any rights. Men received the right to vote even when they were not educated or skilled while highly talented women were deprived only because of their sex. This was unfair.
The Making of Germany and Italy
Nation-making was a difficult feat to achieve. Every nation was formed in a different way. Some were formed as products of long political revolutions while others were formed by military intervention. Some nations were also formed as a result of political and social repression of a dominant nation over its neighbours. The dominant classes of the society in each nation played a fundamental role in the formation of the nation.
The Army Unifies Germany
Nationalism changed its tune after 1848. Nationalist sentiments were often mobilised by conservatives for promoting state power and achieving political domination over Europe.
After the attempt to unify Germany in 1848 which was repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy, the military and Junkers (landowners) of Prussia, Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck orchestrated the process of unification of Germany with assistance from Prussian army and bureaucracy. In January 1871, the Prussian king, Kaiser William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles after three wars over seven years.
The new German state stressed on modernising the currency, banking, legal and judicial systems in Germany.
The nation building process of Germany was a manifestation of Prussian state power.
Otto Von Bismarck played a very significant role in unification of Germany. He led wars against armies of Austria and Spanish Bourbon Kings.
He led the German armies with courage and tactful diplomacy.
The chief commander of the Prussian army was General Von Roon. He helped Bismarck in the process of unification of Germany.
Italy had a history of political fragmentation. Its citizens were scattered across the multi-national Habsburg Empire. Only Sardinia- Piedmont, out of the seven divided states of Italy was ruled by an Italian Princely house. Others were ruled by royals from different nations. Regionalism was rampant and even the Italian language had several regional variants.
After Giuseppe Mazzini’s failed attempts to unify Italy, King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia-Piedmont took up the responsibility to unify Italy. Italy unified could reap the benefits of economic development and political dominance. Its Chief Minister Cavour tactfully aligned with France to defeat Austria in 1859. He was supported Giuseppe Garibaldi and his armed volunteers.
The Strange Case of Britain
Formation of a nation-state in Britain was a long and slow process. It was not replete with wars or revolutions. Britain was inhabited by people of different ethnicities (Welsh, Irish, English and Scottish) before its unification.
As England grew economically and politically, it established its supremacy over other nations of islands- Ireland and Scotland.
Britain was forged into existence as a nation-state with England at the centre through the English Parliament. Monarchy gave way to the establishment of English Parliament in 1688 after a conflict.
The Act of Union (1707) between England and
Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ aided England in imposing its influence over Scotland.
In expression of British identity and dominance, Scottish identity, its distinctive customs and institutions were severely repressed. The Scots were forbidden even to speak their native Gaelic tongue.
Ireland, a country deeply divided between Catholics and Protestants was forced into submission and incorporated into United Kingdom in 1801 after failed revolts from Wolfe Tone and his united Irishmen.
England helped Irish Protestants to dominate numerically larger Irish Catholics. Propagation of dominant English culture helped forge Britain.
The British flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language were heavily influenced by English, while the other nations were made subordinate parts of this nation-state.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
History of the nation-building of Britain was unique. Britain was not unified through any struggle or war. Spread over a long time, the process was spearheaded by England’s economic, political and diplomatic development. It was able to supress others nations and the English Parliament thereafter forged the nation together through an act called “The Act of Union” in 1707.
Thereafter, the English dominated and suppressed Scottish identities. Ireland was also forced to join after the English helped the Protestant group to dominate Irish Catholics.
Visualizing the Nation
Nations were personified in eighteenth and nineteenth century by various artists in form of female figures. These female figures were allegories of the nations.
French artists symbolised abstract values like Liberty, Justice and the Republic in form of female figures and statues with specific symbols or objects. For example, Liberty wore a red cap or broken chain while Justice was represented with a blindfold carrying weighing scales in her hands.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
France’s allegory was named Marianne and she represented France as a nation of its people. She wore the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade like allegories of the Republic and Liberty. Her statues were erected in public spheres to persuade people to identify with this national symbol of unity.
