The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China Class 10 Notes Social Science History Chapter 2
Growth of Nationalism in India
Growth of nationalism in India is directly connected to emergence of anti-colonial sentiments and movements against the British Government in India. People began identifying with each other as a part of the same nation during the struggle for nationhood, sovereignty and self-rule. A long struggle of appeasing the British and cooperating
with them from within the councils had faded without much effects. Leaders were perplexed because the constitutional methods had failed in achieving relief. Radical methods were quickly proving to be futile too. It was necessary to think of some new methods to earn Independence.
Effects of The First World War
The first World War affected the World in multiple ways. It destroyed economies of the most developed nations of the world. In India, these affects were severe too, not because India had participated in the war directly but because British had used India as their colony to represent them in the war. Indian soldiers were forcefully recruited and made to fight in the war.
How did the First World War help in the growth of the National Movement in India?
The First World War created new economic and political situations in India.
- Defence expenditure rose.
- War loans and taxes were increased to meet up with this sudden surge.
- Men from the villages were forcefully recruited in the army.
- Prices doubled during the war and sustenance became even more difficult for the people.
- Civil unrest grew and crop failure during 1918-19 and 1920-21 led to an acute shortage of food. Together with the influenza epidemic, the famine killed 13 million people.
Each section of people was scared and frustrated with the effects of First World War on Indian Economy and society. Experience of these hardships gave birth to a common struggle and anger against the British. A national movement was hereafter born.
The economic effects of the First World War and economic effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement are different from each other in terms of scale and impact.
The Idea of Satyagraha
Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915 after his fight against the racist regimes using the method of mass agitation called Satyagraha.
What is meant by the idea of Satyagraha?
The idea of Satyagraha focused upon the power and search of truth. The concept of satyagraha implied:
- In a struggle against injustice, a Satyagrahi did not need to use physical forces.
- A Satyagrahi could win the battle of truth without aggression or vengeance- through non-violence.
- A Satyagrahi should appeal to the conscience of the oppressor, not force truth upon him through violence.
- The dharma of non-violence would unite all Indians.
The concept of Satyagraha and Swadeshi are two different concepts. Swadeshi was a program which was used in the Non-cooperation Movement and other national movements while satyagraha was the method used during these movements.
What did Mahatma Gandhi mean when he said satyagraha is active resistance?
Satyagraha was not the weapon of the weak, it called for intense activity. There was no ill-will, no infliction of pain on adversaries. Only the strong possessed the values of forgiveness and peace. Lifting weapons was easy and a sign of weakness. Truth was the substance of the soul and soul was informed with knowledge. Non-violence was supreme dharma. British were the bearer of arms, non-violence and truth was the religion of Indians.
Mahatma Gandhi organized a series of Satyagraha movements based on these principles in the following places:
- Champaran Satyagraha in Bihar by peasants against the oppressive Plantation System in 1917.
- Kheng Satyagraha in Gujarat by peasants for relaxation in revenue payments in 1917 for there was a disastrous crop failure.
- Ahmedabad Satyagraha by cotton mill workers in 1918.
In South Africa, in 1913, Mahatma Gandhi led the workers from Newcastle to Transvaal in a mass agitation and Satyagrahi march against the white racist regimes. These regimes deprived natives and non-whites of their political rights. Even Mahatma Gandhi faced this racial discrimination when he was in South Africa.
The Rowlatt Act:
The Rowlatt Act was passed through the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919. It enabled British officials to detain suspected revolutionaries for a period of two years without any trial.
Why Indians were outraged by the Rowlatt Act?
- The Imperial Legislative Council passed this act despite opposition from its Indian members.
- It empowered the British government to repress possibly suspicious political activities and allowed the detention of political prisoners for two years without any trial only on the basis of suspicion.
- This gave the British immense powers to brutally torture Indians in the name of suspicion and doubt and was a clear violation of Human Rights.
