The Story of My Life Summary by Helen Keller Chapter 1 to 23

Online Education for The Story of My Life Summary by Helen Keller Chapter 1 to 23

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Online Education for Summary of Novel The Story of My Life Summary by Helen Keller

The Story of My Life Summary: The story is an inspirational account of the world of a blind and deaf girl, and how she triumphs over her disabilities, going to school and college, facing exams and learning to enjoy the simple things in life. Some of her concerns are common to all young people of her age, but other concerns arose exclusively out of her desire to triumph over her disabilities. The book shows us the perception of a person who has been denied sight and sound and struggles to understand the world and interact with those around her. It also shows us how normal people can help to aid those with disabilities.

Helen Adams Keller was born on 27 June 1880, in the north-west Alabama city of Tuscumbia. Her father was a retired confederate army captain and editor of a local newspaper The North Alabamian, while her mother, Kate, was an educated young woman from Memphis. Helen had a younger brother, Phillips Brooks and a sister, Mildred.

When Helen was nineteen months old, she was afflicted by an unknown illness, possibly scarlet fever or meningitis, which left her deaf and blind. Helen, who was an extremely intelligent child, tried to understand her surroundings through touch, smell and taste; and by the age of seven, Helen had developed nearly sixty hand gestures to communicate with her parents and ask for things.

However, she was often frustrated by her inability to express herself. With the help of her teacher, Anne Sullivan, Helen learned the manual alphabet and started communicating by finger spelling. Within a few months of working with Anne, Helen’s vocabulary increased to hundreds of words and simple sentences. Anne also taught Helen how to read braille and raised type, and to print block letters. By the age of nine, Helen began to learn to speak and read lips.

Helen attended Perkins School for the Blind for four years. She then spent a year at the Cambridge School for Young Ladies to prepare for Radcliffe College. In 1904, she graduated cum laude from Radcliffe and became the first deaf-blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree.

While in college, Keller undertook an essay assignment that eventually took the shape of her autobiography The Story of My Life in 1903. In this book, Helen chronicled her education and the first twenty-three years with her teacher and friend, Anne Sullivan providing supplementary accounts of the teaching process. The autobiography went on to become an almost unparalleled bestseller in multiple languages and laid the foundation of Keller’s literary career.

Chapter Wise Summary of Novel The Story of My Life by Helen Keller Chapter 1 to 23

The Story of My Life Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What does Helen mean by saying that “the shadows of the prison house are on the rest.. “?
The expression means that Helen is not able to remember a large part of her childhood.

Question 2.
When and where was Helen born?
Helen was born on 27 June 1880 in Tuscumbia, a town in northern Alabama.

Question 3.
What does Helen mean when she makes the statement, “it is true there is no king who has not had a slave among his ancestors and no slave who has not had a king among his”?
The author means that if one researches one’s lineage, the person will find all kinds of people who were their ancestors. That is, no family can have only powerful and rich people as their ancestors.

Question 4.
Who were Caspar Keller, Arthur H Keller and Kate Adams?
Caspar was Helen’s grandfather, Arthur was her father and Kate her mother.

Question 5.
How do we know that the house in which Helen lived was very beautiful?
Though the house was not very big, it was completely covered with vines, climbing roses and honeysuckle.
From the garden, it looked like an arbour. The porch of the house was covered by a screen of yellow roses and southern smilax and it was always buzzing with hummingbirds and bees.

Question 6.
How did Helen enjoy the beauties of her garden in spite of her blindness?
Helen would feel the hedges and find different flowers by her sense of smell. She would find comfort in hiding her face in the cool leaves and grass. She wandered in the garden touching, feeling and smelling the various flowers, bushes and trees and could identify them accurately.

Question 7.
What does Helen, want to express through the statement “I came, I saw, I conquered”?
Helen wants to express the fact that she was a much loved child especially as she was the first born in the family.

Question 8.
How did Helen get her name?
Helen’s father had wanted to name her Mildred Campbell after an ancestor whom he had a high regard for, while her mother wanted to name her after her mother, whose maiden name was Helen Everett. However, by the time they reached the church for the ceremony, her father lost the name and when the minister asked him, he gave the name Helen Adams.

Question 9.
Give two examples to show that Helen was an intelligent baby.
When she was six months old, Helen could say “How d’ye?” and one day she started saying “Tea” very clearly.
Even after her illness, she could recollect many of the words that she had learnt as a baby, like “water”.

Question 10.
What motivated Helen to take her first steps as a baby?
One day, when Helen’s mother was giving her a bath, she was attracted by the flickering shadows of the leaves that were reflected on the bathroom floor. She got up from her mother’s lap and walked towards the reflection to try and catch it.

Question 11.
Why does Helen call February a dreary month?
It was the month in which Helen was struck by an illness that left her deaf and blind. For her, it was a nightmarish experience.

Question 12.
For how long had Helen been able to see and hear?
Helen was able to see and hear for the first 19 months of her life.

Online Education for Mother’s Day Summary in English by J.B Priestley

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Online Education for Mother’s Day Summary in English by J.B Priestley

Writer Name J.B Priestley
Born 13 September 1894, Manningham, Bradford, United Kingdom
Died 14 August 1984, Stratford-upon-Avon, United Kingdom
Spouse Jacquetta Hawkes (m. 1953–1984)
Movies Dangerous Corner, An Inspector Calls
Mother’s Day Summary by J.B Priestley
Mother’s Day Summary by J.B Priestley

Mother’s Day Summary in English

When the play opens, Mrs Anne Pearson, in her forties, is talking to her friend Mrs Fitzgerald. Mrs Fitzgerald has been predicting Mrs Pearson’s fate, as the play opens. Mrs Pearson is a pleasant but worried-looking woman while Mrs Fitzgerald is older, heavier and a strong and intimidating personality. Mrs Fitzgerald tells Mrs Pearson to assert herself as the head of the family. She adds that it is high time Mrs Pearson let her family know how important she is to them.

Mrs Pearson tells her friend, apologetically, that it was not as easy as it seemed, because although her family was very thoughtless and selfish, she loved them. She felt that they didn’t mean to be as terrible as they were. However, Mrs Fitzgerald insists that they ought to learn to treat her appropriately. She tells her not to run after them all time and take their orders as if she were the servant in the house. She stayed at home every night while they went out enjoying themselves. She feels that this situation was harmful for all of them.

Mrs Pearson agrees with Mrs Fitzgerald, but is uncertain whether it would have any effect on them. She does not want to create any unpleasantness in the family. Moreover, she has thought of it often but does not know how to begin. She glances at her watch and jumps up to cook for her children and her husband, as they would be home any minute. Mrs Fitzgerald holds her back and tells her to begin asserting herself immediately. Mrs Pearson is a little hesitant as she is not sure of herself. Mrs Fitzgerald offers to help her but Mrs Pearson is reluctant as her family would hate an outsider’s interference. But Mrs Fitzgerald has an idea.

She tells Mrs Pearson that they could exchange their bodies, i.e., instead of looking like themselves they would look like the other. Mrs Fitzgerald then holds her hand and asks her to keep quiet for a minute. They stare at each other and Mrs Fitzgerald mumbles ‘‘Arshtatta dum—arshtatta lam—arshtatta lamdumbona…” and they assume each other’s personality. The roles are now reversed. Mrs Pearson becomes bold and dominating and Mrs Fitzgerald is nervous and trembling.

The first evident change is that Mrs Pearson notices the cigarette in Mrs Fitzgerald’s mouth, snatches it and puts it in her own. Mrs Fitzgerald, now with Mrs Pearson’s personality, looks down at herself and sees that her body has changed and screams out of fright. Now, Mrs Fitzgerald is nervous and Mrs Pearson, confident. Mrs Fitzgerald is afraid what would happen if they could not change back to their original forms but Mrs Pearson jokes that she would enjoy herself more as Mrs Fitzgerald. She then assures her friend that they would change back easily. Mrs Pearson, who is Mrs Fitzgerald in reality, goes out leaving the actual Mrs Fitzgerald in Mrs Pearson’s body behind.

Mrs Pearson is playing patience and smoking when her daughter Doris Pearson, a pretty girl in her early twenties, enters. She tells her mother to iron her yellow silk dress as she had to wear it that night. She notices her mother, sitting at the table playing ‘patience’ and smoking, to her amazement. She asks her what she is doing. Mrs Pearson, answers her complacently that she was not whitewashing the ceiling. She adds that there is no law against smoking. She also tells her that she had not made her tea and would have her meal at the Clarendon.

Doris cannot believe her ears. She is angry and insists that her mother make tea and iron her dress. However, Mrs Pearson firmly tells her not to talk rubbish as she was working twice as hard and getting no wages or thanks for it. She then asks Doris where she wanted to wear her yellow dress to. Doris tells her that she was going out with Charlie Spence. Mrs Pearson tells her to find someone better than the buck-toothed, half-witted man.

Doris is offended and runs out. Mrs Pearson laughs and starts putting the cards together when her son Cyril walks in and asks for tea. She behaves nonchalantly, but he insists on her getting the tea and his clothes ready.

He reminds her of the promise she had made that morning, to mend his clothes. He is surprised to hear that she doesn’t “like mending”. She goes on to tell him that when he does not want to do something, he does not do it. She planned to do the same. Cyril could not believe his ears.

Just then, Doris enters and Mrs Pearson, seeing that Doris has been crying, says that she wouldn’t look so pale and red-eyed even for Charlie Spence. Doris accuses her mother of making her cry. Doris and Cyril are even more surprised when their mother asks for strong beer.

When Mrs Pearson walks out, Doris and Cyril discuss that there is something wrong. Doris tells Cyril that she was smoking and playing cards when she came in. Doris feels that she looks a little different but Cyril has not noticed that. They try to fathom what the problem with her is, whether she had gone crazy or had a concussion. They laugh at the idea of her having gone crazy and decide to wait till their father returns.

Mrs Pearson returns, carrying a bottle of beer and a half-filled glass. She tells them to tell her the reason for their amusement. Doris retorts that she had never understood their jokes. Mrs Pearson rudely tells her that she was bored at their jokes even before they were bom. Doris is tearful and Mrs Pearson tells her that all they do is come in, ask for something, go out again, and return when there is nowhere else to go. Cyril again asks for tea, telling her that he had been working for an eight-hour day. Mrs Pearson says that she had done her eight hours and henceforth she would work only for forty-hours a week. At the weekend she would have her two days off. Both the children are surprised. Doris tries to re-confirm if the mother would not do anything on Saturday and Sunday.

Mrs Pearson replies that she might make a bed or two and do a bit of cooking “as a favour” but that would be conditional to the fact that she is asked very nicely and thanked for everything and generally made a fuss of. Mrs Pearson tells her daughter that in case they do not like the arrangement, she would go elsewhere for the weekend. When Doris questions her, Mrs Pearson tells her they had no right to question her as to where she would go and with whom she should go. These were the replies that she had got from them, and she was certainly a lot older and better able to look after herself. When Doris breaks into tears, she tells her not to be a baby. If she was old enough to go out with Charlie Spence, she ought to be old enough to behave properly.