Germania was the allegory of Germany. She wore a crown of oak leaves which represented heroism.
These figures were portrayed to bear national symbols and values in form of objects. These values were asserted upon the citizens to help them identify with each other.
Britannia was the allegory of Britain. She was shown ruling various colonies in a map celebrating the British Empire. Domination of world was shown as basis of Britain’s pride.
Given in this table are the commonly used symbols and the values attributed to them:
|Broken chains||Being freed|
|Breastplate with eagle||Symbol of the German empire strength|
|Crown of oak leaves||Heroism|
|Sword||Readiness to fight|
|Olive branch around the sword||Willingness to make peace|
|Black, red and gold tricolor||Flag of the Liberal nationalists in 1848, banned by the Dukes of the German states|
|Rays of the rising sun||Beginning of a new era|
Nationalism And Imperialism
Nationalism was transformed into a meaningless, narrow creed with selfish ends by the end of the nineteenth century-its idealistic democratic liberal character was lost. European powers began using this ideology and peoples’ aspirations as a weapon to satisfy their imperialistic aims.
The Balkans was one of the most serious sources of nationalist tension in Europe.
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
Balkans was an area of growing nationalist tension in 1871. Balkans was inhabited by ethnically and geographically variant inhabitants called Slavs, and the region was ruled by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire disintegrated and ideas of romantic nationalism grew among Balkans almost simultaneously. Despite modernisation and internal reforms in Ottoman Empire, it could not hold the numerous European subject nationalities. Balkans claimed for independence and political rights citing their history that they had been forcefully subjugated by foreign powers.
With Slavic nationalities struggling to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. Apart from asserting their Independence, they were also involved in power rivalry for more territory among themselves. Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry. European powers were simultaneously involved in asserting the supremacy of their trade, territory, military and naval power among themselves and thus were especially enthusiastic on extending their control over the burning Balkan area.
Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary were involved in battles among themselves which led to various wars and eventually the First World War in 1914.
Colonies dominated and ruled by European powers revolted against their imperial domination. The concept of nationalism which was manipulated thoroughly in Europe was reformed in these colonies. The idea of nationalism was inspired by a sense of collective national unity, forged in confrontation with imperialism. European notions were not repeated.
The idea that society ought to be reorganized into nation-states was accepted universally.
→ Nationalism: Nationalism is the sentiment of loyalty and devotion to one’s nation-state which surpasses
the interest of other individuals, groups or nation-states.
→ Nation-state: A sovereign state, resided by comparatively homogeneous group of people who share a feeling of common nationality.
→ Collective Identity: Feeling of belongingness towards a particular nation as citizens/ identification with other citizens on basis of similar history, descent or kinship.
→ Guild Systems: Group of people who use the same resources or pursue the same profession.
→ Serfdom: A form of slavery with debt bondage.
→ Manorial dues: The fees that peasants /farmers /serfs owe to the nobles, who is their landlord.
→ Aristocracy: High class of society, comprising people of noble descent with clerical and other hereditary related privileges.
→ Conservatism: A philosophy that em’ hasises on importance of traditions, rules and conventions, along with traditional institutions.
→ Jacobins: A popular political group during French Revolution.
→ Confederation: United alliances of groups, parties, states.
→ Secret Societies: Groups which were made hidden from the authority, generally to plot a protest against the authorities.
→ Vernacular: Regional
→ Clergy: Priests and others ordained for religious duties.
→ Autocratic: Relating to a ruler with absolute power.
→ Junkers: Large landowners
→ Ethnic: Related to a common racial, tribal, or cultural origin or background that a community identifies with.
→ Allegory: Expression of an abstract idea through a human or animal.
→ Frederic Sorrieu: A French artist famous for a series of four prints which were prepared in 1848. They depicted the dream of a world consisting of‘Democratic and Social Republics’. These prints had a distinct feature of representing men, nations and allegories to convey Frederic’s utopian vision of the world.