Mahatma Gandhi wanted to launch a non-violent Civil Disobedience Satyagraha against this law. A nation-wide struggle against the infamous Rowlatt Act was thus launched in 1919 after the overwhelming response received by other regional Satyagraha movements. A hartal was organised followed by rallies and strikes by workers in various cities. Protest against the Rowlatt Act was however limited to cities and towns.
The British suppressed the nationalists by arresting the local leaders and even barred Gandhi for entering Delhi.
British administration tried to repress the protests and movement by open firing upon peaceful processions, arresting the most popular local leaders of Amritsar and imposing Martial Law. Gandhiji was barred from entering Delhi.
The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy:
General Dyer open fired upon a large unsuspecting crowd accumulated in the ground of Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab. The people had congregated for the annual Baisakhi fair on 13th April. Many people who had come for the fair were not aware of the martial law. This led to a massacre of hundreds of people. This was done to spread fear and terror in the minds of Indian revolutionaries.
People struck back upon the government through rallies, strikes and violent clashes and attacks upon police officials and government buildings. Leaders and scholars like Tagore returned the titles and honours awarded to them to show their solidarity.
Post the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, any Satyagrahi who revolted was brutally repressed, forced to rub their noses on ground as punishment, salute the British officers and was flogged on the streets. Villages were bombed and people were terrorized. This widespread violence defeated the purpose of a peaceful civil disobedient movement and thus it was called off by Mahatma Gandhi.
The Khilafat Movement:
Mahatma Gandhi understood the need to bring the Hindu and Muslims communities together in order to launch a successful nation-wide movement. The Khilafat issue fulfilled his criterion.
The position of Spiritual head of Islamic world and the emperor of Ottoman Rule- the Khalifa- was threatened after the defeat of Ottoman Turkey in the First World War. A Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in 1919 to protect the powers of Khalifa.
Ali Brothers, Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali and Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch a united mass action against the British administration.
Gandhi convinced the members of Congress in its Calcutta session in September, 1920 to launch an integrated pan-nation Non-Cooperation movement for Swaraj and the Khilafat issue.
The Non-Cooperation Movement
Mahatma Gandhi declared in his book, Hind Swaraj (1909) that British rule in India could be established only because of the cooperation of Indians.
Gandhi was of the opinion that British had been able to capture and establish their empire in India only because Indians had not expressed their dissatisfaction with the English laws before. They had simply subjected themselves to Colonialism and obeyed all the laws which made the British even bolder.
The Non-Cooperation movement was the consequence of this realization and was based on the idea that to drive British out of India, it was important to show the British that Indians would no longer obey them or their laws.
Non-Cooperation movement included the following programs:
- Surrender of titles and honors awarded by the government.
- Boycott of civil services, army, police, courts, elections, educational and legislative councils – all governmental institutions.
- Boycott of foreign-made goods. Indigenous goods would be encouraged and native cottage industries would be promoted through the Swadeshi program.
A Civil Disobedience movement was to be launched if the Government used repression. Support for this movement was garnered through public mobilization tours.
A few Congress members were unwilling to boycott elections of November 1920. They were scared that the movement might result in violence. Congress was divided into factions from within. A compromise was worked out in the Nagpur Congress session in December 1920.
The Non-Cooperation- Khilafat movement was adopted in 1920 and began in January 1921.
The Movement in the Towns:
The term Swaraj and this movement meant different things to different people. Movement began with middle-classes participation in the city. The lawyers gave up their practices. The students, teachers and headmasters boycotted educational institutions. Council elections were boycotted everywhere except Madras. The Justice Party in Madras, which was the party of the Non-Brahmins tried to gain power by entering the councils.
Economic effects of Non-Cooperation were severe. Foreign goods were burnt and boycotted, liquor shops were picketed and foreign clothes were burnt. Import of foreign goods halved, traders refused to trade in foreign goods.
Indian goods and clothes made of Khadi were promoted and worn, production of Indian textiles mills and handlooms rose.
The Non-Cooperation movement failed in the towns due to following reasons:
- Khadi was expensive to wear hence people could not afford it for long.
