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The Merchant of Venice Act 1 Scene 3 Summary Workbook Answers

The Merchant of Venice Act 1 Scene 3 Summary

Again, the scene shifts to a public place in Venice. The audience is brought back to the world of business and hard talk. Shylock, one of the most complex characters in English Literature, is introduced here. The scene completes the exposition that started with the bond story when Antonio agrees to Shylock’s demand of a pound of flesh.
Bassanio meets Shylock and asks for a loan of three thousand ducats on Antonio’s credit.

Shylock considers that since Antonio’s riches Eire at the mercy of the sea, he’s ‘a good man’ and if fortune wills, he can make some money. When Bassanio invites him to dine with Antonio, Shylock refuses as it’s his principle not to dine with Christians. Antonio makes his appearance and at the very sight of the merchant Shylock is filled with loath.

Antonio has always criticized him for taking interest on the money lent. Many a time Antonio has insulted the Jew, spat on him and called him a dog. Shylock considers it as a good opportunity to take his revenge against the Christians.

So he says, he wants Antonio’s friendship and will advance the money without interest. But he wants to make the transaction a merry sport’ and a penalty clause is to be inserted by way of a bond. If Antonio is unable to repay the borrowed money, Shylock would cut a pound of flesh from any part of his body. Bassanio is worried about Shylock’s intentions, but Antonio expresses his happiness as the usurer is turning into a Christian. Antonio is confident that his ship’s cargo will be sold by that time, and he will be able to settle the debt.

The Merchant of Venice Act 1 Scene 3 Summary Word Meanings

  1. ducats – Venetian gold coins
  2. be bound – will stand as guarantee
  3. stead – supply
  4. imputation – allegation
  5. in supposition – at risk
  6. argosy – merchant ship
  7. Rialto – Venetian Stock Exchange
  8. squandered – scattered lavishly
  9. bethink – think it over
  10. fawning – servile
  11. publican – tax collector
  12. gratis – free of interest
  13. sacred nation – Jewish tribe
  14. rails – abuses
  15. congregate – gather
  16. bargains – business deals
  17. debating – calculating
  18. present store – ready money
  19. gross – full amount
  20. Hebrew – Jew
  21. furnish – supply
  22. albeit – although
  23. excess – interest
  24. ripe – pressing
  25. wrought – schemed
  26. third possessor – third in line of possession
  27. compromis’d – agreed
  28. eanlings – new born lambs
  29. streak’d and pied – with fleeces of two colours
  30. thrive – succeed
  31. thrift – profit
  32. swayed and fashioned – controlled and shaped
  33. holy witness – biblical arguments
  34. goodly – pleasant
  35. beholding – indebted
  36. rated – abused
  37. usances – money deals
  38. sufferance – long suffering
  39. badge – characteristic
  40. gabardine – loose cloak
  41. void your rheum – spit
  42. cur – stray dog
  43. bondman’s key – like a bond man in the tone of a slave
  44. bated breath – holding breath in a suppressed manner
  45. spum’d – rejected
  46. exact – take
  47. doit – interest
  48. notary – lawyer for drawing up contracts
  49. nominated – named
  50. forfeiture – penalty
  51. adieu – good-bye
  52. merry bond – a pleasant joke
  53. unthrifty knave – irresponsible servant
  54. dismay – reason for anxiety.

The Merchant of Venice Act 1 Scene 3 Summary Questions and Answers

1. Bassanio: Be assured you may.
Shylock: I will be assured I may; and, that I may be assured, I will be think me.
May I speak with Antonio?

Bassanio: If it please you to dine with us.
Shylock: Yes, to smell pork; to eat of the habitation which your prophet the Nazarite conjured the devil into. I will buy with you, sell with you, talk with you walk with you, and so following; but I will not eat with you, drink with you, nor pray with you. What news on the Rialto? Who is he comes here?

Question 1.
Where is Shylock and Bassanio at this time? What is the purpose of their meeting?
The characters are in a public place in Venice. Bassanio has come to ask Shylock whether he will lend three thousand ducats for which Antonio will stand as security, or not.

Question 2.
Why does Bassanio say, use assured you may?” What has Shylock said earlier about Antonio’s ventures?
Bassanio approaches Shylock to lend him three thousand ducats, for which Antonio will stand as a surety. Shylock says that since Antonio’s merchandise is in various ships, and anything may happen to the ships, Shylock is hesitant, and Bassanio assures him that he can take the bond from Antonio; he won’t stand to lose.

Question 3.
Why is Shylock invited to dinner? Why was the invitation not accepted?
Shylock is invited for dinner to meet Antonio who will stand as a credit for the loan taken. The invitation was not accepted as it is the Jew’s principle, to not to dine with the Christians. They eat pork which is forbidden for Jews.

Question 4.
Explain the reference to Nazarite.
Jesus of Nazarite released the devils from a possessed man to inhabit the bodies of a herd of pigs.

Question 5.
What all Shylock would not do with Christians? What is the one thing he would do? To whom does the last line refer to?
Shylock would not eat, drink or pray with a Christian but he could talk with them, walk with them and do business with them. The last line of the extract refers to Antonio who has come to meet them.

Question 6.
What does Shylock say ‘aside’ about Antonio when he enters the scene?
Shylock hates Antonio and says in an aside that he looks like a fawning tax-collector. He hates him because he is a Christian and also because he foolishly lends money without interest thereby affecting the business of others in Venice. He will get a chance to catch hold of Antonio, if he fails to pay the borrowed money in time.

Question 7.
(a) Rialto
(b) Conjured
(c) habitation
(a) Rialto is the market place or stock exchange of Venice.
(b) Conjured up refers to the incident in which Jesus of Nazarite, by magic, transferred the devil from the body of the possessed person, into the body of pigs.
(c) Habitation refers to the body of the pig, the home of the devil. He says he’ll not eat pork or pig as Jews consider it as a sin.

