This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English will help you to write better answers in your Class 12 exams. Because the Solutions are solved by subject matter experts. https://ncertmcq.com/unseen-passage-for-class-12-factual/

## Unseen Passage For Class 12 Factual With Answers Pdf 2020

Factual Passage For Class 12

♦ Solved Passages:

The Sluggard

– Isaac Watts

‘Tis the voice of the sluggard; I heard him complain,
“You have waked me too soon, I must slumber again.”
As the door on its hinges, so he on his bed,
Turns his sides and his shoulders and his heavy head.

“A little more sleep, and a little more slumber;”
Thus he wastes half his days, and his hours without number,
And when he gets up, he sits folding his hands,
Or walks about sauntering, or trifling he stands.

I pass’d by his garden, and saw the wild brier,
The thorn and the thistle grow broader and higher;
The clothes that hang on him are turning to rags;
And his money still wastes till he starves or he begs.

I made him a visit, still hoping to find
That he took better care for improving his mind:
He told me his dreams, talked of eating and drinking;
But scarce reads his Bible, and never loves thinking.

Said I then to my heart, “Here’s a lesson for me,”
This man’s but a picture of what I might be:
But thanks to my friends for their care in my breeding,
Who taught me betimes to love working and reading.

Unseen Passage For Class 12 With Mcq Questions And Answers

Choose the correct option.

(a) The word ……………………., in stanza l, means the same as the word ‘sleep’.
i. sluggard
ii. slumber
ii. slumber

(b) The word ……………………. rhymes with the word ‘higher’.
i. brier
ii. ‘heart
iii. none of the above
i. brier

(c) The word ……………………. is an example of an archaic usage.
i. thistle
ii. breeding
iii. betimes
iii. betimes

Unseen Passage With Multiple Choice Questions For Class 12

(d) The word ‘sauntering’ means the same as …………………….
i. walking in a slow relaxed way
ii. running very fast
iii. none of the above
i. walking in a slow relaxed way

1. What does the sluggard protest?
2. What does the simile in stanza one imply?
3. What does the sluggard long for?
4. What does the sluggard do in his waking hours?
5. What kind of a housekeeper is the sluggard? Give evidence.
6. Why did the poet visit him? What was the poet’s reaction?
1. The Sluggard protested against being woken up from sleep too early. He wanted to sleep some more.
2. The simile implies that the sluggard is never far from his bed and his relationship with his bed is like that of the door with the hinges.
3. The sluggard longed for some more hours of sleep.
4. In his waking hours, the sluggard sat around idly, and loitered around purposelessly.
5. The sluggard was not a meticulous housekeeper as his garden was overgrown with wild briar. The thorns and the thistles in his lawn had grown tall and thick with neglect.
6. The poet visited the sluggard hoping that he indulged in some intellectual activity although he was physically idle. The poet was however disappointed to find that he dreamt only about eating and drinking. The sluggard seldom read the Bible and was not fond of thinking.

Factual Passage Class 12

Find words or phrases in the poem which mean the same as the following.

1. countless (stanza 2)
2. rarely (stanza 4)
1. without number
2. scarce

Unseen Passage With Mcq For Class 12

II. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. Maharana Pratap ruled over Mewar only for 25 years. However, he accomplished so much grandeur during his reign that his glory surpassed the boundaries of countries and time turning him into an immortal personality. He, along with his kingdom, became a synonym for valour, sacrifice and patriotism. Mewar had been a leading Rajput kingdom even before Maharana Pratap occupied the throne. Kings of Mewar, with the cooperation of their nobles and subjects, had established such traditions in the kingdom, as augmented their magnificence, despite the hurdles of having a smaller area under their command and less population. There did come a few thorny occasions when the flag of the kingdom seemed sliding down. Their flag once again heaved high in the sky, thanks to the gallantry and brilliance of the people of Mewar.

