Resource and Development Class 10 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 1
Materials available in our environment which can be put to use to satisfy our needs and are technologically accessible, economically feasible, and culturally acceptable can be called ‘Resources’.
To transform these things from their natural state, an interactive relationship between nature, technology and institutions is required. One can interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate his economic development.
Resources are often mistakenly considered to be free gifts of nature. Resources are actually functions of human activities. Humans are an essential component of the natural resources available today. They play an essential role in transforming the resources available in their natural state to a state where they can be put to use.
Resources can be classified in the following ways:
- On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic
- On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable
- On the basis of ownership – individual, community, national and international
- On the basis of the status of development – potential developed stock and reserves.
Types of Resources
Two types of renewable resources are Continuous Renewable Resources and Flow Renewable Resources. Most Non Renewable Resources like fossil fuels cannot be recycled. They get exhausted with time. Some resources like metals are recyclable and reusable.
Following is a list of National Resources:
- Roads, canals, railways;
- Minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife;
- Land within the political boundaries and oceanic area upto 12 nautical miles (22.2 km) from the coast termed as territorial water and resources found within this region are also national resources.
Oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone are the property of no country but the open ocean.
India has the right to mine manganese noduLes from the bed oP the Indian Ocean from that area which lies beyond the exclusive economic zone.
Development of Resources:
Resources are vital for human survival. They also help maintain the quality of life. Human beings have used resources like free gifts which have led to the following problems:
- Depletion of resources has resulted in stunted growth and development for some vulnerable groups.
- Accumulation of resources in few hands has divided the society into two segments i.e. haves and have nots.
- Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.
To maintain a sustained quality of life and global peace, equitable distribution of resources is very important. If the indiscriminate usage was not stopped, human survival on this planet may be threatened.
Resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.
Sustainable existence is an indispensable component of sustainable development.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
Resources are vital for human survival as well as for maintaining the quality of life. It was believed that resources are free gifts of nature. As a result, human beings used them indiscriminately and this has led to the following major problems.
- Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of a few individuals.
- Accumulation of resources in few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two segments i.e. haves and have nots or rich and poor. Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation. An equitable distribution of resources has become essential for sustained quality of life and global peace. If the present trend of resource depletion by a few individuals and countries continues, the future of our planet is in danger. Therefore, resource planning is essential for the sustainable existence of all forms of life. Sustainable existence is a component of sustainable development.
(A) Which of the following statements is true about the distribution of resources?
(a) Equitable distribution can be done by the government only.
(b) Inequitable distribution divides the society into 2 classes- Haves and Have nots
(c) Resource distribution is important for global peace.
(d) Inequitable Resource Distribution does not affect the quality of life.
(d) Inequitable Resource Distribution does not affect the quality of life.
Explanation: It completely affects the quality of life because it divides society and harms the development of the citizens.
(B) Which of the following levels can we see resource planning at?
(a) International Level
(b) Colony level
(c) Village level
(d) State level
(b) Colony level
(C) Who said “There is enough for man’s need, not for man’s greed”?
(D) Assertion (A): Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as global warming.
Reason (R): Resources contribute to the development of the mankind.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
Explanation: Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as global warming because it exhausts some of the most important resources necessary for ecological balance.
Sustainable development entails development without damaging the environment. It basically proposes that development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.
Rio de Janeiro Summit or the Earth Summit, 1992 ^100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil for the first International Earth Summit in June 1992 to address urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development at the global level.
These leaders signed a Declaration on Global Climatic Change and Biological Diversity.
The Rio Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st century.
- Agenda 21
- It is part of a declaration signed in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It aims at achieving global sustainable development.
- It is an agenda undertaken to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global cooperation on shared interests, mutual needs and responsibilities. Agenda 21 advocates that every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.
Planning is essential for judicious use of resources especially in India with enormous diversity in the availability of resources. The availability of resources in different regions is not equal and equitable. Certain regions are self-sufficient in terms of quantity of resources while others face acute shortage.
Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits. Arunachal Pradesh has abundant water but no infrastructural development to utilise it. Rajasthan has abundant solar and wind energy but almost negligible water resources. Ladakh and its cold desert has a very rich cultural, heritage but it is deficient in water, infrastructure and vital minerals. Hence balanced resource planning at the national, state, regional and local levels, is of utmost importance.
Resource Planning in India:
Resource planning is a complex process involving:
- Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country.
- Survey, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
- Evolution of a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional setup for implementing the resource development plans.
- Integrating the resource planning and national development plans together.
India has made concerted efforts for achieving the goals of resource planning right from its First Five Year Plan launched after Independence.
The availability of resources contributes to the development of any region, but mere availability of resources without any corresponding changes in technology and institutions to use them may hinder development.
In India, many regions rich in resources are economically backward and there are various economically rich regions without any resources.
The history of colonization resource-rich colonies were the main attractions for the foreign invaders. The higher level of technological development of the imperial rulers made them exploit resources and establish their supremacy over the colonies.
Resources can contribute to development when accompanied by appropriate technological development and institutional changes. In India, resource development involves the availability of resources, the technology, quality of human resources and the historical experiences of the people.