- There were absolutely no Indian alternatives for British institutions. They were slow to develop.
With no other alternative in sight, the protestors had to join back these institutions.
Non-Cooperation Movement in the Countryside
Non-Cooperation movement spread further to countryside. Peasants and exploited tribal groups were its main supporters who incorporated these ideals of program in their regional struggles.
Baba Ramchandra led the struggle from Awadh against the exorbitant rents and cess the talukdars and landlords were charging from the peasants. Peasants were required to do Begar and work without payment. Tenants had no security of work and no ownership of the lands they worked in, day and night.
Nai-dhobi bandhs were organised by Panchayats to deprive landlords, the services of washermen and barbers. The peasants in Awadh demanded a reduction of revenue, abolition of Begar and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
If you were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh in 1920, how would you have responded to Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj? Give reasons for your response.
If I were a peasant in Uttar Pradesh, Gandhiji’s call for Swaraj would have meant complete freedom from the exploitative conditions at farms and fields, freedom from cruel and selfish talukdars and landlords.
- I would have revolted against the unjust and inhumane treatment meted out to me.
- I would have protested against Begar and working without being paid for it.
- I would have demanded for a reduction in revenue and relaxation in collections.
- I would have socially boycotted oppressive landlords.
Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up by Jawaharlal Nehru, along with Baba Ramchandra and few other revolutionaries in October, 1920.
The Awadh Peasant struggle was integrated into the Non-Cooperation movement by these leaders. The peasants invoked the name of Mahatma Gandhi. However, it grew violent and following incidents occurred:
- Bazaars were looted and houses of talukdars and merchants were attacked.
- Grain hoards were taken over.
- People misinterpreted the term Swaraj and declared that Gandhiji had suggested to not pay taxes and that the agricultural lands would be taken from landlords soon to redistribute among them.
- Gandhiji was used as a tool to invoke sanction on all kinds of action and aspirations without his knowledge.
Bardoli Satyagraha of 1928 was successfully led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel in Gujarat against rising rates of land revenue.
Read the source given below and answer the questions that follow:
This is how he Later described the meeting:
‘They behaved as brave men, calm and unruffled in the face of danger. I do not know how they felt but I know what my feelings were. For a moment my blood was up, non-violence was almost forgotten – but for a moment only. The thought of the great leader, who by God’s goodness has been sent to lead us to victory, came to me, and I saw the Kisans seated and standing near me, less excited, more peaceful than I was – and the moment of weakness passed, I spoke to them in all humility on non-violence -1 needed the lesson more than they – and they heeded me and peacefully dispersed.’
(A) Why was the speaker addressing the crowd here?
(a) He was encouraging these peasants to revolt against the viceroy of India.
(b) He was agitated due to the violence ensued in an incident.
(c) He was preparing for Civil Disobedience Movement
(d) He was disappointed that the Awadh Peasants movement did not work.
(b) He was agitated due to the violence ensued in an incident.
Explanation: Police in Rae Bareilly, in United Provinces of the undivided India fired at a group of peasants who were peacefully protesting. The speaker was forbidden from going to the place. He is expressing his anger and pain of feeling helpless.
(B) Identify the speaker of the given words:
(a) C.R. Das
(b) Moti Lai Nehru
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru
Explanation: The speaker is Jawaharlal Nehru. He expresses his helplessness ana anger towards the authorities who open fired on his brothers who were protesting for their rights.
(C) Which great leader has been mentioned by the speaker in his address?
He mentions Mahatma Gandhi who had arrived from South Africa and inspired them to begin this Satyagrahi mass agitation movement.
(D) Assertion (A): For a moment my blood was up, non-violence was almost forgotten – but for a moment only.
Reason(R): For a Satyagrahi knew, to support the truth violence was not required even when the other party was indulging in violence.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
Explanation: The speaker mentions his helplessness but the address is equally important to understand the mentality of a Satyagrahi and source of his inspiration. The strength to not indulge in violence came from their adherence to ideals and values, their unity and togetherness and their mutual love for their ideological leader- Gandhiji.