Soon Mr George Pearson, Mrs Pearson’s husband, enters. He notices Doris crying and he wants to know the cause. She tells him that he would soon know the cause. George then notices Mrs Pearson sipping beer and is shocked. He expresses his surprise and tells her that “it doesn’t look right”. Mrs Pearson replies that it is “a nice change” and it had been quite some time since he was surprised at her.

When he tells her that he did not want tea as he was going for a special snooker match night at the club, she tells him the tea is not ready, in the first place. He is angry and she reminds him that he was annoyed because he didn’t get the tea that he did not event want. She adds that if he did that at the bar—did not ask for beer but showed irritation since it had not been poured out for him—they would laugh at him even more than they did. George was indignant and she added that he was one of their standing jokes and that he was called “Pompy-ompy Pearson” because they thought that he was slow and pompous.

She was surprised that he spent so much time at a place where people always ridiculed him, leaving his wife at home.

Just then, Cyril enters and George tries to confirm these facts with him. Cyril is embarrassed and reluctant but admits to it. George is shocked and Cyril accuses his mother of not being fair and sensitive. She says that sometimes it does people good to have their feelings hurt. The truth ought not to hurt anybody for long. If George didn’t go to the club so often, perhaps people there would stop laughing at him. When Cyril disagrees with her, she tells him that his opinion was irrelevant as he knows nothing, and spends too much time and money at greyhound races, dirt tracks and ice shows.

There is a knock on the door. Cyril tells his mother that the silly old Mrs Fitzgerald from next door is there. She informs her son that Mrs Fitzgerald was a very nice woman, with a lot more sense than he would ever have.

She invites Mrs Fitzgerald in. Mrs Fitzgerald has come to inquire if all was well. Cyril said it was not, but Mrs Pearson insists that all was well. When Mrs Pearson shouts at Cyril, Mrs Fitzgerald protests but Mrs Pearson tells her not to interfere. When Cyril goes to the kitchen, Mrs Pearson assures her that she had only done what was required—putting them back in their place.

Mrs Pearson tells Mrs Fitzgerald that she had told George what they thought of him at the club and assures her that all would turn out well. George enters and uneasily asks Mrs Fitzgerald if she had just dropped in Mrs Fitzgerald, in her nervousness, calls him George (She is in reality his wife, Mrs Pearson, who is in Mrs Fitzgerald’s body). George is surprised but Mrs Pearson covers up for Mrs Fitzgerald saying that his name was George, and not the Duke of Edinburgh. George is angry and he lists all that she had done since evening. Mrs Fitzgerald is upset but George tells her to stay out. Mrs Pearson defends Mrs Fitzgerald, saying that George had no manners as he had just marched in and sat down without even wishing her. She asks George to go to the club. George loses his temper and asks Mrs Pearson what was wrong with her. Mrs Pearson jumps up savagely to slap, his face. Mrs Fitzgerald tries to stop her, calling her Mrs Fitzgerald and this confuses George.

Just then, Doris enters and Mrs Fitzgerald asks her why she is not out with Charlie Spence. Doris tells her to mind her own business but Mrs Pearson cuts her short. She says that she would not have her daughter talking to anybody like that. Doris looks at her father for help but he expresses his helplessness. Mrs Pearson asks Doris to answer Mrs Fitzgerald politely. Doris tells her that she has cancelled her going out with Charlie Spence as her mother had said that he had buckteeth and was half-witted. When Mrs Fitzgerald protests, Mrs Pearson tells her that she could manage her family. George expresses his surprise when he sees Mrs Pearson insulting her friend, Mrs Fitzgerald, but Mrs Pearson snaps back at him telling him to go to the club.

This was too much for the real Mrs Pearson to bear. She protests, telling the real Mrs Fitzgerald that it was quite enough. George and Doris are confused. Mrs Fitzgerald tells them that she wants to have a private talk with Mrs Pearson, and would be obliged if they left them alone for a few minutes. George and Doris go out. The real Mrs Pearson (now Mrs Fitzgerald) wants to change back as she could see a great difference already. Mrs Fitzgerald chants the same words and they revert to their original personalities.

While Mrs Fitzgerald had enjoyed the change, Mrs Pearson had not. Mrs Fitzgerald advises Mrs Pearson not to be soft and waste all these efforts. Mrs Pearson feels that her family would behave better but is not sure how she would explain her behaviour. Mrs Fitzgerald tells her not to be soft and make sure that they behave well. She asks Mrs Pearson if she would not enjoy them staying at home, at times, or helping out whether they enjoyed or not. Mrs Pearson admits that she too would enjoy her leisure at times and spend that time playing cards.

When Mrs Fitzgerald leaves, the three—George, Doris, and Cyril—look anxiously at Mrs Pearson, who smiles. They are much relieved, and smile back at her. Mrs Pearson tells them that since they have decided to stay at home, they would have a nice family game of rummy—and then the children could get the supper ready while she talked with their father.

All of them agree. Mrs Pearson wishes Mrs Fitzgerald goodbye and the family comes together around Mrs Pearson.

Mother’s Day Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Who is Mrs Fitzgerald? What does she advise Mrs Pearson?
Mrs Fitzgerald is Mrs Pearson’s neighbour and friend. A fortune teller, who had learnt the art from the East, she tells Mrs Pearson that her fortune could turn either way. With effort and counsel, the situation would swing in her favour. She advised her to assert herself as the boss of the house.

Question 2.
What was Mrs Pearson’s reaction to Mrs Fitzgerald’s advice?
Mrs Pearson said that it would not be easy to put her family members in place as she was very fond of them. She knew that they were thoughtless and selfish but felt, perhaps, they did not mean to be so.

Question 3.
What was Mrs Fitzgerald’s opinion of Mrs Pearson’s attitude?
Mrs Fitzgerald said that Mrs Pearson’s family was undoubtedly spoilt. She felt that it was Mrs Pearson’s attitude that did them no good, tending to their needs, taking their orders, and staying at home every night while they went out enjoying themselves.

Question 4.
What does Mrs Fitzgerald offer to do for her?
Mrs Fitzgerald sensed that Mrs Pearson was far too gentle, submissive and generous to tackle her family.

Mrs Fitzgerald offered to make them realize the error of their ways not as Mrs Fitzgerald but as Mrs Pearson. She offered to change their bodies and change back again.

Question 5.
How did the two women react after their bodies were changed?
When Mrs Pearson looked down at herself in Mrs Fitzgerald’s body, she gave a scream of fright. On the other hand, Mrs Fitzgerald is rather pleased and feels that the transition was so neat that she did not even know that she had it in her.

Question 6.
What is Doris’s first reaction on seeing her mother? Why?
Doris was taken aback to see her mother smoking and playing cards. When Doris asks her what she was doing, she is startled to get her answer ‘whitewashing the ceiling.’ Moreover, her conduct was not nervous and apologetic but cool and incisive.

Question 7.
What did Doris want her mother to do? How did the mother react?
Doris wanted her to iron her yellow silk dress that she ‘must wear’ that night. She also wanted her mother to make tea for her. She refused to get her tea and iron her dress, telling her that she put in twice the hours Doris did but got neither wages, nor thanks for it.

Question 8.
What does Mrs Pearson say to Doris that really bothered her?
Mrs Pearson asked where Doris would wear her yellow silk dress. She said that she planned to go out with Charlie Spence. Mrs Pearson told her to find somebody better, and insulted Charlie Spence by calling her buck-toothed and was half-witted.

Question 9.
What does Mrs Pearson have to say to Cyril that shocks him?
When Cyril walk in and insists on her getting the tea and his clothes ready, he is stunned to hear that she doesn’t ‘like mending’. She goes on to tell him that when he does not want to do something, he does not do it. She planned to do the same. Cyril could not believe his ears.

Question 10.
What do Doris and Cyril feel about Mrs Pearson’s changed behaviour?
Doris and Cyril discuss that there is something wrong with their mother as she is not behaving in character. They discuss how Mrs Pearson behaved oddly with each of them. They try to fathom if she had gone crazy or had a concussion.

Online Education for Albert Einstein At School Summary in English by Patrick Pringle

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Online Education for Albert Einstein At School Summary in English by Patrick Pringle

Albert Einstein At School by Patrick Pringle About the Author

Author Name Patrick Pringle
Born 1917 (age 103 years), London, United Kingdom
Books Jolly Roger: The Story of the Great Age of Piracy
Nominations Edgar Award for Best Fact Crime
Albert Einstein At School Summary by Patrick Pringle
Albert Einstein At School Summary by Patrick Pringle

Albert Einstein At School Summary in English

Young Albert Einstein was studying for his diploma in a school in Munich, Germany. He hated learning dates and facts by heart. This forever displeased Mr Braun, his history teacher. Despite his teacher telling him the date of the year that the Prussians had defeated the French at Waterloo, Albert failed to recall them. He candidly confessed that he did not see any point in learning dates as they could be looked up in books.

The teacher was infuriated and said that it applied to most of the facts taught at school. He also taunted him calling his views the “Einstein theory of education”. Albert argued that it was ideas that were important. He was not interested in knowing when the battles were fought but why they were fought.

Mr Braun was shocked and furious. He believed that Albert had no desire to learn and was wasting his father’s money. He punished him by detaining him for an extra period at school. Albert was miserable when he went to his lodging. His father, being poor, had got him a room in an area that was ugly. Albert had no comfort there and did not like the food there. The atmosphere was bad as his landlady kept beating her children and her husband came drunk and beat her. All this made him miserable and what was worse, he had to go to a school that he hated.

Albert was interested in reading books on science. He read about geology that was not taught in school. His cousin Elsa pointed out to him that it would not help him pass his diploma but he said that he did so because he liked reading. He also liked playing the violin and played it till the landlady stopped him. Also, the wailing and howling of the children irritated him.

He had only two friends—Elsa and Yuri. Elsa lived in Berlin, where her father had his business. She visited him occasionally. She encouraged him in his studies and tried to assure him that it was not difficult to pass his examination. All he had to do was learn like a parrot, like stupid boys who did that and passed.

Yuri was a student, who shared his accommodation with the others, and felt Einstein was fortunate to have one to himself. Yuri also told him about the uncivilised students who studied with him, who fought with one another. The authorities did not take action and merely told them not to engage in these fights.

Albert told Yuri, he was convinced that he did not want to continue school but if he went back to Milan he would be sent back. He had a plan. If a doctor certified that he had a nervous breakdown and it would be bad for him to go back there, he could get away from it.

Yuri knew of no doctors but referred him to his friend, a medical student, Ernst Weil. He asked Albert to tell him of his problem honestly. Albert was a sensitive boy and worry made him nervous. By the time, he went to the doctor, Yuri had told him everything. The doctor had been a student till recently and understood his problem. He said that had Albert not been close to a nervous breakdown he would not have gone to a doctor. So he certified that Albert keep away from school for six months.

Albert took Yuri to supper for this favour but Yuri informed him that eventually he would have to go back to school. But Albert decided to meet the head teacher and said that he hoped to get a recommendation from his teacher of mathematics, Mr Koch. On Yuri’s advice he went to Mr Koch first. Mr Koch admired Albert and confessed that he could not teach Albert anymore, rather he could leam from him. Albert got a recommendation from him that said, he was fit to join an institute for higher education in mathematics.