2. The destiny of Mewar was good in the sense that barring a few kings, most of the rulers were competent and patriotic. This glorious tradition of the kingdom almost continued for 1,500 years since its establishment, right from the reign of Bappa Rawal. In fact, only 60 years before Maharana Pratap, Rana Sanga drove the kingdom to the pinnacle of fame. His reputation went beyond Rajasthan and reached Delhi. Two generations before him, Rana Kumbha had given a new stature to the kingdom through victories and developmental work. During his reign, literature and art also progressed extraordinarily. Rana himself was inclined towards writing and his works are read with reverence, even today. The ambience of his kingdom was conducive to the creation of high quality work of art and literature. These accomplishments were the outcome of a longstanding tradition, sustained by several generations.

3. The life of the people of Mewar must have been peaceful and prosperous during the long span of time; otherwise such extraordinary accomplishment in these fields would not have been possible. This is reflected in their art and literature as well as their loving nature. They compensate for lack of admirable physique by their firm but pleasant nature. The ambience of Mewar remains lovely, thanks to the cheerful and liberal character of its people.

4. One may observe astonishing pieces of workmanship, not only in the forts and palaces of Mewar but also in public utility buildings. Ruins of many structures which are still standing tall in their grandeur are testimony to the fact that Mewar was not only the land of the brave but also a seat of art and culture. Amidst aggression and bloodshed, literature and art flourished and creative pursuits of literature and artists did not suffer. Imagine, how glorious the period must have been when the Vijaya Stambha, which is the sample of our great ancient architecture even today, was constructed. In the same fort, Kirti Stambha is standing high, reflecting how liberal the then administration was, which allowed people from other communities and kingdoms to come and carry out construction work. It is useless to indulge in the debate, whether the Vijaya Stambha was constructed first or the Kirti Stambha. The fact is that both the capitals are standing side-by-side and reveal the proximity between the king and the subjects of Mewar.

5. The cycle of time does not remain the same. Whereas, the reign of Rana Sanga was crucial in raising the kingdom to the acme of glory; it also proved to be his nemesis. History took a turn. The fortune of Mewar, the land of the brave, started waning. Rana tried to save the day with his acumen which was running against the stream and the glorious traditions for sometime. [CBSE Sample Paper 2016]

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Factual Comprehension Passages With Questions And Answers Question (i)
How did Maharana Pratap turn into an immortal personality?
(a) He ruled Mewar for 25 years
(b) He added a lot of grandeur to Mewar
(c) Of his valour, sacrifice and patriotism
(d) Both (b) and (c)
(d) Both (b) and (c)

Question (ii)
What were the difficulties in the way of Mewar?
(a) Lack of cooperation of the nobility
(b) Ancient traditions of the kingdom
(c) Its small area and small population
(d) The poverty of the subjects
(c) Its small area and small population

Question (iii)
What was the thorny occasion?
(a) When the flag of Mewar seemed to be lowered
(b) When the flag of Mewar was hoisted high
(c) When the people of Mewar showed gallantry
(d) Both (a) and (c)
(d) Both (a) and (c)

Question (iv)
Why was Mewar lucky?
(a) Because all of its rulers were competent
(b) Because most of its people were competent
(c) Because most of its rulers were incompetent
(d) Because only a few of its people were competent
(b) Because most of its people were competent

Question (v)
Which is the sample of our great ancient architecture even today?
(a) Palace of Mewar
(b) Port of Mewar
(c) Vijaya Stambha
(d) Kirti Stambha
(c) Vijaya Stambha

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
Who was the earliest King of Mewar?
The earliest king of Mewar mentioned in the passage is Bappa Rawal.

Question (ii)
What was Rana Kumbha’s contribution to the glory of Mewar?
Rana Kumbha gave new stature through victories and development work. The literature and art progressed. His writing is revered even today.

Question (iii)
What does the writer find worth admiration in the people of Mewar?
According to the writer, the people of Mewar are of a pleasant nature and liberal character. They are cheerful, gallant and brilliant.

Question (iv)
How did art and literature flourish in Mewar?
As there was peace and prosperity in Mewar over a long period of time, so the rulers had a liberal attitude. They were also more inclined towards art and literature.