Tribal Movement in Andhra Pradesh
Tribal peasants completely misunderstood and misused the concept of Swaraj according to their own interpretation.
- A militant guerilla movement was arranged in Gudem Hills, Andhra Pradesh. The government had restricted natives from using the forest as grazing grounds or to cut wood for fuel and collect fruits.
- The hill people were furious since they could no longer earn their livelihood. They were then forced to contribute a beggar for road construction. This was the final straw.
- This Led to a revolution. Regional leader, Alluri Sitaram Raju led the hill people to revolt, but by violent methods. He claimed to be a reincarnation of God. He insisted that he could correct astrological predictions, heal people and could survive bullet shots.
- He was heavily influenced by Gandhi. He encouraged people to wear khadi and give up drinking. However, he did not identify with a non-violent and peaceful method of protest.
- He encouraged the raiding of police stations and killing British officers.
Gudem rebels captured police men and continued revolting through guerilla warfare. Raju who became a successful native hero was executed after his arrest in 1924.
Swaraj in the Plantations:
Plantation workers had their own woes and understanding of Swaraj.
- Plantation workers in Assam were not allowed to move freely in and out of the plantations and communicate with their native villages.
- The Inland Emigration Act, 1859, forbade these workers from leaving the tea gardens without the permission of their employers.
- The declaration of the Non-Cooperation Movement gave them the impetus to revolt against injustice. They began defying the authorities and left the plantations for their villages under the name of Swaraj.
- They interpreted Swaraj as the Raj of Gandhi where land would be redistributed among them and thereafter, they would live a dignified life. They were brutally beaten up by the police upon being caught.
Birth of National Unity:
Despite these movements which were not the true manifestations of the idea of Non-cooperation, people were finally identifying as a nation to issues that went beyond their immediate locality and region. Their various interpretations of Swaraj and selfish motives to revolt led them to emotionally relate to a vision of India as a united nation. This was the birth of national unity, on a scale never experienced before.
Why did Gandhiji decide to withdraw from the Non-Cooperation Movement?
The rising violence in various regional movements, lack of training among the Satyagrahis and a common idea for protest and revolution led to the movement being called off by Mahatma Gandhi in February, 1922.
The Chauri Chaura incident of Gorakhpur district of United Provinces in February, 1922 was the immediate reason behind calling off the movement. Here a peaceful demonstration in a bazaar turned into a violent clash with the police.
Also, various Congress leaders wanted to contest elections to the Provincial Councils (set up by the Government of India Act of 1919) and reform the British policies through legislative methods, for they were exhausted by the mass struggle.
Within the Congress, some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been announced by the Government of India Act of 1919.
C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics despite opposition from young leaders like Nehru and Bose who believed only mass agitation through peaceful methods could bring them independence.
Worldwide economic depression hit the economies of the countries as a consequence of the First World War. Agricultural prices dropped heavily causing problems for farmers and producers. This not only shaped Indian politics during 1920, but also brought turmoil among the farmers.
Towards The Civil Disobedience Movement
Post the Non-Cooperation Movement, Gandhiji was involved in gathering mass support for the next national movements. He visited affected places and talked to desolate people who had been tortured by British Policies. Meanwhile, the Congress tried to assert its influence over the British from outside and inside the Imperial Council.
The Simon Commission:
Frustrated and threatened by the Non-Cooperation movement, the new British Tory government tried to appease Indians by instituting a committee to review the functioning of the constitution and suggest changes against policies that were not useful anymore. However, not a single person in this committee was an Indian. All the members were British.
Write a short note on the Simon Commission.
A committee was instituted to review the working of the Indian constitution and suggest changes. Sir John Simon headed this all-British Commission. Despite multiple recommendations by Indian leaders regarding including Indian leaders in the administrative processes, this commission had no Indian member even though it was to research regarding Indian Constitution.
There were multiple protests and demonstrations against this commission which came to India in
1928. Muslim League and Indian National Congress participated with equal vigour in these movements.
Lala Lajpat Rai was assaulted by the British police during a peaceful demonstration against the Simon Commission.