How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
Technology advancement has increased the consumption of resources because more goods are being produced, populations are rising. Technical and economic development is leading to greater consumption of resources because the lifestyles of people are adapted to newer technologies, lavish lives.
For greater development and profit, more markets, more consumption is required and that entails using more resources and indiscriminate usage.
Conservation of Resources
Resources are vital for any developmental activity. Irrational consumption and over-utilisation of resources lead to socio-economic and environmental problems. Resource conservation at various levels is important. Inspiring leaders like Gandhiji have talked about the significance of resource conservation. Gandhi said, “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for anybody’s greed.”
Gandhiji believed that the exploitative nature of modern technology leads to depletion of resources globally. He was against mass production.
The Club of Rome began advocating resource conservation in 1968. In 1974, Gandhian philosophy was presented by Schumacher in the book “Small is Beautiful.” The Brundtland Commission Report, 1987. introduced the concept of ’Sustainable Development’ as a means for resource conservation. This was later published in a book called “Our Common Future.’’ The Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992 was also important in this regard.
The majority of our economic activities are performed on Land which makes land an important resource. It supports natural vegetation, wildlife, human life, economic activities, transport and communication systems. The land is a finite resource and should be used carefully.
- About 43 percent of Indian land area is plain, providing facilities for agriculture and industry.
- Mountains cover 30 percent of the total surface area of the country and provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.
- About 27 percent of Indian Land is covered by plateau and possesses rich reserves of minerals, fossil fuels and forests.
Land resources are used in the following ways:
2. Land not available for cultivation
- Barren and waste land
- Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.
3. another uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)
- Permanent pastures and grazing land,
- Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (not included in the net sown area),
- Culturable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).
4. Fallow Lands
- Current fallow-(left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),
- Other than current fallow-(left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).
5. Net sown area
Area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.
Land Use Pattern In India
Physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture, and traditions determine the land use.
1. Land use data is available only for 93 per cent of the total 3.28 million sq km of Indian land. Land use reporting for most of the north-east states except Assam has not been done. Some disputed areas near Jammu and Kashmir have not been surveyed properly as well.
2. The land under permanent pasture has decreased.
3. The current fallow lands are of sub-standard quality or too expensive to cultivate. These lands are cultivated once in about two to three years; when included in the net sown area, the percentage of NSA in India is equal to 54 percent of the total reporting area.
4. Patterns of the net sown area vary greatly from one state to another. About 80 percent of the
total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 percent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, and Andaman Nicobar Islands are sown.
5. Forest area, considered essential for ecological balance, covers less than the desired 33 percent of the geographical area of the country, as outlined in the National Forest Policy (1952). The livelihood of people depends upon these forests.
6. Waste land and land put to other non-agricultural uses are other patterns of land use.
Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas while the land put to other non-agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc.
Land degradation entails a continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it. This has serious repercussions on the environment.
Land Degradation And Conservation Measures
Ninety-five percent of a human’s basic needs for food, shelter and clothing are obtained from land. Human activities have also aggravated the pace of natural forces to cause damage to land and degraded land even more.
Human activities Like deforestation, overgrazing, mining and quarrying have caused land degradation.
Mining sites abandoned after excavation Leaves deep scars and traces of over-burdening.
- In Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha, deforestation due to mining have caused severe Land degradation.
- In Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, overgrazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation. In Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, over-irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to waterlogging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
Mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry, calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantities of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil. Industrial effluents contaminate land and water.
Suggestions to Conserve Land
- Afforestation and proper systematic management of grazing can help save water.
- Planting of shelterbelts of plants, regulation of overgrazing, stabilisation of sand dunes
by growing thorny bushes can check land degradation.
- Proper management of waste lands, control of mining activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents can reduce land degradation in industrial and suburban areas.
Soil as a Resource
Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. The soil is a living system. Soil takes millions of years to form. Relief, parent rock or bedrock, climate, vegetation, micro-organisms and time are functional in the formation of soil. Forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers contribute to the formation of soil.
Chemical and organic changes take place in the soil due to the organisms functional, in formation of the soil.
Soil also consists of organic (humus) and inorganic materials.
On the basis of the factors responsible for soil formation, colour, thickness, texture, age, chemical and physical properties, the soils of India are classified in different types.
Classification of Soils
India has varied relief features, landforms, climatic realms and vegetation types.
- This is the most widely spread and important soil.
- The Northern plains are covered with alluvial soil deposited by three important Himalayan river systems – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. They are also found in Rajasthan and Gujarat, the eastern coastal plains mainly in the deltas of Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers.
- The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay.
- Soil particles increase in size towards the inner side of the river. In the upper reaches of the river valley i.e. near the place of the break of slope, the soils are coarse. They are generally found in piedmont plains such as Duars, Chos, and Terai.
- According to their age alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar).
The bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules than the Khadar.
It has more fine particles and is more fertile than the bangar.
- Alluvial soils as a whole are very fertile due to adequate presence of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Regions of alluvial soils are intensively cultivated and densely populated.
- Soils in the drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation.