However, before he could go to the head teacher, he was summoned. The teacher informed him that he was not prepared to keep him in school, as his work was horrible, he was a rebel and hindered teaching work in class. Albert did not have to use his medical certificate as he was expelled from school. He was happy leaving the place where he had spent five miserable years.

He just wanted to meet Yuri before leaving as Elsa was in Berlin. Yuri hoped that he would be happy in Milan.

Albert Einstein At School Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
“I think it’s not facts that matter, but ideas.” To whom did Einstein say this and why?
Einstein said it to Mr Braun, the history teacher, in his Munich school. He hated learning dates and facts by heart. He argued that ideas were more important than rote learning. He was not interested in knowing when the battles were fought but why they were fought.

Question 2.
Do you think Albert is being impolite while answering the history teacher’s questions? Give your reasons.
Though Albert addresses his history teacher politely, he is being impudent. If he did have a problem, he should have spoken to the teacher separately. Questioning the teacher’s views on education in a class was impolite and rude.
Albert addresses his history teacher politely. His answers are straightforward and blunt but his opinions are strong. A firm conviction cannot be termed as rudeness.

Question 3.
What characteristic of Einstein’s nature is highlighted by the exchanges between him and the teacher?
The exchanges between Einstein and the teacher show him to be a person with firm convictions; he is frank and straightforward. Even at the cost of punishment he is not willing to compromise on his views. He comes across as one who will chart his own course rather than follow the beaten track.

Question 4.
Why did Albert see no point in learning dates and facts?
Einstein told Mr Braun, the history teacher, “I think it’s not facts that matter, but ideas.” He hated learning dates and facts by heart. He argued that ideas were more important than learning by rote. He was not interested in knowing when the battles were fought but why they were fought.

Question 5.
What was Einstein’s reaction to the history teacher’s sarcasm?
Mr Braun, his history teacher, was unhappy with Albert unwilling to leam facts or dates. When he admitted that he did not see any point in learning dates, the teacher taunted him by calling his views the ‘Einstein theory of education’. Albert argued that it was ideas that were important but nevertheless, felt miserable.

Question 6.
Why did Albert feel miserable when he left school that day?
When he left school that day, Albert felt miserable because his day at school, like most other days, had been bad and he had gotten into an argument with his teacher for which he had been punished. Secondly, he had to go back to the same school the next day. Moreover, the idea of going back to his lodgings with the atmosphere of domestic violence did not cheer him up.

Question 7.
Why and what did his history teacher report to the head teacher?
Mr Braun was shocked and furious with Albert’s candid reply. He believed that Albert had no desire to learn and was wasting his father’s money. He punished Albert by detaining him after school. He also reported to the head teacher that his work was horrible; he was a rebel and hindered teaching work in class.

Question 8.
Albert was equally unhappy at his lodging. Why?
Albert was miserable at his lodging. His father was a man of modest means, had got him a room in an ugly area. Albert.had no comfort and did not like the food there. The atmosphere was bad as his landlady kept beating her children and her husband came drunk and beat her.

Question 9.
What did Yuri say to him about violence in the hostel?
Yuri told Einstein that he was fortunate to have an accommodation to himself. The people around him were poor but not uncivilized like the ones with whom he shared his accommodation. Yuri also told him about the uncivilized students, sharing his accommodation, who fought. The authorities did not take action but merely told them not to do so.

Question 10.
Who was Elsa? What was her advice to Albert?
Elsa was Einstein’s cousin who lived in Berlin. She visited him of and on. She encouraged him in his studies and tried to assure him that it was not difficult to pass his examination. All he had to do was learn like a parrot, like the stupid boys who did that and passed.

Online Education The Heart of a Tree Summary by Henry Cuyler Bunner

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Online Education for The Heart of a Tree Poem Summary by Henry Cuyler Bunner

The Heart of a Tree by Henry Cuyler Bunner About the Poet

Henry Cuyler Bunner (1855-1896) was an American poet, novelist, and editor. He wrote verses and fictions that depict the scenes and people of New York City where he spent a greater part of his life. He began his short but prolific career as a staff reporter with the Arcadian. Subsequently, he joined Puck as assistant editor and became its editor until his untimely death.

He played a pioneering role in developing Puck from a new, struggling comic weekly into a powerful social and political organ. As a poet, his best-known anthology was titled Airs from A ready and Elsewhere {1884), which contained one of his popular early poems. The Way to Arcady, Rowen and Poems were his two other collections that were published when he was alive.

The latter, edited by his friend Brander Matthews, displays the pleasantly comical side of his imaginative brilliance and deftness of his fine yet largely underrated poetic craft. He also wrote clever vers de societe and parodies. Bunner’s fiction, particularly Made in France; French Tales Retold with a United States Twist, reflects the influence of the French master Guy de Maupassant and other French writers. As a playwright he is known chiefly for Tower of Babel. His short story Zenobia’s Infidelity was made into a feature film called Zenobia starring Harry Langdon and Oliver Hardy by the Hal Roach Studio in 1939.

The Heart of a Tree Summary About the Poem

“The Heart of the Tree” is a poem by Henry Cuyler Bunner, brought out ‘ in 1893. It was published in the Century Magazine, a reputed magazine of the 19th century. Immediately after its publication, the poem started receiving rave reviews for its refreshing approach to nature, earthy ecological sensitivity and brilliant depiction of humanist spirit.

As many people observe, the poem is not so much about trees or forests as about the art or skill of plantation, involving the amazing work of human hands that make life better, richer and healthier for us without asking for much in lieu. The poem clearly celebrates it for the pioneering contribution it makes to our lives on all counts.

As readers, what strikes us no less is its great relevance today, when we are experiencing disasters in all parts of the world due precisely to the callous and insensitive attitude of some of us towards natural resources.

The Heart of a Tree Summary of the Poem

The poem ‘The Heart of the Tree’ is poem about the beauty of planting a tree or the satisfaction derived from this practice. In this poem, the poet beautifully describes the actual essence of what a person plants when he plants a tree. The poet aptly says that when somebody plants a tree, he plants not only what we call a tree, but something that serves as a friend of sun, sky, and breeze.

The Heart of a Tree Poem Summary
The Heart of a Tree Poem Summary

Here, the poet wants to say that the sky’s brightness, sun’s warmth and the touch of breeze make them a friend of a plant. He further observes that the stems are like beauty shafts which keep growing. The dense branches of the plant act as a true shelter or home to different types of birds, with their colourful presence as messengers of Nature’s beauty, diversity and bounteousness.

They tweet, chirp and croon in their fascinating voices thus making the surroundings pleasant. In a way, as the poet feels, the person who plants a tree also plants a future. This is because the tree will bring rain and coolness to the environment, and will thus become an identity of the habitat.

This will play a major role in producing food for future generation. Furthermore, the person who plants trees also acts as a good citizen of his country because, by planting a tree, he brings joy and blessings to the neighbourhood. As a result of all he does, the land becomes fertile, and thus a boon to the humankind.

The Heart of a Tree Summary Critical Analysis

The poem ‘The Heart of the Tree’ comprises three stanzas of 9 lines each. The rhyming pattern for the three stanzas is slightly uneven, and it can be indicated as ababbccaa. The poem begins with a refrain ‘What does he plant who plants a tree?’ that is repeated at the beginning of each stanza highlighting the thought that how beneficial it is to plant a tree.

In the first stanza the poet explains that one who plants a tree plants a friend of sun and sky, flag of free breezes and home to countless birds whose song we hear in the twilight that denotes heaven’s harmony. In the second stanza the poet emphasizes that he plants shade and rain, seeds and buds of tomorrow which would raise the glory of earth in plains and strengthen the forests to benefit generations ahead, in the third stanza he concludes one who plants a tree germinates the far-cast thought that would bring blessings resulting in growth of the nation.

The poem discusses the usefulness of a tree elaborating on how a tree that is planted benefits not only the«nature, a nation, but also contributes to the growth of humankind. One who plants a tree aspires for his nation’s growth. Trees stand straight and steady, giving an impression as if they are touching the sun and the sky. They sway with the breeze and beautify the surrounding.

They are home to chirruping birds which sing sweetly and display heaven’s harmony on this earth. Trees give us shade and bring rain. They pave a way for many more seeds to grow and buds to bloom in future. Trees contribute to forest wealth of our nation arid they ensure plenty harvest in the days to come. The one who plants a tree has a noble thought of a common good that would be a boon for man in general and the nation in particular. He has a dream of the growth of all his land when he plants a tree.

The Heart of a Tree Summary Word Meanings

  1. breezes – soft cold winds
  2. shaft – gleam; streak
  3. towering high – growing as tall as a tower
  4. anigh – close; near
  5. mother – croon of bird – the soft song that mother bird sings to her young ones;
  6. tender – soft; mellow
  7. fade – wither
  8. flush – wash out
  9. heritage – legacy
  10. unborn eyes – reference to future generations yet to born
  11. sap – juice; liquid
  12. far – cast – foresee
  13. civic – public
  14. hollow – empty space; void
  15. stirs – stimulates


The Midnight Visitor Summary in English by Robert Arthur

Online Education for The Midnight Visitor Summary in English by Robert Arthur

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Online Education for The Midnight Visitor Summary in English by Robert Arthur

The Midnight Visitor by Robert Arthur About the Author

Author Name Robert Arthur Jr.
Born 10 November 1909, Corregidor Island, Cavite City, Philippines
Died 2 May 1969, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Awards Edgar Award for Best Radio Drama
Education University of Michigan, William & Mary
Movies The Three Investigators and the Secret of Terror Castle
The Midnight Visitor Summary
The Midnight Visitor Summary by Robert Arthur

The Midnight Visitor Summary in English

Fowler is surprised to see the secret agent Ausable who is too fat to be a secret agent. Ausable tells him that he was going to get an important paper for which many men have risked their lives. When both of them reach Ausable’s room, Fowler is scared to see a man, Max standing in the room. Max who is a tall and thin man, is holding a gun in his hand. He had entered his room by using a key to take the report concerning a new missile. Ausable, sensing the danger, fabricated a story about the non-existent balcony which Max believed to be true.

Ausable complained that it was due to the balcony that somebody had entered his room the second time. After some time, there was a knock at the door. Ausable again befooled Max by saying that it was the police who wanted to come inside to provide him protection. Max wanted to run away to avoid the police and jumps to his death into that non-existent balcony.

Meanwhile, the bearer brought two glasses and a bottle of drink. Fowler was taken aback by the quick wit and intelligence of Ausable.

The Midnight Visitor Summary Questions and Answers

The Midnight Visitor Summary Question 1.
Why did Fowler want to meet Ausable? Why was he disappointed?
Fowler was a young romantic writer. He loved adventure and thrill. He was always interested in knowing the lives of secret agents. He wanted to meet Ausable who was on a secret assignment. He was a little disappointed when he found nothing mysterious and romantic in Ausable. Ausable, in fact, was a fat, ordinary person.

The Midnight Visitor Summary Class 12 Question 2.
Who was Henry? What role did he play in Ausable’s plans?
Henry was a waiter at the French hotel where Ausable had a room. He played a vital role in helping Ausable’s plan as it was Henry’s knock at the door which frightened Max as he mistook it to be a policeman at the door. This confusion forced Max to jump from the window assuming it to be a balcony and hence helping Ausable’s plan to get rid of Max.