Lala Lajpat Rai later succumbed to the beatings.
To handle the situation, a vague offer to grant ‘dominion status’ to India was announced in October, 1929, by Lord Irvin. It was an empty promise. A Round Table Conference was declared to discuss possible solutions. Congress was not satisfied and radical young leaders like Bose and Nehru who did not want dominion status under British rule but puma swaraj or full independence gained greater support. Democratic methods of reforming British institutions were unsuccessful and hence moderates began losing support.
To assert their demand, the Lahore Congress formalised the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India in December, 1929. 26 January 1930, was to be celebrated as the Independence Day to mobilise people to struggle for complete independence. The celebrations attracted very little attention. Mahatma Gandhi understood that abstract celebrations of independence would prove futile to unite Indians. Instead, a concrete, daily issue which affected each Indian alike would have to be used to mobilise them.
The tax on salt answered the riddle Gandhi was trying to solve.
Discuss the Salt March to make clear why it was an effective symbol of resistance against colonialism.
After sending Lord Irwin, a letter containing 11 demands in 1930. The letter contained demands from all classes including specific demands from industrialist and peasants. But the highlight of the letter was the demand to abolish Salt tax and British monopoly over production of salt. Salt was a commodity which was used by the rich and poor alike and was a universal dietary need. Lord Irwin was unwilling to negotiate. Gandhi launched a civil disobedience campaign, he began his Salt March, the March to Glory.
He marched from his ashram at Sabarmati to Dandi barefoot in April 1930. He was followed by 78 of his trusted disciples. On April 6, 1930, he ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water which marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
In 1928, the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) was founded in Feroze Shah Kotla ground in Delhi led by Bhagat Singh, Jatin Das and Ajoy Ghosh.
The HSRA was a group of radical minded, brave patriotic individuals who believed that to create a revolution in society and to win bade independence; any measure could be and should be used.
In April 1929, Bhagat Singh and Batukeswar Dutta threw a bomb in the Legislative Assembly. They also attempted to blow up the train Lord Irwin was travelling in. Bhagat Singh was tried and executed by the colonial government.
He said, ‘Revolution is the inalienable right of mankind. Freedom is the imprescriptible birth right of all. The labourer is the real sustainer of society… Inquilab Zindabad”
Programs of the Civil Disobedience Movement:
Unlike the Non-Cooperation movement, people were now permitted to break colonial Laws. As a consequence, salt law was openly broken, foreign liquor shops picketed, foreign clothes boycotted. Peasants refused to pay taxes, Indian officials of villages resigned and people entered Reserved Forests violating forest laws.
British Government arrested important leaders Like Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Gandhi and others. Industrial workers attacked police posts, municipal buildings, law courts and railway stations – symbols of British rule. A policy of brutal repression was used to suppress the movement.
Gandhiji called this movement off due to the widespread violence in 1931 and signed the Gandhi Irwin Pact. Gandhiji agreed to attend the Second Round Table conference in London after boycotting the first and in return, the government released all political prisoners. The Conference was fruitless but upon his return, he realized the government had deceived him. All popular Leaders were in jail, Congress had been declared illegal and series of measures were in place to prevent demonstrations and boycotts.
The movement was re-launched but soon lost its vigour in 1934.
Participants of the Civil Disobedience Movement:
Various groups and factions participated in Civil Disobedience Movement bearing their own interests in mind. The greater aspiration to secure Indian Independence was not as popular as their immediate demands.
Rich peasants participated to revolt against the high revenues. The government was not compassionate towards them even when they were hit by economic depression. As the movement was called off in 1931, without realization of their aspiration, they were disappointed and hence did not participate again in 1932.
The poor peasants wanted a reduction in revenue demand and unpaid rent to be remitted since they could not earn much due to trade depression and dwindling of cash incomes. They joined various radical movements led by Socialists and Communists. Congress was unwilling to garner its support to them because of its fear of losing the support of rich landlords and peasants.