Question (v)
How did the rulers show that they cared for their subjects?
The rulers cared a lot for their subjects. The nobles cooperated with the subjects. They built public utility buildings. People lived peacefully and had prosperous lives. They built the Vijaya Stambha and Kirti Stambha.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-5) which means ‘the most perfect thing that can exist or be achieved’.
acme

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-5) which means ‘becoming weaker in strength’.
waning

III. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. South India is known for its music and for its arts and rich literature. Madras or Chennai can be called the cultural capital and the soul of Mother India. The city is built low in pleasant contrast to the ghoulish tall structures of Mumbai and Kolkata. It has vast open spaces and ample greenery. The majestic spacious Mount Road looks like a river, wide and deep. A stroll on the Marina beach in the evening with the sea glistening in your face is refreshing. The breeze soothes the body, it refreshes the mind, sharpens the tongue and brightens the intellect.

2. One can never feel dull in Chennai. The intellectual and cultural life of the city is something of a marvel. Every street corner of Chennai has a literary forum, a debating society and music, dance and dramatic club. The intelligent arguments, the sparkling wit and dashing irony enliven both the political and the literary meetings. There is a young men’s association which attracts brilliant speakers and equally brilliant listeners to its meetings. It is a treat to watch the speakers use their oratorical weapons. Chennai speakers are by and large sweet and urbane, though the cantankerous, fire-eating variety is quite often witnessed in political campaigning. The urbane speakers weave their arguments slowly like the unfolding of a leisurely Carnatic raga.

3. Music concerts and dance performances draw packed houses. There is hardly any cultural family in Chennai that does not learn and patronise music and dance in its pristine purity. Rukmani Devi Arundale’s ‘Kalakshetra’ is a renowned international centre. It has turned out hundreds of celebrated maestros and dancers who have brought name and glory to our country. Carnatic music has a peculiar charm of its own. It has the moon’s soft beauty and moon’s soft pace. Thousands of people flock to the temple ‘maidans’ to get drunk with the mellifluous melodies of their favourite singers. They sit out all night in the grueling heat, swaying to the rhythm of ‘nadaswaram’ and rollicking with the measured beats of ‘mridangam’. M.S. Subbulakshmi is considered to be the nightingale of the South.

4. The Gods might descend from heaven to see a South Indian damsel dancing. There are several varieties of South Indian dance – Bharatnatyam, Mohiniyattam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, etc. Age cannot wither nor custom stale its beautiful variety. Bharatnatyam is the most graceful and enchanting dance form, whereas Kathakali is most masculine and virile. South Indian dances combine voluptuousness with purity. Here, every muscle and fibre of the body vibrates into life, and as the tempo increases, a divine flame-like passion bodies forth as if making an assault on heaven.

5. South Indian dress, particularly of the males, is puritanically simple. There you cannot distinguish a judge from an ‘ardali’ by their dress. South Indian ladies too look charming and graceful in their colourful Kanjeevaram and Mysore silk sarees.

6. South Indian cuisine, especially ‘dosa’, ‘idli’ and ‘vada’ are so delicious that now we
can enjoy them almost everywhere in India as well as in some foreign countries. The Madras ‘idli’, which was a favourite of Gandhiji, is served with ‘sambhar’ and ‘coconut chutney’. [CBSE Sample Paper 2015, (AI) 2015]

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by
choosing the most appropriate option. (1 x 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
For what is South India mainly known?
(a) For tasty food
(b) For its traditional, music, art, literature
(c) For scenic beauty
(d) For its delicate and precise ways
(b) For its traditional, music, art, literature

Question (ii)
Why is it a treat to watch the speakers?

(a) Because they use oratorical weapons
(b) Because they are witnessed in campaigning
(c) Because they weave their arguments fastly
(d) Because they argue and complain a lot.
(a) Because they use oratorical weapons

Question (iii)
What is M.S. Subbulakshmi considered to be?
(a) Graceful and enchanting
(b) Masculine and virile
(c) Nightingale of the South
(d) Moon’s soft beauty
(c) Nightingale of the South

Question (iv)
Which is the South Indian dance form?
(a) Bharatnatyam
(b) Kuchipudi
(c) Kathakali
(d) All of these
(d) All of these

Question (v)
Why are South Indian dances special?
(a) Because Gods come from heaven to see them
(b) Because there aren’t many varieties of dance
(c) Because they are pure as well as sensuous
(d) Because they make an assault on heaven
(c) Because they are pure as well as sensuous

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
How does the breeze on Marina Beach affect the author?
The breeze soothes the body, refreshes the mind, sharpens the tongue and brightens the intellect.