Summary Of The Midnight Visitor Question 3.
What was someone expected to bring to Ausable’s room?
Ausable expected to get a very important report about missiles, which was to be delivered to him after midnight.

12th English The Midnight Visitor Summary Question 4.
Why was Ausable angry with the hotel’s management?
Ausable pretended to be angry with the hotel management because they had not paid any attention to the balcony that was a safety threat for him. In fact, he fabricated a story about the non-existent balcony to trap Max.

Midnight Visitor Summary Question 5.
How did Max enter the room? Why did he do so?
Max entered Ausable’s room through the main door, using a pass key. He wanted to take the important report from Ausable. Therefore, he decided to give a shock to Ausable. He thought it would be easy to overpower Ausable by giving him a shock.

Summary Of Midnight Visitor Question 6.
Was there a balcony outside the window? Give instances from the text in support of your answer.
There was no balcony outside the window. The following lines show that there was no balcony:
“And then as he dropped, he screamed once shrilly.” „
“But what about the man on the balcony?” Fowler asked “No” said Ausable, “he won’t ever return.” Thus, we know that the man had died after jumping from the 6th floor.

The Midnight Visitor Class 12 Question 7.
Did Fowler find this episode thrilling or disappointing? Give a reason for your answer.
Fowler found this episode quite thrilling. In the beginning, he was not impressed by the personality of Ausable who did not fit as a secret agent. As he had read about the mysterious figures, the crack of pistols and drugs in wine, the fat Ausable did not impress him much.

But he was not able to believe the quick answer and smartness of Ausable. The whole episode appeared to be quite unbelievable.

The Midnight Visitor Short Summary Question 8.
Why did Ausable ask Fowler to cheer up?
Ausable knew that Fowler wanted to see something mysterious and romantic. Ausable asked him to cheer up as he was going to receive an important report concerning some new missiles. Many people had risked their lives. Therefore, there could be some drama in his room.

Midnight Visitor Class 12 Question 9.
What story did Ausable fabricate about the balcony?
He told Fowler that the balcony in his room had become a nuisance for him. He told him that his room used to be the part of a large unit and through the balcony any one could come to his room as the adjoining room was empty.

12th English The Midnight Visitor Paragraph Question 10.
How do you know that Ausable was a clever secret agent?
Ausable was really a clever secret agent as is evident from the story. He told a false story about the existence of a non-existent balcony. Knowing very well that the waiter was knocking at the door, he told him about the police.

Online Education for Villa for Sale Summary in English by Sacha Guitry

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Online Education for Villa for Sale Summary in English by Sacha Guitry

Villa for Sale Summary in English

This one-act play is set in France. The cast consists of five characters. The action takes place during the course of an evening and revolves around the sale of a villa. The owner of the villa, Juliette, is anxious to sell it as she needs the money. She stays alone with her maid. As the play starts, Juliette is expecting a customer, the agency people are sending. As she and her maid discuss the prospective sale of the villa, her maid discloses that she has got a role in a film, like many other local people and suggests Juliette try for a film role, too, as it will help ease her financial problems. Juliette is not very keen to act in films and angrily tells her maid that she is ‘not quite so hard up as that yet! ’

While the two are talking, Jeanne comes in with her husband Gaston. From the moment they enter, Gaston expresses his displeasure about the villa and finds a number of faults with it. In fact he shows no desire in buying a house at all as he feels Jeanne’s parents and nieces and nephews will spend summers with them. On the other hand, Jeanne finds the villa excellent and tries to persuade Gaston to buy the villa for her.

Juliette counts the many advantages the house possesses to please the customers. The house has electricity, gas, water, telephone, and drainage. The bathroom is beautifully fitted and the roof was entirely repaired the previous year. She says she will sell the villa entirely furnished with all the fixtures, just as it is, with the exception of one little picture signed by the famous painter, Corot. While Juliette asks for two hundred and fifty thousand francs, and quotes two hundred thousand francs as her last price, Gaston bargains for the house with Juliette and quotes the ridiculously low price of sixty thousand francs, knowing it will not get accepted. Juliette rejects the offer but Jeanne expresses a desire to see the upper floor before she leaves and Juliette eagerly takes her upstairs.

While Gaston waits for the two women to return, the actual customer Juliette was waiting for, an American lady, Mrs Al Smith, comes in. Her hurry to buy the villa without even looking at it, at whatever the price asked for, is exploited by Gaston. This episode is the most entertaining part of the play. In a moment, the reluctant buyer is transformed into a skillful seller. Gaston shows himself to be ingenious and totally unscrupulous. He counts the plus points of the villa. But all his salesmanship is not needed as Mrs Al Smith has already made up her mind to buy the villa. She is a big star and wants the villa as it is near Paramount Studios, where she is going to shoot some films.

Gaston is able to sell the villa to her for three hundred thousand francs. When Jeanne returns she expresses her opinion about the unsuitability of the house. But now Gaston, who has already sold the house to Mrs A1 Smith, coxes Juliette to talk about the additional facilities the villa offers and buys the villa, including the Corot, for two hundred thousand pounds. Thus, Gaston makes a profit of a hundred thousand francs and a painting by Corot with his resourcefulness.

Villa for Sale Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Copy and complete the following paragraph about the theme of the play using the clues given in the box below. Remember that there are more clues than required.
Juliette, the owner of a Villa wants to sell it as she is in need of money. Moreover, she is not in favour of the house. Jeanne and Gaston, a couple, visit her with the aim of buying the Villa. While Jeanne is enthusiastic about buying, Gaston detests the idea as he does not want his in laws in that house. Also, he finds the asking price of 300 thousand francs to be expensive. When Jeanne and Juliette go around the house, another customer walks in and starts talking to Gaston taking him to be Juliette’s husband. Gaston strikes a deal with the customer by which he is able to give 200 thousand francs to the owner and keep one hundred thousand francs for himself.

Question 2.
Answer the following questions briefly.

a. Why does Jeanne want to buy a villa?
Jeanne wants to buy a villa for her parents. Buying a villa will ensure that her parents and her sister’s children can live with them.

b. Why is Gaston not interested in buying the villa in the beginning?
Gaston is not interested in buying the villa in the beginning because he does not want his parents-in-law and sister- in-law’s children to live with them. He also feels that the asking price of the villa is too high for its size.

c. Mrs. Al.Smith makes many statements about the French. Pick out any two and explain them.
Mrs Al Smith has typically American prejudices against the French. She says ‘You French people have a cute way – of doing business! ’ This reflects her distrust for the French way of doing business. She is extremely judgmental about it because the price of the villa has not been written on the signboard and she is astute enough to realize that the buyer may, thus, be exploited.

She also says ‘Frenchmen usually have to consult about ten people before they get a move on.’ This, again is a generalized and prejudiced judgement against all French people wherein Mrs A1 Smith feels that French people cannot conduct business quickly and efficiently because they talk to a lot of people before making a decision.

d. Juliette says “…………. now I have only one thought that is to get the wretched place off my hands. I would sacrifice it at any price”. Does she stick to her words? Why/Why not?
No, Juliette does not stick to her words. She says that she will sacrifice the villa at any price, but refuses to go below 200 thousand francs as the selling price.

e. Who is better in business – Juliette or Gaston? Why?
Gaston is a much better businessman because not only does he sell a house that is not even his yet, but he makes a profit of 100 thousand francs and a painting by Corot, from the deal.

f. Do you like/dislike Gaston? Give your reasons.
Encourage the students to come up with their own answers.

Yes, I like Gaston because of his intelligence and ingenuity. He is smart and quick, and can remain cool under pressure. This is an admirable characteristic in any human being and I like him for it.

No, I don’t like Gaston because while he is sharp, he is unscrupulous and lack of scruples is not something that can be pardoned in any human being.

Question 3.
Read the following extracts and answer the questions that follow by choosing the correct options.

A. But the sign has been hanging on the gate for over a month now and I am beginning to be afraid that the day I bought it was when I was the real fool.

a. Why is Juliette disappointed?
She is unable to find a suitable buyer for her villa.

b. Why does she call herself a fool?
She had bought the villa for more than it was worth.

B. ‘But your parents would take possession of it, every year from the beginning of spring until the end of September. What’s more they would bring the whole tribe of your sister’s children with them.’

a. What does Gaston mean by ‘take possession’?
Her parents would stay with them for a long time.

C. ‘While you were upstairs, I have been thinking a lot about your Papa and Mamma.

a. What is the discrepancy between what Gaston said earlier and what he says now?
Earlier he did not want Juliette’s parents to stay with them but now he is showing concern for them.

b. What does the above statement reveal about Gaston’s character?
He is an opportunist.

Question 4.
Select words from the box to describe the characters in the play as revealed by the following lines. You may take the words from the box given on the next page.

Lines from the play Speaker Quality revealed
a. One hundred thousand francs if necessary and that’s only twice what it cost me. Juliette greedy
b. If you don’t want the house, tell me so at once and we’ll say no more about it. Jean Overbearing
c. No! Iam very fond of your family, but not quite so fond as that. Gaston Haughty and Disapproving
d. Quite so. I have, but you haven’t. Gaston Boastful
e. I have never cared such a damned little about anybody’s opinion Gaston Haughty and Boastful
f. On the principle of people who like children and haven’t any can always go and live near a school. Gaston Witty
g. The garden is not very large, but you see. it is surrounded by other gardens. Juliette Clever and Materialistic
h. I will be philanthropic and let you have it for two hundred thousand. Juliette Cunning
i. I have been thinking a lot about your Papa and Mamma. You see, I am really unselfish. Gaston Clever

Online Education for The Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 5 Summary Workbook Answers

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Online Education for The Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 5 Summary Workbook Answers

The Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 5 Summary

The scene takes place on a street outside Shylock’s house. This enables us to know more about Shylock and his thought processes. Shylock is about to go to Bassanio’s party. Launcelot meets him. Shylock tells him that he should not revel in eating and sleeping in his new employment as he had done in his house.

After repeated calls, Jessica appears. Her father tells her that he’s going to attend Bassanio’s party and gives her the keys of the house. He is not happy to go to the party but is doing so out of spite. He’ll feed on the prodigal Christian. He is reluctant, as he had dreamt of money bags, which is a bad sign.

Launcelot informs Shylock that there is a masquerade arranged. This makes Shylock tell Jessica that she should close all the doors and windows of the house, as he does not want the house to be contaminated by the noise of revelry coming from the masque. She also should keep inside and not gaze on ‘Christian fools with varnished faces’.

Launcelot gives Jessica, the message from Lorenzo. When he leaves, Shylock says that he is happy to see the clown go, as he’ll be joining Bassanio’s service and help wasting his borrowed money. After her father’s departure, Jessica thinks of her elopement and bids farewell to her father in his absence saying that ‘I have a father, you a daughter lost’.

The Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 5 Summary Word Meanings

  1. gormndize – overeat
  2. rend apparel out – over-grow the dress
  3. wont – accustomed
  4. bid forth — invited out
  5. prodigal – spendthrift
  6. look to – look after
  7. loath – reluctant
  8. ill a brewing towards my rest – something being plotted against my peace of mind
  9. reproach – meaning approach
  10. conspired together – arranged for-but there is dramatic irony here as the audience already knows the plan for the elopement.
  11. Black Monday – Monday following Easter
  12. Ash Wednesday – the first Wednesday after Lent
  13. squealing – sharp sound
  14. wry- necked – crooked necked
  15. clamber – climb up
  16. varnished – painted
  17. ears – windows
  18. shallow foppery – superficial and stupid showing off
  19. sirrah – fellow
  20. Hagar – slave woman who is referred to as Launcelot’s ancestor
  21. patch – fool, drone – a male bee that doesn’t search for honey
  22. borrowed purse – borrowed money
  23. fast And – a proverb saying that if you are careful, you’ll not lose anything.

The Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 5 Summary Questions and Answers

1. Shylock :
Well, thou shalt see, thy eyes shall be thy judge
The difference of old Shylock and Bassanlo—
What, Jessica l -thou shalt not gormandize
As thou hast done with me—What, Jessica !—
And sleep and snore, and rend apparel out—
Why, Jessica, I say !

Question 1.
Whom is Shylock talking to? Explain, ‘Thy eyes shall be thy judge.’ Bring out the humor of this line.
Shylock Is talking to Launcelot, the clown who used to be with him, till recently. Shylock is telling the clown that he’ll see with his own eyes that how different it will be to work with him and the new master. Only actual experience will help him to make the correct judgments. The humor is that the audience is aware of how Launcelot felt working for the Jew but Shylock says as though, he was very comfortable in his house.

Question 2.
Give the meaning of: ‘gormandize’ and ‘rend apparel out’. What contrast do these remarks give as opposed to what Launcelot had said earlier?
Gormandize means overeat. Rend apparel out means, overgrow his dress or have holes in clothes. Launcelot has already expressed that he has become so thin that his ribs can be counted. Also he was very happy that he would get new uniform under Bassanio and he would be able to get rid of his old clothes. This is contrary to what Shylock is saying.

Question 3.
Why does the speaker say, ‘Why Jessica, I say!’ Why does he admonish Launcelot just after this speech? How does Launcelot respond to this?
Shylock has called out for Jessica a number of times while talking to Launcelot; so he gets irritated and says sharply, ‘Why Jessica, I say’. Launcelot imitates Shylock and calls Jessica by her name and Shylock admonishes him and says that no one ordered him to do that. Launcelot responds by saying that Shylock used to complain that he doesn’t do any work without being told, hence this time he has done something without being asked and the Jew is yet scolding him.

Question 4.
What information does Shylock share with Jessica soon after this? What instructions are given?
Shylock informs Jessica that he has been invited to attend a dinner party. He also tells her that he is reluctant to go as he feels that he has been invited not out of love but for a desire to flatter ; also he dreamt of money bags lately and there is a vague feeling that something is plotted against the peace of his mind. But he will go out of hatred, to make Bassanio the spend thrift, poorer by eating his food. He gives her the keys of the house and tells her to look after it in his absence.

Question 5.
What do you know about Jessica, at this stage?
We know Jessica is the sweet daughter of Shylock, who is in love with Lorenzo, a Christian and is planning to elope with him on that very night during the masque, dressed as a page boy. Her mind is torn between loyalty to her father and her love for Lorenzo, whom she wants to marry. She is even willing to adopt Christianity.

2. Launcelot:
And they have conspired together : I will not say you shall see
a masque; but if you do, then it was not for nothing that my nose
fell a-bleeding on Black Monday last, at six o’clock’ the morning,
falling out that year on Ash Wednesday was four year in the
Shylock : What, are there masques ?

Question 1.
Who are ‘they’? What have they conspired? Why is the masque important here?
They are Bassanio. Lorenzo and their friends like Salerio and Solanio. They have planned to hold a masque. The masque is important as it is during the masquerade, Jessica will elope with Lorenzo in the disguise of a page, bearing the torch for the masque.

Question 2.
According to the speaker what does his nose bleeding suggest? Explain the reference to Black Monday and Ash Wednesday. What’s the incongruity in Launcelot’s statements?
Launcelot says that his nose bleeding on Black Monday and Ash Wednesday was a sign of that something good or bad will happen. Shakespeare is here making fun of superstitions or prophesying by omens, as they are vague and inconsistent. Black Monday is the Monday following Easter. Launcelot plays on the superstitious nature of Shylock by referring to Easter Monday in 1360, when Edward Ill’s army was caught in a black fog and many soldiers froze to death.

On Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent, people put ashes on their foreheads, to remind themselves that man is made of mud and will return to mud. The incongruity is that there is a forty day gap between the two events mentioned but Launcelot is talking as the two fall in the same week.

Question 3.
Bring out the dramatic irony crafted in the first line of the extract?
Launcelot says that the Christians have conspired or arranged a masque as a surprise for the guests. The dramatic irony is in the word ‘conspire’, the audiences know that there is a plot of elopement. It is a conspiracy against Shylock. Neither Launcelot nor Shylock knows the significance of this word at this time.

Question 4.
How does Shylock respond to the information and what does he tell Jessica to do?
Shylock is surprised and shocked at this information. He tells Jessica to lock up all the doors and windows as he does not want the music and revelation contaminate the sober atmosphere of his house. He orders his daughter not to climb up the casements and look at the varnished faces of the foolish Christians who waste their time in rivalry.

Question 5.
What does Launcelot tell Jessica before he leaves with Shylock? Why does Shylock call the clown Hagar’s offspring?
Launcelot tells Jessica that she should look out of the window despite what her father has said, a Christian pay pass that is worthy to be looked upon by a Jewess. Shylock is calling Launcelot the offspring of Hagar, a slave woman, maid to Abraham’s wife Sarah. Servants are considered the offspring of the slave woman.

3. Shylock :
The patch is kind enough, but a huge feeder;
Snail-slow in profit, and he sleeps by day
More than the wild cat: drones hive not with me;
Therefore I part with him, and part with him
To one that I would have him help to waste
His borrow’d purse. Well, Jessica, go in
Perhaps I will return immediately
Do as I bid you; shut doors after you :
‘Fast bind, fast find’,
A proverb never stale in thrifty mind.

Question 1.
Who is the patch? What does it mean?
The clown is the patch or fool who wears the traditional multicolored patched costume. He calls Launcelot the clown, a patch.

Question 2.
How does Shylock refer to the character of the patch in the extract?
Shylock says that the clown is good at heart, but eats a lot of food. He is as slow as a snail and sleeps throughout the day without doing any profitable work. He is like a drone, a male bee who doesn’t work to collect honey.

Question 3.
Why is Shylock ready to part with the patch? What does it show of his character?
He is happy to let the patch go and take employment with Bassanio. He will help the prodigal Christian to squander the borrowed money. This shows that Shylock hates Christian’s and the way they spent money on enjoyment.

Question 4.
What does Shylock tell Jessica to do? What is the dramatic irony in this speech?
Shylock tells Jessica to go inside the house and shut all the doors. The dramatic irony is that Jessica is not going to shut the door. In fact, she is going to leave the house and run away with a Christian.

Question 5.
What is the proverb quoted by Shylock? What does it mean?
The proverb ‘Fast bind, fast find’ is quoted here because Shylock imposes all kinds of restriction upon Jessica. He disallows her even to look at a procession of Christmas, from the windows and doors of his house, and wants them to be locked from inside when he goes out.

Question 6.
What does Jessica say at the close of the scene? What does it mean?
Jessica says farewell to her father and says that unless she is having bad luck, she has lost a father and he, his daughter. It means that she is running away and if she is lucky, she’ll escape from her unkind father.

Online Education Reach for the Top Summary Part 1 in English

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Online Education Reach for the Top Summary Part 1 in English

Reach for the Top Summary Part 1 Introduction to the Chapter

Reach for the Top consists of two biographical pieces—mountaineer Santosh Yadav and Tennis player Maria Sharapova—that depict their persistent endeavours to reach the top. Part I is an inspirational account of the single-minded determination and dedication of an Indian woman mountaineer, Santosh Yadav, who hailed from a small village of Haryana and conquered Mount Everest twice in her life. Her sterling qualities of perseverance, patience, commitment, persistence and strength of purpose make her a role model for others to follow.

Reach for the Top Summary Part 1 in English

Santosh Yadav, the only woman in the world to have scaled Mt. Everest twice, was bom in an affluent landowning family of Joniyawas, a small village of Rewari District, Haryana. Although Santosh was bom in a conservative society, where sons are preferred over the daughters, she was welcomed in the family as she was the sixth child and the only sister to five elder brothers. When her mother was expecting a baby, a holy man visited and blessed her with giving birth to a son. But to everyone’s surprise her grandmother said that she wanted a girl. The girl was bom and was named Santosh which means contentment.

From the beginning, Santosh was a bit of a rebel right and defied conventions. She neither liked to wear traditional dresses nor followed the traditional course of life. Though Santosh attended the local village school for her early education, she decided to fight the system when the right moment arrived. And the right moment came when she turned sixteen. Most of the girls in her village used to get married at sixteen. When Santosh’s parents also put pressure on her to do the same, rather than succumbing to parental pressure to get married early, she insisted on pursuing her studies. Her parents had to give in to her desire to study at a high school in Delhi, followed by higher education at Maharani College, Jaipur.

In Jaipur, she lived in Kasturba Hostel and could see the Aravalli hills from her room. Attracted by the villagers climbing these hills, one day she decided to check the route herself. There she met a few mountaineers, who allowed her to join them and encouraged her to take to mountaineering.

There was no looking back for this determined young girl after that. Before completing her college degree, Santosh Yadav got herself enrolled at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering. As soon as she completed her last semester in Jaipur, she had to rush straight to the Institute and had no time to visit home. So, she wrote her father a letter apologizing for not having sought his permission before joining the Institute.

During this training, she went for an expedition each year. Her climbing skills matured rapidly. Also, she developed a remarkable resistance to cold and the altitude. Endowed with an iron will, physical endurance and an amazing mental toughness, she proved herself repeatedly. In 1992, after training for four years, she became the youngest woman in the world to conquer Mt. Everest at the age of 22. Her physical and mental strength impressed her seniors, while her

team spirit and concern for others endeared her to her fellow climbers. Santosh provided special care to a fellow climber in critical condition at South Col., who unfortunately could not be saved. However, she managed to save Mohan Singh, who too was in distress, by sharing her oxygen with him.

In less than a year of scaling Everest she got a second invitation from an Indo-Nepalese Women’s Expedition to repeat the feat. She was successful in scaling Mt. Everest once again. While unfurling the tricolour on top of the world, Santosh experienced indescribable pride as an Indian. It was truly a spiritual moment for her. Showing exceptional concern for the environment, she collected and brought down about 500kg of garbage from the Himalayas. The government of India honoured her with Padmashri for her unparalleled mountaineering feats.