2. Antonio :
This was a venture, sir, that Jacob serv’d for;
A thing not in his power to bring to pass,
But sway’d and fashion’d by the hand of heaven.
Was this inserted to make interest good ?
Or is your gold and silver ewes and rams ?

Question 1.
What makes Antonio refer to Jacob?
Shylock citesa biblical story of Jacob and Uncle Leban to prove that there is nothing wrong in charging an interest. In response to this, Antonio refers to Jacob in order to prove that he became prosperous not because he had the power to arrange the birth of streaked and spotted lambs but because of God’s will who decided and directed the whole thing.

Question 2.
Which story form the Bible is being referred by Shylock? Why does he do that?
Shylock narrates a biblical story, which says that when Jacob the prophet went to look after the sheep of his uncle Leban, an agreement was made between the two. It was decided that Jacob would receive all the lambs born with spots and stripes. During breeding season, Jacob placed wooden rods on the ground, so that their shadows would fall on the sheep. Almost all the lambs were born with spots and stripes and Jacob profited by his trick. He did this in order to justify his practice of charging interest.

Question 3.
According to the extract, what was swayed and fashioned by the hand of heaven?
According to the extract, the birth of lambs with spots and stripes was swayed (controlled) and fashioned (shaped) by the will of God.

Question 4.
With what are ewes and rams compared? What is the tone of Antonio, when he refers to them?
The ewes and rams are compared to gold and silver coins. Antonio is sarcastic when he asks whether Shylock mentioned the ewes and rams to justify his taking an interest. Did he expect the coins to multiply like the animals.

Question 5.
What does Antonio tell about Shylock, when he talks to Bassanio, just after this extract?
Antonio calls Shylock a devil and says that the villain can quote scriptures to justify his evil purpose. A bad man producing holy arguments is like a villain with a smiling face. He is like a fine looking apple, all rotten inside. Falsehood does have a fine appearance.

3. Shylock :
Signior Antonio, many a time and oft
In the Rialto you have rated me
About my moneys and my usancess:
Still have I borne it with a patient shrug,
For sufferance is the badge of all our tribe.
You call me misbeliever, cut-throat dog,
And spit upon my Jewish gaberdine.
And all for use of that which is mine own.

Question 1.
Bring out the meaning of the extract.
When Antonio asks whether, Shylock would oblige him with three thousand ducats, Shylock gets an opportunity to vent out his feelings. He says that Antonio had abused him in Rialto about his money and his money-lending practices. He had endured the insults patiently as endurance is the characteristic of his race. Antonio had called him a non-believer, murderous dog, spat on his cloak, all because he used his money to advantage. Well, now it appears that Antonio is in need of the same money which he had made fun of.

Question 2.
What’s the significance of the reference to ‘our tribe’?
‘Our tribe’ is with reference to the Jews, whom the Christians hated. Shakespeare here refers to the racial prejudice that has been existed for years. Christians considered them as non-believers, cut-throats, and uncultured lot.

Question 3.
Apart from the instances mentioned in the extract, what other acts of insult had Antonio shown to Shylock?
Apart from the insults mentioned in the extract, Shylock says that, Antonio had spat on his beard, and kicked him as he would kick a stray dog.

Question 4.
How does Antonio reply to this speech of Shylock? What kindness does Shylock offer a little later? Do you think this is kindness? Give your reason.
Antonio again calls Shylock a dog, spit on him and push him aside. It is a business transaction they are doing and Shylock should lend the money as to an enemy because a friend would never expect profit when he lends money.

As an enemy, Shylock can claim penalty from him if he fails to repay. Shylock, offers to show kindness by not taking any interest. I don’t think it’s kindness as he has the ulterior motive of killing Antonio by taking his flesh.

Question 5.
Whom does Shylock asks Antonio to meet and why?
Shylock asks Antonio to meet the lawyer and put his signature on the bond drawn between them that he’ll not take any interest in the form of money as an act of kindness.

4. Antonio :
I am as like to call thee so again,
To spit on thee again, to spurn thee too.
If thou wilt lend this money, lend it not
As to thy friends, for when did friendship take
A breed for barren metal of his friend?
But lend it rather to thine enemy;
Who if he break, thou may’st with better face
Exact the penalty.

Question 1.
Whom is Antonio addressing to? What is the occasion ?
Antonio is addressing Shylock. When Antonio asked Shylock for a loan of three thousand ducats for his friend, Shylock reminded him how he had been insulting him in private and public for his usury. Antonio told him that he would always behave with him in that manner irrespective of whether he gives a loan or not.

Question 2.
Why does Antonio say ‘to spit on thee again’?
Antonio says this because of his communal prejudice and personal hatred for Shylock; he would continue his negative attitude towards him.

Question 3.
Explain :
(a) A breed for barren metal
(b) If he breaks
(a) A breed of barren metal’ implies interest on a loan of money. Money is regarded to be barren since it cannot breed like Laban’s sheep and cattle.
(b) ‘If he breaks’ means that if he fails to pay back his loans.

Question 4.
Do you think Antonio himself is guilty of hardening the attitude of the person he is addressing? Give reasons for your answer.
Antonio, to a large extent is guilty of hardening the attitude of Shylock. Firstly, he says that he would continue insulting the Jew. Secondly, he urges him to advance this loan to an enemy, not to a friend. Thirdly, it was he who suggested that if he failed to repay the loan, Shylock was free to impose any penalty on him.

Question 5.
What penalty does the other person propose?
Shylock proposed to sign a bond according to which he would be entitled to a pound of Antonio’s flesh if he failed to pay back the money on time.