Question (ii)
How do we know that music is very important for the people of South India?
Music concerts draw packed houses. Thousands of people flock to the temple ‘maidans’ and sit through the gruelling heat of the night to enjoy the music of their favourite singers.

Question (iii)
What is the common connection between language, music and dance of South India?
The common connection between language, music and dance of South India is their pure, divine and enchanting nature.

Question (iv)
What makes Carnatic music charming?
Music of Karnataka is charming because of its soft beauty and pace.

Question (v)
What is Kalakshetra renowned for?
Kalakshetra is an international centre which has produced hundreds of celebrated maestros and dancers.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-2) which means ‘confident, comfortable and polite in social situations’.
urbane

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘having a pleasant and flowing sound’.
mellifluous

IV. Read the following passage Carefully.

1. Smoking is the major cause of mortality with bronchogenic carcinoma of the lung and is one of the factors causing death due to malignancies of larynx, oral cavity, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, stomach and uterine cervix and coronary heart diseases.

2. Nicotine is the major substance present in the smoke that causes physical dependence. The additives do produce damage to the body. For example, ammonia can result in a 100-fold increase in the ability of nicotine to enter into the smoke.

3. Levulinic acid, added to cigarettes to mask the harsh taste of the nicotine, can increase the binding of nicotine to brain receptors, which increases the ‘kick’ of nicotine.

4. Smoke from the burning end of a cigarette contains over 4,000 chemicals and 40 carcinogens. It has long been known that tobacco smoke is carcinogenic or cancer-causing.

5. The lungs of smokers collect an annual deposit of l-l’A pounds of the gooey black material. Invisible gas phase of cigarette smoke contains nitrogen, oxygen and toxic gases like carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, acrolein, hydrogen-cyanide and nitrogen-oxides. These gases are poisonous and in many cases, interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen.

6. Like many carcinogenic compounds, they can act as tumour promoters or tumour initiators by acting directly on the genetic makeup of cells of the body leading to the development of cancer.

7. While smoking, within the first 8-10 seconds, nicotine is absorbed through the lungs and quickly ‘moved’ into the bloodstream and circulated throughout the brain. Nicotine can also enter the bloodstream through the mucous membranes that line the mouth (if tobacco is chewed) or nose (if snuff is used) and even through the skin. Our brain is made of billions of nerve cells and they communicate with each other by chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.

8. Nicotine is one of the most powerful nerve poisons and binds stereo-selectively to nicotinic receptors which is located in the brain, autonomic ganglia, the medulla, neuromuscular junctions. It is located throughout the brain and plays a critical role in cognitive processes and memory.

9. The nicotine molecule is shaped like a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which is involved in many functions including muscle movement, breathing, heart-rate, learning and memory. Nicotine, because of the similar structure with acetylcholine, when it gets into the brain, attaches itself to acetylcholine sites and produces toxic effect.

10. In high concentrations, nicotine is more deadly. In fact, one drop of purified nicotine on the tongue can kill a person. It has been used as a pesticide for centuries.

11. Recent research studies suggest that acute nicotine administration would result in increased dopamine release from the brain, producing perceptions of pleasure and happiness, increased energy and motivation, increased alertness, increased feeling of vigour during the early phase of smoking.

12. However, notwithstanding these superficial effects, research shows that the relationship between smoking and memory loss is strongest in people who smoke more than 29 cigarettes each day and this is not specific to the socio-economic status, gender and a range of associated medical conditions. Smoking may speed up age-related memory loss and the details are not yet clear. Some studies suggest that repeated exposure to high nicotinic smoke related to the ‘Brain-wiring’ is nothing but neuro-biochemistry that deals with complex interaction among genetic experience and biochemistry of brain cells.