Reach for the Top Summary Part 1 Title

Reach for the Top is an appropriate title for the two biographical features – Santosh Yadav and Maria Sharapova – as both these sportswomen reached for the top, and in the case of Santosh Yadav, the climb to the to was both literal and metaphoric. Santosh Yadav climbed many a mountain peak, including the Mount Everest, the highest mountain peak in the world twice. By doing this she also reached the top of her chosen sport. Her success was due to the sterling qualities of body and mind, and the training and support she received. Reach for the Top, thus, inspires the readers to give their best and strive to achieve excellence and glory in their own area of interest through hard work, persistent efforts, constancy of purpose, strong will and meticulous planning.

Reach for the Top Summary Part 1 Theme

Reach for the Top is based on the theme that success comes to those who persevere and strive to achieve their goal. Santosh Yadav, who hailed from small village of Haryana and belonged to a conservative family received education, training and success as a woman mountaineer in a society where girls are married off at the age of sixteen. Her single-minded determination and dedication makes her a role model for others to follow. She defied all odds, customs, traditions and prejudices to achieve phenomenal success through hard work, persistent effort, focus on the goal and mental and physical toughness. Santosh has literally climbed to the highest top that a mountaineer could reach, not just once but twice.

Reach for the Top Summary Part 1 Message

The life and achievements of Santosh Yadav conveys the message that success comes to those who strive hard to achieve their goal. A highly spirited and motivated woman, Santosh Yadav took up a challenging outdoor sport which required immense physical and mental preparation, and braved discouragement from her close relatives. Setting aside all impediments and surging past other barriers, she achieved her goal through hard work, determination, and constant efforts. Instead of complaining against the ills in society, one must dare to change the systems and shape one’s own destiny.

Reach for the Top Summary Part 1 Character

Santosh Yadav

Santosh Yadav has been portrayed as a strongminded, decisive, courageous and adventurous girl endowed with a rational mind and physical and mental toughness. Though she was bom in a small village of Haryana, Santosh Yadav was a girl with independent views right from childhood. She did not succumb to parental pressure and give in to their conservative views. Instead she was able to convince them to accept her views because she had chosen a rational path.

Santosh Yadav had the courage to oppose what she considered to be wrong. When her parents insisted that she should get married on turning sixteen, she put her foot down and made it clear that her first priority was getting educated. Determined as she was, she got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi. When the parents threatened that they would not pay her school fees, she told them that she would work part time to pay for her education. Her parents had to finally relent before her determination. Later on, her iron will, physical endurance and mental toughness helped her to first join Maharani College Jaipur and then Nehru Institute of Mountaineering at Uttarkashi.

Her hard work and determination, mental strength and physical fitness equipped her for undertaking the dangerous journey to reach Mt Everest, the ‘top of the world’ successfully, not once, but twice.

Santosh Yadav’s humanitarian attitude and team-spirit was evident when during her expedition she helped her fellow climbers. Her concern for environment was evident when she brought down as much as 500 kilograms of garbage from the Himalayas.

All these qualities and amazing achievements helped Santosh earn one of the nation’s top awards, Padmashri. Her courage and determination are worth emulating.

Reach for the Top Summary Part 1 Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What made Santosh Yadav achieve fame and greatness?
Santosh Yadav is the only woman in the world who has scaled Mt Everest twice. Santosh Yadav scaled Mt Everest when she was barely twenty years of age, becoming the youngest woman in the world to achieve the feat. Within twelve months, Santosh scaled the Everest a second time as a member of an Indo-Nepalese Women’s Expedition. She thus set a record as the only woman to have scaled the Everest twice.

Question 2.
Why was the ‘holy man’, who gave Santosh’s mother his blessings, surprised?
The holy man expected that like all other families in the villages, the family would also wish for the birth of a son. However, when he was told by Santosh’s grandmother that they wanted to have a daughter, he was surprised.

Question 3.
What kind of society was Santosh born in?
Santosh was born in Joniyawas, a small village in the Rewari District in Haryana. The society in this region wasvery conservative and orthodox. People were rigidly patriarchal and gender-biased. The birth of a girl was generally unwelcome and people strictly adhered to conservative traditions.

Question 4.
The grandmother wished her daughter-in-law give birth to a daughter. What light does this throw on her character?
Despite being the member of a conservative family, the grandmother wished to be blessed with a granddaughter. This was because there were already five boys in the family. Hence, the family now wished for a daughter. This also shows her as a woman of progressive views.

Question 5.
What do you know about Santosh’s family?
Santosh was bom into an affluent family of landlords in a village, Joniyawas, in the Rewari district of Haryana. She was the sixth child in a conservative family, the only sister to five brothers. Though financially well-off, her family was orthodox and conservative in matters related to the education and upbringing of girls.

Question 6.
Why was Santosh sent to the local school?
Santosh’s parents were affluent and could afford to send Santosh to a school in Delhi. But they sent her to the local village school because they strictly followed tradition and it was customary in their society to send girls to the local school only.

Question 7.
How was Santosh different from the other girls of her village?
Unlike other girls of her village, Santosh was not content with the traditional way of life. She used to wear shorts and went on to study further at Delhi. She did not get married at sixteen as most of the girls of her village did.

Question 8.
Why was Santosh Yadav not content with a traditional way of life? What path did she choose and why?
Right from childhood, Santosh was not content with a traditional way of life and felt that if she chose a correct and a rational path, the others around her had to change, not she. She wanted to chart her own course in life, rather than following the age-old customs and traditions. She wore shorts instead of traditional attire, went to study in Delhi when girls in her village got married. When her parents refused to pay for her education, she got them to agree by informing them of her plans to earn money by working part time to pay . her school fees. She chose the path of excellence through education, rational thinking and hard work and achieved unparalleled success as a woman mountaineer.

Question 9.
When did Santosh leave home for Delhi, and why?
Santosh left home for Delhi when she turned sixteen because her parents had begun to pressurize her to get married in keeping with the traditional practice in their community. She decided that it was the right moment to rebel and she quietly got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi to continue her studies.

Question 10.
Why did Santosh’s parents agree to pay for her schooling in Delhi? What mental qualities of Santosh are brought to light by this incident?
At the age of sixteen, Santosh got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi. When her parents refused to pay for her schooling in Delhi, she politely informed them that she planned to work part time in order to pay her fees. Her parents realized that their daughter was independent, had a strong will-power and firm self-belief. She could take her decisions and also stand by them. They saw her strong sense of conviction and her passion for education. So, they agreed to pay for her schooling in Delhi.

Online Education for Silk Road Summary in English by Nick Middleton

We have decided to create the most comprehensive Online Education English Summary that will help students with learning and understanding. in this article we are covered Silk Road Summary.

Online Education for Silk Road Summary in English by Nick Middleton

Silk Road by Nick Middleton About the Author

Author Name Nick Middleton
Born 1960 (age 60 years), London, United Kingdom
Books Going to Extremes, Global Casino, Rivers: A Very Short Introduction
Awards The Royal Geographical Society’s Ness
Silk Road Summary by Nick Middleton
Silk Road Summary by Nick Middleton

Silk Road Summary in English

The narrator was leaving Ravu and heading towards Mount Kailash to complete the kora. It was in the early hours of the morning that they were set to leave. Lhamo gave the narrator a long-sleeved sheepskin coat, which all the men wore, as a farewell present. Tsetan assessed him as they got into his car. They took a short cut to get off the Changtang. Tsetan knew a route that would take them south-west, almost directly towards Mount Kailash. It involved crossing several fairly high mountain passes, he said. Going that way would not be a problem if there was no snow but that one could never know till one reached there.

From the gently rising and falling hills of Ravu, the short cut took them across vast open plains, dry grazing land, with nothing in them except a few small antelopes. Moving ahead they noticed that the plains became more stony than grassy. Here they saw a herd of wild ass that were racing around and of which Tsetan had told them even before they appeared.

The drive again became steep. They crossed drokbas tending their flocks. Thickly clad men and women stared at their car and at times waved at them while the sheep would turn away from the vehicle. They passed nomads’ dark tents pitched in the isolated places usually with a huge black dog, a Tibetan big, smooth-haired dog guarding them. These dogs would observe them from a distance and as they drew closer, they would rush towards them and chase them for about a hundred metres. These hairy dogs were pitch black and usually wore bright red collars and barked angrily with enormous jaws. They were absolutely fearless of their vehicle and would run straight onto their way. Tsetan had to brake and turn sharply to avoid them. It was because of their ferocity that these Tibetan mastiffs were brought from Tibet to China’s imperial courts as hunting dogs.

As they entered a valley, they could see snow-capped mountains and the wide river but mostly blocked with ice that was sparkling in the sunshine. As they moved ahead, on their upward track, the turns became sharper and the ride bumpier. The rocks around were covered with patches of bright orange lichen. Under the rocks, seemed unending shade. The narrator felt the pressure building up in his ears so he held his nose, snorted and cleared them. Just then Tsetan stopped and the three of them—Tsetan, Daniel and the narrator walked out of the car.

It continued to snow. The snow that had collected was too steep for their vehicle to scale, so there was no way of going around the snow patch. The narrator looked at his wristwatch and realized that they were at 5,210 metres above sea level.

The snow didn’t look too deep, but the danger was that if the car slipped it could turn over. Tsetan grabbed handfuls of soil and threw it across the frozen surface of ice. Daniel and the narrator stayed out of the vehicle to lessen Tsetan’s load. He backed and drove towards the dirty snow, and with no difficulty the car moved on. But after ten minutes of driving, there was another obstruction. Tsetan assessed the scene and this time he decided to drive round the snow. It was a steep slope scattered with big rocks, but Tsetan got past them. The narrator checked his watch again; they were 5,400 metres above sea level and his head began to ache terribly. He gulped a little water for relief.

When they reached the top of the pass at 5,515 metres, they noticed large rocks decorated with white silk scarves and ragged prayer flags. All of them took a clockwise round them as is the tradition and Tsetan checked the tyres on his vehicle. He stopped at the petrol tank. The lower atmospheric pressure was allowing the fuel to expand.

The narrator was soon relieved of headache as they went to the other side of the pass. At two o’clock, they stopped for lunch and ate hot noodles inside a long canvas work tent, put up beside a dry salt lake. The plateau was covered with spots of salty desert area and salt lakes, leftovers of the Tethys Ocean, which surrounded Tibet before the steep climb. Here there was a lot of activity, men with pickaxes and shovels were moving around wearing long sheepskin coats and salt-covered boots. All of them were wearing sunglasses against the bright light of the trucks as they came laden with piles of salt.

By late afternoon they reached a small town, Hor, back on the main east-west highway that followed the old trade route from Lhasa to Kashmir. Daniel took a ride in a truck and went to Lhasa. Tsetan and the narrator bade him farewell.

Hor was a gloomy place covered with dust and rocks and devoid of vegetation. It was scattered with a lot of refuse that had gathered over the years. It was regrettable as this town was on the shore of Lake Manasarovar, Tibet’s most honoured lake. Ancient Hindu and Buddhist study of the universe pinpoints Manasarovar as the source of four great Indian rivers: the Indus, the Ganges, the Sutlej and the Brahmaputra. Actually, only the Sutlej flows from this lake, but the headwaters of the others all rise nearby on the sides of Mount Kailash. They had tea in Hor’s only cafe which, like all the other buildings in town, was built from badly painted concrete and had three broken windows but they had a good view of the lake through one of the windows.

After half an hour’s stop, they drove westwards out of the town towards Mount Kailash.