→ Ernst Renan: A French Philosopher who gave the lecture, “What is a Nation?’’ in university of Sorbonne in 1822.
→ Andreas Rebmann: Rebmann lived in the city of Mainz; he was a member of a German Jacobin group and was a journalist. He designed the cover of a German almanac, with an image of French Bastille being stormed by the revolutionary crowd. The cover was supplemented by the slogan “The people must seize their own freedom.”
→ Karl Kaspar Fritz: He was a German painter who painted ‘The Planting of Tree of Liberty’ in Zweibrucken, Germany.
→ Napoleon (1769-1821): A French military and political leader who attained prominence during the French Revolution. He ruled France from 1799 to 1815. He assumed absolute power in 1799 by becoming the First Consul. He was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
→ Giuseppe Mazzini: An Italian politician, journalist, activist, revolutionary who spearheaded unification of Italy and made several efforts by partaking in revolutions, setting up secret societies to spread the idea of unity and protest against the conservative regime.
→ Duke Metternich: An Austrian Chancellor who hosted the Congress which was held at Vienna in 1815 and was the chief architect of the Treaty of Vienna.
→ Eugene Delacroix: One of the most popular French painters who painted the Massacre at Chios in 1824.
→ Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803): Romantic German Philosopher.
→ Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm: They were brothers born in German city of Hanau in 1785 and 1786, studied law and collected fairy tales and folklores from various villages. They became active in liberal politics, especially the movement for freedom of the press. In the meantime they also published a 33-volume dictionary of the German language.
→ Karol Kurpinski: A romantic philosopher who celebrated national struggles by turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
→ Louis Philippe: The king who was installed as the apex of Constitutional Monarchy in France after Bourbon Dynasty was deposed in 1815.
→ Lord Byron: English poet and war soldier; participated in Greek War of Independence.
→ Kaiser William I: Prussian King.
→ Otto Von Bismarck: Prussian Chief Minister who helped in unification of Germany.
→ Victor Emmanuel II: King of Uniformed Italy
→ Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-82): Italian freedom fighter; he joined the Young Italy movement and participated in a republican uprising in Piedmont in 1834. In 1854, he supported Victor Emmanuel II in his efforts to unify the Italian states. In 1860, Garibaldi led the famous expedition of the Thousand to South Italy. In 1867, Garibaldi led an army of volunteers (red shirts) to Rome to fight the last obstacle to the unification of Italy, against the Papal States which joined Italy in 1870.
→ Giuseppe Mazzini is ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’. – Duke Metternich (on Giuseppe Mazzini’s attempts to threaten the conservative program and unify Italy)
→ ‘When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold.’ – Duke Metternich (about how France pioneers most changes that take place in Europe)
→ Do we require any further proof that given such differences, equality between the sexes would only endanger harmony and destroy the dignity of the family? – Carl Welcker (on how men and women should not be treated equally)
→ 1688: Monarchy was replaced by English Parliament.
→ 1707: Act of Union
→ 1789: The French Revolution took place.
→ 1797: Napoleon invaded Italy; Napoleonic wars began.
→ 1801: Ireland joined into United Kingdom.
→ 1804: The Napoleonic Code was introduced.
→ 1812: Grimm’s Fairy Tales- first edition was published.
→ 1813: Battle of Leipzig
→ 1815: The defeat of Napoleon by European powers – Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria. The Treaty of Vienna was signed. The conservative regimes were set up.
→ 1821: Greek War of Independence 1830: July Uprising of France.
→1831: Polish Rebellion against Russia 1832: Treaty of Constantinople 1834: Formation of Zollverein
→ 1848: Revolution of Liberals; Frederic Sorrieu prepared prints of “Democratic and Social Republic”; Frankfurt Parliament was convened in church of St. Paul.
→ 1859-1870: Unification of Italy
→ 1861: Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
→ 1866-1871: Unification of Germany
→ 1867: Flabsburg rulers grant more autonomy to the Hungarians
→ 1871: Kaiser William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.