13. ‘NO’ is a unique molecule which plays an important role in a number of beneficial and some of the harmful brain and body mechanisms, for example, synapse formation, drug tolerance and local regulation of cerebral blood flow, Parkinson’s disease, etc. It is also found that people who smoke more cigarettes a day have poorer memories in middle age than non-smokers.

14. Some experts say that smoking is linked to memory problems because it contributes to narrowed arteries that restrict blood-flow to the brain. One of the causes of memory decline in relation to the brain function could be the nerve cell death or decreased density of interconnected neuronal network due to the loss of dendrites, the tiny filaments which connect one nerve cell to another. Abstinence from smoking is essential, not only to avoid these systemic effects but also to reduce the ill-effects on the environment. [CBSE Sample Paper 2017]

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

(i) What does the presence of nicotine in the smoke cause?

(a) Physical dependence
(b) Heart disease
(c) Kidney stone
(d) Tumour
(a) Physical dependence

Question (ii)
What does the gas of cigarette smoke contain?
(a) Nitrogen
(b) Oxygen
(c) Carbon-monoxide
(d) All of these
(d) All of these

Question (iii)
What does the poisonous gas of a cigarette do to our body?
(a) Act as tumour promoters
(b) Interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen
(c) Malignancies of the larynx
(d) None of these
(b) Interfere with the body’s ability to transport oxygen

Question (iv)
What would result in the acute nicotine administration?
(a) Increased dopamine release from the brain
(b) Producing perceptions of pleasures and happiness
(c) Increased energy and motivated
(d) All of these
(d) All of these

Question (v)
What has been used as a pesticide for centuries?
(a) Nicotine
(b) Nitrogen
(c) Acrolein
(d) Formaldehyde
(a) Nicotine

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
How is smoking the major cause of mortality?
Smoking is the major cause of mortality as it causes lung cancer, tumours in the larynx, mouth, kidney, pancreas, stomach, and uterine cervix. It also leads to the blockage of arteries causing heart diseases.

Question (ii)
What makes people addicted to cigarettes?
Nicotine in a cigarette makes the people addicted to it and also causes physical dependence.

Question (iii)
What are neurotransmitters?
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers. They help millions of nerve cells to communicate with each other.

Question (iv)
How does nicotine produce toxic effects?
Nicotine produces toxic effects. It gets into the brain and attaches itself to acetylcholine sites. Their union causes toxic effects.

Question (v)
According to the experts, how is smoking linked to memory?
Experts say that smoking is linked to memory as it narrows arteries. It restricts the free flow of blood to the brain. It causes the death of nerve cells or the decline of brain memory.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘a number of deaths’.
mortality

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘the act of not doing something’.
abstinence

1. Early automobiles were sometimes only ‘horseless carriages’ powered by gasoline or steam engines. Some of them were so noisy that cities often made laws forbidding their use because they frightened horses.

2. Many countries helped to develop the automobile. The internal combustion engine, invented in Austria and France was an early leader in automobile manufacturing. But it was in the United States after 1900 that the automobile was improved most rapidly. As a large and growing country, the United States needed cars and trucks to provide transportation in places not served by trains.

3. Two brilliant ideas made possible the mass production of automobiles. An American inventor named Eli Whitney thought of one of them, which is known as ‘standardisation of parts’. In an effort to speed up production in his gun factory, Whitney decided that each part of a gun could be made by machines, so that it would be exactly like all the others of its kind.

4. Another American, Henry Ford developed the idea of the assembly line. Before Ford introduced the assembly line, each car was built by hand. Such a process was, of course, very slow. As a result, automobiles were so expensive that only rich people could afford them. Ford proposed a system in which each worker would have only a portion of the wheels. Another would place the wheels on the car. And still, another would insert the bolts that held the wheels to the car. Each worker needed to learn only one or two routine tasks.

5. But the really important part of Ford’s idea was to bring the work to the worker. An automobile frame which looks like a steel skeleton was put on a moving platform. As the frame moved past the workers, each worker could attach a single part. When the car reached the end of the line, it was completely assembled. Oil, gasoline, and water were added and the car was ready to be driven away. With the increased production made possible by the assembly line, automobiles became much economical and, more and more people were able to afford them.