The narrator was surprised to see Hor because it was absolutely different from what he had read about it. Ekai Kawaguchi, a Japanese monk who had been there in 1900, was so stirred by the holiness of the lake that he burst into tears. A few years later, the place had a similar effect on Sven Hedin, a Swede visitor.

They reached a guesthouse in Darchen after 10.30 p.m. They were 4,760 metres above the sea level. It was a disturbed night. The narrator had terrible cold because of the open-air rubbish dump in Hor. With his nostrils blocked he found it difficult to breathe. He was tired and hungry and thus started breathing through his mouth.

But barely had he slept when he woke up abruptly. His felt a peculiar heaviness in his chest; he sat up and cleared his nasal passages. He felt relieved but the moment he lay down he intuitively felt that something was wrong. He was not breathless but simply could not sleep. The fear of dying in his sleep kept him awake.

The next morning Tsetan took him to the Darchen Medical College. It was a new building that looked like a monastery from the outside. It had a very solid door that opened into a large courtyard. In the consulting room was a Tibetan doctor who did not have the equipment that a doctor would have. Clad in a thick pullover and a woolly hat, he listened to the narrator’s symptoms and said it was because of the altitude and cold. He assured the narrator that he would be fine and gave him a brown envelope stuffed with fifteen screws of paper that contained brown powder that tasted like cinnamon. He was asked to take them with hot water. The narrator did not like the look of the contents but took them anyway. He slept very soundly.

When Tsetan was assured that the narrator was going to be well, he left him and returned to Lhasa. As a Buddhist, it didn’t really matter if the narrator died but he thought it would be bad for business. After the narrator got his rest and a good night’s sleep, Darchen didn’t look so awful. It was still dusty, and had heaps of rubble and refuse, but the bright sun gave him a view of the Himalayas. He saw the snow-capped mountain, Gurla Mandhata, with a small cloud hanging over its peak.

The town had a few general stores selling Chinese cigarettes, soap and other basic provisions, as well as the usual strings of prayer flags. In front of one, men collected in the afternoon for a game of pool on a strange table in the open air, while nearby women washed their long hair in the icy water of a narrow brook near the guesthouse. Darchen felt stress-free and slow but for the narrator this was a major disadvantage. There were no pilgrims. He had been told that in the peak of the pilgrimage season, the town was full of visitors. That was the reason for his being there in the beginning of the season, but it seemed that he was too early.

One afternoon he sat with a glass of tea in Darchen’s only cafe thinking about the paucity of pilgrims and the fact that he hadn’t made much progress with his self-help programme on positive thinking. After some contemplation, he felt he could only wait. He did not like the idea of going alone on a pilgrimage.

The kora was seasonal because parts of the road were likely to be blocked by snow. He had no idea if the snow had cleared, but he saw the large pieces of dirty ice on the banks of Darchen’s stream. From the time when Tsetan had left, he had not met anyone in Darchen who could answer even the basic questions in English till he met Norbu.

The narrator was in a small, dark cafe with a long metal stove that ran down the middle. The walls and roofs were covered with multi-coloured sheets of plastic that is made into shopping bags in many countries. Plastic is one of China’s most successful exports along the Silk Road today. He sat beside a window so that he could see the pages of his notebook. He also had a novel with him. Norbu saw the book, came to him, sat opposite and asked the narrator if he was ‘English’. They stated a conversation. The narrator could make out that he did not belong to that place as he was wearing a windcheater and metal-rimmed spectacles of Western style. He told the narrator that he was a Tibetan, but worked in Beijing at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, in the Institute of Ethnic Literature. He, too, had come to do the kora.

Norbu had been writing academic papers about the Kailash kora and its importance in various works of Buddhist literature for many years, but he had never actually done it himself. When the narrator told him what brought him to Darchen, he was excited and wanted to work with him as a team. He soon realized that Norbu was as ill-equipped as him for the pilgrimage. He kept telling the narrator how fat he was and how tough it was going to be for him to walk. He wasn’t really a practising Buddhist, it became known, but he had enthusiasm and he was a Tibetan.

Although at first the narrator had thought that he would make the trek in the company of religious people but then felt that Norbu would turn out to be the ideal companion. Norbu suggested that they hire some yaks to carry the luggage, as he said it was not possible for him to prostrate himself all round the mountain as that was not his style, and anyway his tummy was too big.

Silk Road Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
Why did the narrator undertake the journey to Mount Kailash? Describe his memories of the day when they set out on their journey.
The narrator was moving towards Mount Kailash to complete the kora. He recalls the day, when they set out from Ravu, with nostalgia. It was a ‘perfect’ early morning to start a journey. The clouds looked like long French loaves glimmering pink as the rising sun shone on them. The far-away mountain peaks glowed with a rose-tinted colour. Lhamo presented him with one of the long-sleeved sheepskin coats that all the men there wore, for protection against cold.

Question 2.
Describe the initial phase of their journey.
As they set out, they took a shorter route to get off the Changtang. It was a road that would take them south¬west, almost directly towards Mount Kailash. It required crossing several quite high mountain passes. Tsetan was confident that if there was no snow they would have a comfortable journey but that they would not know till they got there.

From the gently sloping hills of Ravu, the short cut took them across vast open plains with nothing in them except a few antelopes grazing in the arid pastures. As they moved ahead, the plains became more stony than grassy. There, the antelopes were replaced by herds of wild ass.

Question 3.
What did the narrator notice about the ‘drokbas’?
As the narrator went further up the hills from the rocky wasteland, he noticed the solitary drokbas tending their flocks. Sometimes these well-wrapped figures would halt briefly and stare at their car. They seldom waved as they crossed. When the road took them close to the sheep, the animals would swerve away from the speeding car.

Question 4.
The narrator was fascinated by the awesome mastiffs. Why?
Crossing the nomads’ dark tents pitched in remoteness, the narrator noticed that a huge black dog, a Tibetan mastiffs, guarded most of the tents. These monstrous creatures would tilt their great big heads when someone moved towards them. As they drew closer, these dogs would race straight towards them, like a bullet from a gun. These dogs were pitch black and usually wore bright red collars. They barked furiously with their gigantic jaws and were so fearless that they ran straight into the path of their vehicle. They would chase them for about a hundred metres. The narrator could understand why Tibetan mastiffs became popular in China’s imperial courts as hunting dogs.

Question 5.
How did Tsetan manoeuvre across the first patch of snow that they came across?
Tsetan stopped at a tight bend and got out because the snow had covered the path in front of them. This unexpected-depository was too steep for their vehicle to mount. Tsetan stepped on to the covered snow, and stamped his foot to determine how sturdy it was. The snow was not deep but the car could turn over. Tsetan took handfuls of dirt and threw them across the frozen surface. Daniel and the narrator, too, joined in. When the snow was spread with soil, Tsetan backed up the vehicle and drove towards the dirty snow. The car moved across the icy surface without noticeable difficulty.

Question 6.
When did the narrator feel unwell or the first time? What did he do?
When they went further up the trail and were 5,400 metres above the sea level, the narrator got an awful headache. He took gulps from his water bottle, which is supposed to help during a speedy uphill journey. His headache soon cleared as they went down the other side of the pass.

Question 7.
What was the sight on the plateau ruins of the Tethys Ocean?
The narrator and his friends stopped for lunch in a long canvas tent, part of a work camp erected beside a dry salt lake. The plateau was covered with salty desert area and salty lakes that were remnants of the Tethys Ocean. This place was bustling with activity.

Men with pickaxes and shovels were moving back and forth in their long sheepskin coats and salt-covered boots. All wore sunglasses as protection against the dazzling light of blue trucks that energed from the lake with piles of salt.

Question 8.
Why was the narrator sorry to see the miserable plight of Hor?
Hor was a dismal place with no vegetation. It only had dust and rocks coupled with years of accumulated refuse. He found this unfortunate because this town was on the banks of Lake Manasarovar, Tibet’s most venerated stretch of water.

Question 9.
What is the belief about Lake Manasarovar? What is the fact?
According to ancient Hindu and Buddhist cosmology Manasarovar is the source of four great Indian rivers: the Indus, the Ganges, the Sutlej and the Brahmaputra. In actuality only the Sutlej flows from the lake, but the headwaters of the all others rise nearby on the flanks of Mount Kailash.

Question 10.
The narrator ‘slept very soundly. Like a log, not a dead man’. Explain.
After going to the Tibetan doctor the narrator soon recovered. Unpalatable as it seemed, the medicine led him to a quick recovery. Hence the narrator had a healthy and sound sleep unlike when he was ailing and restless. He slept undisturbed. He was not tossing and turning because he was sound a sleep, not because he felt lifeless.

Online Education for The Thief’s Story Summary in English by Ruskin Bond

We have decided to create the most comprehensive Online Education English Summary that will help students with learning and understanding.

Online Education for The Thief’s Story Summary in English by Ruskin Bond

The Thief’s Story by Ruskin Bond About the Author

Author Name Ruskin Bond
Born 19 May 1934 (age 86 years), Kasauli
Education Bishop Cotton School shimla (1950)
Awards Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan
Movies 7 Khoon Maaf, The Blue Umbrella, The Black Cat, Junoon, Ek Tha Rusty II
The Thief’s Story Summary by Ruskin Bond
The Thief’s Story Summary by Ruskin Bond

The Thief’s Story Summary in English

Anil, a young man of 25, was a writer. He earned his living by writing books or articles for various magazines. He was a large-hearted and simple man. Once, when he was watching a wrestling match, a young boy named Hari Singh approached him and expressed his desire to serve him. He said that he would cook for him. Anil believed him and gave him the job. Hari Singh was an expert thief and used to change his name and place to avoid the police and his old employers. He used to make money while buying supplies for him.

One day, he got a chance to steal Anil’s money, from under the mattress. He ran away to go to another place by train. But at the park, his inner voice made him restless. He did not want to cheat a large-hearted and simple man like Anil, who had trusted him. He also wanted Anil to teach him to write simple sentences. He immediately came back to Anil’s house and placed the money as it was.

Next morning, Anil gave him fifty rupees and told him that he would pay him regularly. Anil forgave him as he wanted to give him another chance to improve.

The Thief’s Story Summary Questions and Answers

Question 1.
How did the thief (Hari Singh) realise that Anil knew that his money had been stolen?
The thief realised that Anil knew he had stolen his money because he found some of the notes still wet, as if they were taken out in the rain. He gave a fifty-rupee-note to Hari Singh the next morning, and he promised to give him more money, though he did not have any contract for giving any money.

Question 2.
How did Hari Singh know that Anil had forgiven him?
Hari Singh realised that Anil knew about the theft because he found some of the notes still wet. He gave him a fifty-rupee-note and did not mention anything about the theft. This made him feel that Anil had forgiven him.

Question 3.
Who is ‘I’ in this story? Why did he change his name every month?
‘I’ in this story is a 15 year old boy who is an experienced and successful thief. He changes his name every month to hide his real identity from his new employer and the police.

Question 4.
Why, according to Hari Singh, is it easier to rob a greedy man than a careless person like Anil?
Hari Singh has correlated theft with the sense of satisfaction, a thief gets pleasure when a person comes to know that he has been robbed. Hari Singh says that a greedy man can afford to be robbed too whereas a careless man at times may never come to know that he has lost something or he has been robbed. This carelessness, on the part of a person robbed, deprives a thief of the pleasure which he gets out of theft.