The business classes were interested in making more profits and hence revolted against the economically discriminatory and repressive policies of the British. They wanted protection against imports of foreign goods and restriction on imports. They formed organisations like the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927. They supplied financial assistance under leadership of famous industrialists like Purshottamdas Thakurdas and G. D. Birla. Swaraj was a period of freedom without any colonial restrictions on economy for them. They lost interest after the failure of Round Table Conference since they were worried about the prolonged disruption in business.
Industrialist working classes did not take much part in the movement except for some places. Some of them joined the struggle and adopted Gandhian dreams, principles and methods as part of their own movements against low wages and poor working conditions. Congress did not want to disappoint industrialists and hence did not support their demands.
Participation of women from all classes of the society in large numbers was a remarkable feature. They began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty and organised strikes, rallies, formed associations and even went to jail. However, the common perception that women were made to be mothers, wives, caretakers and caregivers did not change. Congress did not appoint women to authoritative positions. Their presence was an achievement but only in name.
The Limits of Civil Disobedience Movement:
- The Indian society was heavily divided on the basis of caste.
- The Indian social fabric had long been dominated by high class conservative Hindus or Satnamis. To attract their support, Congress had ignored low caste Hindus or the Untouchables, who called themselves Dalits or the Oppressed. They did not join the movement except for some places in Maharashtra.
- Gandhiji called them Harijans and asserted that the society should respect them. He felt that India could never attain independence if untouchability was not eliminated. He protested against the discrimination based on caste and tried to dignify the work they did for living by doing it himself.
- Dalit leaders however wanted political empowerment to resolve social discrimination. They demanded reserved seats in educational institutions, and separate electorates for legislative councils.
Why did political leaders differ sharply over the question of separate electorates?
- Dr B. R. Ambedkar. a Dalit leader fought for Separate electorates despite opposition from Gandhi till they were granted by the British.
- He feared that the large number of Hindus- especially upper caste Hindus will rule over Dalits, neglecting their demands.
- The only way to ensure representation and power to Dalits was through Separate Electorates.
- Gandhiji on the other hand believed that granting them that would develop emotions of separatism and isolation among them and they will not be able to fit and integrate into Indian society easily.
Later, Ambedkar conceded, ultimately accepting Gandhiji’s position that separate electorates would hinder the integration of Dalits in Indian Society and signed the Poona Pact of September 1932.
It gave the Depressed Classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils instead of separate electorates.
Ambedkar established the Depressed Classes Association in 1930.
Rise of Communalism:
Certain Muslim Organisations were apprehensive of Congress’ movement and responded without enthusiasm. Congress’ association with the Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha and failure of the Non-Cooperation movement for the Khalifa alienated them from Congress.
Various Hindu-Muslim Classes Resulted into Communal Riots:
Congress and the Muslim league could not resolve their differences about reserved seats for Muslims in the Central Assembly and representation in proportion to population in the Muslim-dominated provinces (Bengal and Punjab). The Muslim league representative. Muhammad Ah Jinnah was adamant about his demands. At the all-parties Conference in 1928, M. R. Jayakar of Hindu Mahasabha strongly argued against his demands and the gap between the two communities widened.
Muslims feared that their culture and identity as a minority community would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority and hence did not participate with whole hearts.
The Sense of Collective Belongingness
Apart from their struggle for nationhood and self-rule, the glorious history of India, literature, folk songs and fiction, art, symbols, popular prints and rich cultural heritage of India purged and evoked the emotions of nationalism, common belongingness among Indians.
1. To identify with their motherland, an image was created in the 20th century by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay which came to represent the ideals, aspirations and spirit of India as a nation.
2. His hymn to his motherland India, Vande Matram became the song of the nation. It was included in Anandmath and was widely sung during Swadeshi movement.
3. Abanindranth Tagore painted an image of Bharat Mata, portrayed as an ascetic figure; she is calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Devotion to this image became a way of expressing nationalism.