- These soils are called Regur soils. Black soil is ideal for growing cotton, and their black colour gives it the name- black cotton soil.
- The deciding factors include climatic conditions along with the parent rock material. They are generally found in the Deccan trap (Basalt) region spread over the northwest Deccan plateau. This area is made up of lava flows.
- They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extend in the south east direction to the Godavari and the Krishna valleys.
- They are made up of fine, clayey material. They retain moisture very well.
- They are rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
- These soils are generally poor in phosphoric contents.
- Black soils develop deep cracks during hot weather and this aids the aeration of the soil. These soils are sticky when wet and difficult to work on.
Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are the three states where black soil is found and cotton is the main crop grown in black soil.
Red and Yellow Soils
- Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas with low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.
- Yellow and red soils are found in Odisha, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain, along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.
- They are red in colour due to the diffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. When hydrated, they are yellow in colour.
- The name of the soil is derived from the term ‘later’ which meant brick. It develops under tropical and subtropical climates with an alternate wet and dry season.
- The soil was formed by intensive leaching due to heavy rain.
- These soils are deep to very deep, acidic (pH < 6.0), deficient in plant nutrients and can be found in the southern states, the Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, Odisha, some parts of West Bengal and North-east regions.
- When they are humus rich, they support deciduous and evergreen forests but under sparse vegetation and semi-arid environment, they are generally humus poor.
- They are prone to erosion and degradation because of their position on the landscape. This soil is very useful for growing tea and coffee after adopting appropriate soil conservation techniques particularly in the hilly areas of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
(6) Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala are more suitable for crops like cashew nut.
- Arid soils range from red to brown in color.
- They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature. The salt content is high and common salt can be obtained by evaporating.
- Due to the high temperature, evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus and moisture.
- The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar. This is because of the high calcium content.
- The Kankar layer formations in the bottom horizons restrict the infiltration of water which makes them not fit for cultivation. After proper irrigation, these soils become cultivable. The same has been done in Rajasthan.
- Forest soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas with sufficient rain forests. The soil texture varies according to where they are formed.
- They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse-grained in the upper slopes.
- These soils experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content in Himalayan regions.
- These soils are found in the lower parts of the valleys, river terraces and alluvial fans are fertile.
Which one of the following types of resource is iron ore?
Explanation: Minerals are non-renewable resources.
Under which of the following types of resource tidal energy cannot be put?
Explanation: Tidal Energy depends on the ocean and tides which is replenishable.
Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation
(c) Over irrigation
(c) Over irrigation
Soil Erosion And Soil Conservation
Washing down of soil due to denudation of the processes of soil formation and erosion go together top layer of soil is described as soil erosion. They at the same time and are balanced. This balance can be disturbed due to human activities Like deforestation, overgrazing, construction, and mining. Natural forces Like wind, glacier and water also lead to soil erosion.
The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels. The land that becomes unfit for cultivation is called bad land. These lands are called ravines in the Chambal basin.
- Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope which washes away the topsoil. This is known as sheet erosion.
- Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land known as wind erosion.
- Soil erosion is also caused due to defective farming methods.
- Plowing incorrectly can also form channels for the quick flow of water leading to soil erosion.
State of India’s Environment
Examples of villages of Sukhomajri and the district of Jhabua have shown that it is possible to reverse land degradation. Tree density in Sukhomajri increased from 13 per hectare in 1976 to 1,272 per hectare in 1992.
- Regeneration of the environment leads to economic well-being because of greater resource availability, improved agriculture and animal care, and consequently, increased incomes.
- People’s management is essential for ecological restoration.
Land Degradation and Soil erosion are two different concepts and must not be confused. Methods to prevent and cause both are different however they might be caused due to the same reason- indiscriminate usage of resources.
Steps To Treat Soil Erosion
- Contour ploughing can treat soil erosion. Plowing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes.
- Making terraces by cutting out steps can also help in soil conservation. Terrace cultivation restricts erosion. Western and central Himalayas have well-developed terrace farming.
- Large fields can be divided into strips. If grasses are left to grow between the crops, it breaks up the force of the wind. Strip Cropping is another method of saving soil from erosion.
- Planting lines of trees to create shelter beds also can be a method. These shelter beds help stabilize sand dunes and the deserts in Western India.
→ Replenishable: Ability to renew; make itself full or complete again on its own.
→ Culturable: Cultivable
→ Intensive: Giving concentrated force or emphasis on a single subject or into a short time; thorough.
→ Substratum: Underlying layer of a particular type of rock or soil beneath the surface.
→ Kanker: Nodules or pebbles of concentrated calcium carbonate, generally found in Bangar soil.
→ Aeration: To impregnate something with air, generally soil or liquid.
→ Denudation: Disintegration and decomposition of rocks along with the wearing away of the surface of the land.
→ Gullies: Ravine formed by trench cut into land caused by the erosion because of accelerated stream of water.
→ Deforestation: Large-scale removal of trees and forests for human activities.
→ Feasibility: Possibility of something done or carried out easily.
→ Flow Resources: A flow resource is a resource that is neither renewable nor non-renewable, and must be used where it occurs and replenishes itself.