6. Today, it can be said that wheels run America. The four rubber tyres of the automobile move America through work and play.

7. Even though the majority of Americans would find it hard to imagine what life could be without a car, some have begun to realise that the automobile is a mixed blessing. Traffic accidents are increasing steadily and large cities are plagued by traffic congestion. Worst of all, perhaps, is the air pollution caused by the internal combustion engine. Every car engine burns hundreds of gallons of fuel each year and pumps hundreds of pounds of carbon monoxide and other gases into the air. These gases are one source of the smog that hangs over large cities. Some of these gases are poisonous and dangerous to health, especially for someone with a weak heart or respiratory disease.

8. One answer to the problem of air pollution is to build a car that does not pollute. That’s what several major automobile manufacturers are trying to do. But building a clean car is easier said than done. So far, progress has been slow. Another solution is to eliminate car fumes altogether by getting rid of the internal combustion engine. Inventors are now working on turbine-powered cars, as well as on cars powered by steam and electricity. But most of us won’t be driving cars run on batteries or boiling water for a while yet. Many automakers believe that it will take years to develop practical models that are powered by electricity or steam.

9. To rid the world of pollution-pollution is caused not just by cars, but by all of the modern industrial life-many people believe that we must make some fundamental changes in the way many of us live. Americans may, for example, have to cut down on the number of privately owned cars and depend more on public mass transit systems. Certainly, the extensive use of new transit systems could cut down on traffic congestion and air pollution. But these changes, sometimes clash head-on with other urgent problems. For example, if a factory closes down because it cannot meet government pollution standards, a large number of workers suddenly find themselves without jobs. Questioning the quality of the air they breathe becomes less important than worrying about the next paycheque. Drastic action must be taken, if we are to reduce traffic accidents, traffic congestion and air pollution. While wheels have brought better and more convenient transportation, they have also brought new and unforeseen problems. Progress, it turns out, has more than one face. [CBSE Delhi, (AI) 2016]

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

Question (i)
What did the United States need for transportation in places that were not served by trains?
(a) They needed trains
(b) They needed fuel
(c) They needed cars and trucks
(d) All of the above
(c) They needed cars and trucks

Question (ii)
What did Henry Ford develop?
(a) The idea of the assembly line
(b) Horseless carriages
(c) Automobile frame
(d) Wheels for the car
(a) The idea of the assembly line

Question (iii)
What was the impact of the increased production made by the assembly line?
(a) Automobiles became much economical
(b) More people were able to afford them
(c) Traffic accidents increased
(d) Both (a) and (c)
(d) Both (a) and (c)

Question (iv)
What is the one solution to the problem of air pollution?
(a) To burn hundreds of gallons of fuel each year
(b) To build a car that does not pollute
(c) To increase the production of cars
(d) To provide transportation in all the places
(b) To build a car that does not pollute

Question (v)
What has brought better and more convenient transportation?
(a) Engines
(b) Public mass transport systems
(c) Wheels
(d) None of these
(a) Engines

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

Question (i)
How does standardisation of parts help to make mass production possible?
Standardisation of parts leads to mass production. Each part of a gun could be made by machines so that it would be exactly like all the others of its kind.

Question (ii)
How does the assembly line help to make mass production possible?
Ford introduced the assembly line in which each worker has to make only a portion. One would make a part of the wheel, another would place it on the car and the third would insert the bolts. This brought a revolution in mass production which was very slow before the assembly line.

Question (iii)
Why do some Americans call the automobile a mixed blessing? Write any two points.
The Americans call the automobile a mixed blessing. The automobile has led to cause a large number of traffic accidents and also a lot of traffic congestion. The second problem is the problem of pollution of air caused by toxic gases like carbon monoxide.

Question (iv)
What suggestions are offered in the passage for getting rid of pollution?
There are two suggestions given in the passage, first that the Americans will have to cut down the number of privately owned cars and depend on mass transit systems. The second suggestion is the use of non-conventional fuel like steam or electricity in place of petrol.

Question (v)
What do many automakers believe?
Many automakers believe that it will take years to develop practical models that are powered by electricity or steam.