4. Indian folklores, folk tales and legends gathered and sung by bards spread the message of nationalism and revived true Indian culture which was otherwise, according to them adulterated by foreign forces. Preservation of this folk tradition in order to discover one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past was important.
5. Symbols like popular prints, religious and cultural objects and images of popular leaders were used to unify Indians. In this picture, the sacred institutions of different faiths (temple, church, Masjid) frame the central figure of Bal Ganaadhar Tilak. a popular freedom fighter to signify the unity of Indians despite their religious entities.
6. Indians were thus brought together by growing common anger against the colonial government. The Congress and Mahatma Gandhi tried to channel people’s grievances into organized movements for independence, but despite their allegiance to their motherland, their personal differences, selfish aspirations brought periods of disunity between and during united struggles for Independence.
Various cultural processes and symbols helped to spread the feelings of unity and nationalism:
- In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a massive four- volume collection of Tamil folk tales, The Folklore of Southern India and in Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself collected legends and poetry.
- Symbols like flags were used to unify people. Swaraj Flag designed by Gandhiji himself in 1921, became the symbol of national unity and also defiance of British authority.
- Glorification and reinterpretation of Indian history to instil in every Indian a sense of pride for their motherland was also attempted in order to change the miserable situations under the British.
- Images for this retelling and rediscovery were however not free of the communal tensions. Other communities felt alienated when majorly Hindu imagery was promoted.
To finally drive British out of the country, Gandhiji launched a movement called the Quit India Movement. The Congress Working Committee, in its meeting in Wardha on 14 July 1942, passed the historic ‘Quit India’ resolution demanding the immediate transfer of power to Indians and quit India. On 8 August 1942 in Bombay, the All India Congress Committee endorsed the resolution which called for a non-violent mass struggle on the widest possible scale throughout the country.
People voluntarily observed hartals, and demonstrations brought into its ambit thousands of ordinary people, namely and processions were accompanied by national songs and students, workers and peasants, slogans. The movement was truly a mass movement which brought into its ambit thousands oP ordinary people, namely students, workers and peasants.
→ Colonialism: Practice of occupying another country and acquiring partial/complete control over its economic, political and social affairs
→ Epidemic: Widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a place/country/area
→ Racist: One who discriminates between people based on their race or colour of their skin
→ Plantation system: A system of large-scale agriculture involving the cultivation of industrial and food crops like tea or coffee over a very large area.
→ Hartal: Strike
→ Martial Law: Rule of military over an area, when such a law is passed in an area, military gains complete control over it and obtains right to do anything for the security and harmony of the area.
→ Khadi: Native Indian homespun cotton fabric cloth
→ Cess: Tax
→ Succumb: To die
→ Dominion: Territory of a sovereign or government
→ Monopoly: Complete and singular control over something
→ Militant: One who favours violence as method of confrontation over conversation
→ Communalism: Ideology of allegiance to one’s community- characterised by similar race or religion
→ Separate Electorates: Separate Electorates are that type of elections in which minorities select their own representatives separately.
→ Resolution: Firm decision
→ Mahatma Gandhi: He was the father of Indian Independence movement, lawyer and an anti-colonial nationalist. He led India to independence and spread the ideas of Satyagraha and Non-violence which became the spirit of the nation.
→ Motilal Nehru: He was an Indian lawyer, independence activist and one of the most active members of Congress. He was also the father of Jawaharlal Nehru, wrote Nehru report in 1928- famously known as India’s first constitution written by Indians. He formed Swaraj Party with C. R. Das.
→ Jawaharlal Nehru: Jawaharlal Nehru was an Indian independence activist, later the first Prime Minister of India, as well as a centralfigure in Indian Independence movement. He helped in writing Indian Constitution and served Independent India for 15 years as its premier.
→ Bal Gangadhar Tilalc Bal Gangadhar Tilak, or Lokmanya Tilak was an Indian nationalist, teacher, and an independence activist.
→ Lala Lajpat Rai: He was a veteran leader of the Indian Nationalist Movement, Indian independence movement and Hindu reform movements.