Question 5.
What was the thief s immediate reaction when he stole Anil’s money?
Hari Singh stole six hundred rupees and crawled out of the room. When he was on the road, he started running. He kept the notes in his waist held there by the string of his pyjama. He felt as if he was an oil rich Arab for a week or two.

Question 6.
What made the thief come back to Anil?
Hari Singh came back to Anil because Anil trusted him. He did not want to miss the chance of being educated. Education could certainly make him a better man. He was fed up with the life of a thief, i. e. stealing and being caught and beaten.

Question 7.
What was Anil’s job? What did he usually do with the money he earned?
Anil was a writer. He used to write articles for magazines. He was a spendthrift and used to spend money on his friends. He did not bother to save money for his future.

Question 8.
What does the thief say about the reactions of different types of people when they were robbed? How did he think Anil would react when he discovered the theft?
The thief had robbed all kinds of people. According to him, the greedy men were scared of being robbed. The rich men showed anger. The poor men accepted their fate after being robbed. He thought that Anil would show only a touch of sadness. He would not be sad for the loss of money, but for the loss of trust.

Question 9.
What made him a successful thief?
He always changed his name after stealing. He even managed to change the place. He tried his best to appear pleasing and innocent so the employers never suspected him to be a thief.

Question 10.
Why was he about to be dismissed? What made Anil reinstate him?
He cooked very terrible meal which infuriated Anil. He gave the food to the stray dog and asked him to be off. But he got his job back by flattering Anil who was a simple and large-hearted man.

Online Education for A Horse and Two Goats Summary by R. K. Narayan

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Online Education for A Horse and Two Goats Story Summary by R. K. Narayan

A Horse and Two Goats Summary by R. K. Narayan About the Author

R.K. Narayan was an Indian writer best known for his short stories set in the fictional South Indian town of Malgudi. He was born on 10th October, 1906, in the then Madras. His full name was Rasipuram Krishnaswami Iyer Narayan- swami. He was the leading author along with Mulk Raj Anand and Raja Rao.

Graham Greene was his friend and mentor. He was also instrumental in getting publishers for Narayan’s books which included Swami and Friends, The Bachelor of Arts and The English Teacher. Narayan’s The Financial Expert was known as one of the original works of 1951, He won Sahitya Academy Award for The Guide which was adapted for film. His style was simple, easy and highlighted the social context and everyday life of his characters.

There is humor and pity in his stories. In his career of sixty years, he won many awards and honors including the AC Benson Medal from the Royal Society of Literature, the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Vibhushan, India’s third and second highest civilian awards. He was also nominated to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of India’s Parliament. He died in the year 2001 On 13th May at the age of 94.

A Horse and Two Goats Summary of the Story

The story opens with a clear picture of the poverty in which the protagonist Muni lives. Only one Big House out of thirty houses in the village is made up of brick. The others including Muni are made up of bamboo’s thatch, straw, mud and other materials. There is no running water or electricity supply. Muni’s wife cooked food over a fire in a mud pot. One day Muni has shaken down six drumsticks from the tree growing in front of his house and asks his wife to prepare them in a sauce for him. She agrees, provided he can get the other ingredients like rice, dhaal, spices, oil and a potato.

Muni has not been so poor since the beginning. Once he owned a flock of forty sheep and goats which he used to graze every day. But years of drought, famine and an epidemic had destroyed all and he is left with only two goats. And because he belongs to a lower caste, he was never allowed to go to school. He and his wife have no children to take care of them in their old age. They run their house from the odd jobs his wife does at the big house.

Muni has taken so much credit from every shop that when he asks for the ingredients his wife requires for cooking the drumsticks, he is refused. There is nothing in the house to cook so his wife asks him to fast till evening and graze the goats. Muni goes to his usual place on the outskirts where he would sit on the pedestal of the old horse statue and his goats meandered. The horse statue is made up of clay and is brightly coloured.

As Muni waits for the evening, he notices a yellow coloured wagon from which a red faced American wearing khaki gets down and asks him for a nearby gas station. Then he notices the statue and exclaims ‘Marvelous’.

Muni mistakes him as a policeman or a soldier and he wants to run away but finds it difficult due to his old age. The two starts conversing in their own language without understanding each other. The American offers him a cigarette and then gives him his business card which Muni thinks to be warrant card. He gives innocent explanation that he knows nothing about the crime the man is investigating.

A Horse and Two Goats Summary
A Horse and Two Goats Summary

American put forth his desire to buy the horse statue as he thinks Muni is the owner of it. The two talk about their own life. Muni tells him about the statue what his father and grandfather had told him. The American listens with fascination and appreciates his sound. Muni tells him that he has never been to school and only Brahmins went to school in those days therefore he doesn’t know Parangi language. He further describes the horse as their guardian. At this the American replies that he assures that the statue will have the best home in the U.S.A.

This way trying to understand each other’s language, they continued their conversation. Ultimately, the American waved a hundred rupee note and hand it over to Muni. Muni thinks it is an offer for the goats. He happily runs back home leaving his goats. But his wife suspects him of theft and threatens to leave him. On the other hand, the American gets the help to detach the horse from its pedestal and place it in his station wagon.

A Horse and Two Goats Summary Theme

The story is about a misunderstanding between an Indian and an American. A major theme is clash of cultures as exhibited by the wealthy American and the poor Hindu, Muni. Main focus is on miscommunication. Narayan used humor in place of anger to demonstrate how the two worlds are entirely differing from each other: the two cultures exist in the same time and space but speak different languages either literally or metaphorically.

The two main characters in the story are equally different: Muni is a poor, rural, illiterate, Hindu, dark complexioned whereas the American is wealthy, urban, educated, Christian and white. Behaving like a religious man, Muni accepts his fate while the American is willing and determined to take major steps to change his life. Both are unaware of each other’s lifestyle.

The inability to understand one another’s language leads only to confusion but does not harms anyone. Both the men are dissatisfied conversing with each other but still finds company while talking. Each gives details of his life without realizing that the other hears and understands nothing. At the end of their meeting each man gets what he wants or needs without any loss. The selection of words is mind blowing. While the reader may find this conflict painful at times, but it’s amusing altogether. One can say that it’s a fine example of comic masterpiece.

A Horse and Two Goats Summary Characters


He is the protagonist of the story. He is old and extremely poor. But he had not always been poor. He had a large flock of sheep and goats but fortunes declined and now he was left only with two goats. He and his wife had no source of income and besides they had no children to take care of them in old age.

His usual work was to set out every day to graze his goats on the outskirts of the town whereas his wife earned something by doing different jobs in the big house. While the goats meandered along to the foot of the horse statue on the edge of the village, he sat on its pedestal for the rest of the day and crouched under its belly for shade.

There he remembers his olden days when life was tough but they were never short of food. He was uneducated and illiterate because he was not Brahmin and only Brahmins were supposed to acquire education. Overall he created humor in the whole story through his accents and assumptions.

The American

The American was a businessman who entered the story when Muni was grazing his goats on the outskirts of the town. He wore Khaki and gave Muni the impression of a policeman or a soldier. He knew only English language but expected Muni to speak the same language. He was annoyed to know that Muni could speak only Tamil. His entry was symbolic of a new culture displaying Western culture. He was wealthy in contrast with Muni. He was very well acquainted with the fact that he was in the remotest of the Indian villages, still he was looking for the gas station and English speaking people.

He wanted to own the thing whatever he liked without giving a second thought. He wanted to own the horse statue as a souvenir for his living room at any cost and thought Muni as the owner of statue by the way Muni was sitting on its pedestal. He knew that nobody could understand his language still he listened Muni very seriously but very well acquainted with the fact that money would solve all the problems. He was a materialistic man who had no value for the cultural or religious importance of the statue.

The Shop man

The shop man is a man whose mood swings frequently. He has given Muni food on credit in the past, but now is no more willing to lend him anything as Muni has passed his limit. Muni owes him five rupees too which is a great amount. Sometimes they share a bit of humorous conversation, but apart from this they have no more connection. He sends him back disappointed when his wife asks for some ingredients to prepare drumsticks The Wife Muni’s wife has lived with him since they were children.

Neither of them was sure about their ages. They had spent years through prosperity and poverty. She was somewhat irritated with him now and had grown tired of him, but cared also. She was a typical Indian woman who was ready to cook whatever her husband wanted. At times she scolded him also. Her temper was manageable. She wanted to fulfill his request for a special meal. She worked hard in the big house as he did, or harder.

She picked up odd jobs as grinding corn, sweeping, scrubbing, for buying food stuff. In fact she was not dependent on Muni but Muni was dependent on her. She was ready to do as much work as she could for her living but was against earning the money by unfair means. Poverty had drained her down as she accused Muni of stealing after seeing hundred rupees and threatened to leave the house.

A Horse and Two Goats Summary Word-Meanings

  1. dotting – mark with dots
  2. grandiose – imposing
  3. subcontinent – a large landmark forming a part of continent
  4. gorgeous – beautiful, attractive
  5. gargoyles – a water spout in the form of a grotesque carved face on a building
  6. balustrade – a row of short pillars supporting a rail or coping
  7. sallied – set out on a journey
  8. pedestal – a base supporting a column or statue
  9. crook – a hooked stick
  10. snapped – break
  11. foliage – leaves
  12. avenue – a wide road
  13. faggots – a tied bundle of sticks or twigs
  14. dawn – the first light of the day, the beginning
  15. millet – a cereal plant
  16. tethered – tied to a spot with a rope or chain
  17. triumph – a great victory
  18. precisely – exactly
  19. upturned – upside downails – make or become ill
  20. inordinately – excessively
  21. humor – quality of being amusing
  22. debt – something owed
  23. mumbled – spoke indistinctly
  24. sneered – made a scornful remark or expression
  25. famine – extreme scarcity of food
  26. parapet – a low wall along the edge of balcony or a bridge
  27. unobtrusively – not making oneself noticed
  28. recoup – regain
  29. fatigue – tiredness
  30. conjure – summon, evoke
  31. unleashing – releasing
  32. weird – uncanny, bizarre
  33. accosted – approached and spoke to
  34. cronies – companion
  35. lounging – sitting
  36. hailed – an expression of greeting
  37. summoned – ordered to appear in a law court
  38. progeny – generation
  39. meandered – wandered in a leisurely way
  40. crouch – stoop low with knees tightly bent
  41. prancing – moving springily
  42. scythe – a tool with a curved blade on a long handle for cutting long grass
  43. aquiline – curved like an eagle’s beak
  44. vandals – a person who damages things willfully
  45. gashed – long deep cut
  46. lewd – treating sexual matters vulgarly
  47. scrounge – borrow
  48. sputtered – a spluttering sound
  49. fidgeted – made small restless movements
  50. slanderers – a false statement made by the people to damage one’s reputation
  51. gainsay – to deny
  52. inquisitor – curious
  53. scruples – doubtful
  54. pinioned – restrain by holding
  55. obscure – uncertain
  56. famished – extremely hungry
  57. ruminated – think deeply.