→ Bhagat Singh: He was one of the most brave Indian revolutionaries who also founded HSRA.
→ Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel: He was the man behind formation of an Indian nation and a very famous independence activist and member of Congress. He was the first deputy Prime Minister of India.
→ Atluri Sitaram Raju: A local leader Andhra Pradesh in undivided India who claimed he had a variety of special powers: he could make corrr ct astroLogical predictions and heal people, and he could even survive bulLet shots. He was executed in 1924.
→ Abdul Ghaffar Khan: He was a disciple of Gandhi and was called Frontier Gandhi. He was a famous independence activist of undivided India who fought bravely for our independence and went to Pakistan after Partition.
→ Dr. B.R Ambedkar: He was a lawyer, independence activist and the Father of Indian Constitution.
→ Muhammad Ali Jinnah: He was the member of Muslim League, led the demand of a separate Pakistan during Indian independence and was the first Prime Minister of independent Pakistan.
→ Baba Ramchandra: A ascetic led the Awadh Peasant Struggle in 1920-21.
→ Ali Brothers: Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali- Khilafat Movement activists M.R. Jaykar: An activist of Hindu Mahasabha
→ Rabindranath Tagore: He was the most famous Bengali poet, writer, composer, philosopher and painter. He was awarded Noble Prize in Literature.
→ Abanindranath Tagore: He was the nephew of Rabindranath Tagore and most famous artist of his times; he created an image of Bharat Mata.
→ Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay: He was an Indian novelist, poet and journalist. He composed Vande Mataram, India’s national song, originally in Sanskrit and created an image of Bharat Mata. He wrote Anandmath.
→ General Dyer: English officer behind the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Sir John Simon: He was a British politician and headed the Simon Commission.
→ Lord Irwin: Lord Irwin was the Indian Viceroy who held office from April 1926 till 1931
→ “Inquilab Zindabad!” —Bhagat Singh
→ “It is said of “passive resistance” that it is the weapon of the weak, but the power which is the subject of this article can be used only by the strong. This power is not passive resistance; indeed it calls for intense activity. The movement in South Africa was not passive but active…” —Mahatma Gandhi
→ “The thought of the great leader, who by God’s goodness has been sent to lead us to victory, came to me, and I saw the kisans seated and standing near me, less excited, more peaceful than I was – and the moment of weakness passed, I spoke to them in all humility on non-violence – ” —Jawaharlal Nehru
→ “Communalism in its higher aspect, then, is indispensable to the formation of a harmonious whole in a country like India.” —Muhammad Iqbal
→ 1859: Inland Emigration Act was passed
→ 1909: Hind Swaraj was written by Gandhiji 1915: Mahatma Gandhi returned to India.
→ 1916: Champaran Satyagaraha 1917: Kheda Satyagaraha 1918: Ahmedabad Satyagraha
→1919: Rowlatt Act was passed; Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay; Hartal against Rowlatt Act; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre; General Dyer’s crawling orders were passed; Government of India act was passed and introduced provincial elections.
→ 1920: Non-Cooperation movement was adopted in Congress; Oudh Kisan Sabha was organised; Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress was formed.
→ 1921: The police in United Provinces fired at peasants near Rae Bareli.
→ 1922: Chauri Chaura Incident; Non-Cooperation movement was called off.
→ 1927: FICCI was formed.
→ 1928: Bardoli Satyagraha; Simon Commission arrived in India; HSRA was formed; All India Parties Conference was organised.
→ 1929: Lord Irwin’s offer of Dominion Status; demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India was formalised; First Round Table Confrernce.
→ 1930: Gandhiji’s 11 demands to Irvin; Dandi March; Depressed Class Association was formed. Civil Disobedience Movement was launched.
→ 1931: Civil Disobedience movement was called off. Gandhi-lrwin Pact was signed; Second Round Table Conference in London
→ 1932: Poona Pact between Ambedkar and Gandhi
→ 1942: Quit India Resolution passed; Gandhiji gives Do or Die speech