Question (vi)
Find a word from the passage (para-2) which means ‘fastly or suddenly’.
rapidly

Question (vii)
Find a word from the passage (para-8) which means ‘to remove or take away’.
eliminate

♦Unsolved Passages:

I. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. Swachh Bharat Mission is a massive mass movement that seeks to create a clean India by 2019. The father of our nation, Mahatma Gandhi, always puts emphasis on cleanliness as cleanliness leads to a healthy and prosperous life. Keeping this in mind, the Indian government launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on October 2, 2014. The mission will cover all rural and urban areas. The urban component of the mission was implemented by the Ministry of Urban Development, and the rural component by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.

2. The mission aims to cover 1.04 crore households, provides 2.5 lakh community toilets, 2.6 lakh public toilets, and a solid waste management facility in each town. Under the programme, community toilets will be built in residential areas where it is difficult to construct individual household toilets. Public toilets will also be constructed in designated locations, such as tourist places, markets, bus stations, railway stations, etc. The programme will be implemented over a five-year period in 4,401 towns. Of the 62,009 crores likely to be spent on the programme, the Centre will pitch in 14,623 crores. Of the Centre’s share of? 14,623 crore, 7,366 crores will be spent on solid waste management, 4,165 crores on individual household toilets, ? 1,828 crore on public awareness and 655 crores on community toilets.

3. The programme includes the elimination of open defecation, conversion of unsanitary toilets to pour flush toilets, eradication of manual scavenging, municipal solid waste management, and bringing about a behavioural change in people regarding healthy sanitation practices.

4. The Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The mission aims to make India an open defecation-free country in five years. Under the mission, a huge amount will be spent for the construction of about 11 crores 11 lakh toilets in the country. Technology will be used on a large scale to convert waste into wealth in rural India, in the form of bio-fertilizer and different forms of energy. The mission is to be executed on a war footing with the involvement of every gram panchayat, panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad in the country, besides roping in large sections of the rural population and school teachers and students in this endeavour.

5. As part of the mission, for rural households, the provision for a unit cost of individual household toilets has been increased from 10,000 to 12,000 so as to provide for water availability, including for storing, hand-washing, and cleaning of toilets. The central share for such toilets will be 9,000, while the state share will be 3,000. For North-Eastern states, Jammu & Kashmir, and special category states, the Central share will be 10,800 and the state share will be 1,200. Additional contributions from other sources will be permitted.

6. A ‘Swachh Bharat Run’ was organised at the Rashtrapati Bhavan on October 2, 2014. According to a statement from the Rashtrapati Bhavan, around 1,500 people participated and the event was flagged off by President Pranab Mukherjee. Participants in the run included officers and staff of the Secretariat, the President’s Bodyguard, Army Guard, and Delhi Police as well as their families. NIT Rourkela Ph.D. students have made a short film on Swachh Bharat which conveyed the message that Swachh Bharat is not a one-day event. It should be part of our life, only then we can achieve our goal of Swachh Bharat (Clean India).

7. The Swachh Bharat Kosh (SBK) has been set up to facilitate and channelise individual philanthropic contributions and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) funds to achieve the objective of Clean India (Swachh Bharat) by the year 2019. The Kosh will be used to achieve the objective of improving cleanliness levels in the rural and urban areas, including the schools. The allocation from the Kosh will be used to supplement and complement departmental resources for such activities. To incentivise contributions from individuals and corporate, modalities are being considered to provide tax rebates, wherever possible.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

(i) When was the Swachh Bharat Mission implemented?
(a) October 2
(b) October 30
(c) November 14
(d) December 2

(ii) By which year does the mission seek to create Clean India?
(a) 2015
(b) 2017
(c) 2019
(d) 2016

(iii) By whom was the rural component of the mission implemented?
(a) Ministry of Urban Development
(b) Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation
(c) Ministry of Rural Development
(d) Ministry of Cleanliness and Sanitation

(iv) Where was the ‘Swachh Bharat Run’ organised?
(a) Rashtrapati Bhavan
(b) India Gate
(c) Jammu and Kashmir
(d) Rural India

(v) What has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission?
(a) Nirmal Abhiyan
(b) Nirmal Mission
(c) Nirmal Bharat Mission
(d) Bharat Bachao Mission

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

(i) When was Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched? What idea led to its launch?
(ii) What are the aims of the Swachh Bharat mission?
(iii) What is the aim of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan?
(iv) Why was the ‘Swachh Bharat Run’ organised? Who participated in the event?
(v) What is the purpose of Swachh Bharat Kosh?
(vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘to get rid of something completely’.
(vii) Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘helping poor people by giving them money’.

II. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. The Ig Nobel Prizes are a parody of the Nobel Prizes. They are given each year in early October for ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research. The stated aim of the prizes is to “honour achievements that first make people laugh, and then make them think.” The awards are sometimes veiled criticism (or gentle satire), but are also used to point out that even the most absurd-sounding avenues of research can yield useful knowledge. Organised by the scientific humour magazine ‘Annals of Improbable Research’ (AIR), they are presented by a group that includes Nobel laureates at a ceremony at Harvard University’s Sanders Theatre. They are followed by a set of public lectures by the winners at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

2. The first Ig Nobels were created in 1991 by Marc Abrahams, editor and co-founder of the Annals of Improbable Research. He is the master of ceremonies at all subsequent awards ceremonies. Awards were presented at that time for discoveries “that cannot, or should not be reproduced”. Ten prizes are awarded each year in many categories, including the Nobel Prize categories of Physics, Chemistry, Physiology/Medicine, Literature, and Peace, but also other categories such as public health, engineering, biology, and interdisciplinary research. The Ig Nobel Prizes recognise genuine achievements, with an exception of three prizes awarded in the first year to fictitious scientists Josiah Carberry, Paul DeFanti, and Thomas Kyle.

3. The awards are sometimes veiled criticism (or gentle satire), as in the two awards given for homeopathy research, prizes in “science education” to the Kansas and Colorado state boards of education for their stance regarding the teaching of evolution, and the prize awarded to Social Text after the Sokal Affair. Most often, however, they draw attention to scientific articles that have some humorous or unexpected aspect. Examples range from the statement that black holes fulfil all the technical requirements to be the location of hell, to research on the “five-second rule”, a tongue-in-cheek belief that food dropped on the floor will not become contaminated if it is picked up within five seconds. In 2010, Sir Andre Geim became the first person to receive both a Nobel Prize and an individual Ig Nobel Prize.

4. The prizes are presented by genuine Nobel laureates, originally at a ceremony in a lecture hall at MIT, but now in Sanders Theatre at Harvard University. It contains a number of running jokes, including Miss Sweetie Poo, a little girl who repeatedly cries out, “Please stop, I’m bored,” in a high-pitched voice if speakers go on too long. The awards ceremony is traditionally closed with the words: “If you didn’t win a prize and especially if you did better luck next year!” The ceremony is co-sponsored by the Harvard Computer Society, the Harvard-Radcliffe Science Fiction Association, and the Harvard-Radcliffe Society of Physics Students.

5. Throwing paper airplanes onto the stage is a long-standing tradition at the Ig Nobels. In past years, Physics professor, Roy Glauber swept the stage clean of the airplanes as the official “Keeper of the Broom” for years. Glauber could not attend the 2005 awards because he was travelling to Stockholm to claim a genuine Nobel Prize in Physics. Delegates from the Museum of Bad Art are often on hand to display some pieces from their collection too.

6. The ceremony is recorded and broadcasted on National Public Radio and is shown live over the internet. The recording is broadcasted every year, on the Friday after U.S. Thanksgiving, on the public radio program Science Friday. In recognition of this, the audience chants the first name of the radio show’s host, Ira Flatow.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

(i) How many Ig Nobel Prizes are given each year?
(a) 3
(b) 4
(c) 7
(d) 10

(ii) Who created the first Ig Nobel Prize?
(a) Thomas Kyle
(b) Marc Abrahams
(c) Josiah Carberry
(d) Paul DeFanti

(iii) In which year were fictitious scientists awarded Ig Nobel Prize?
(a) 1990
(b) 1991
(c) 1992
(d) 1995

(iv) What is a long-standing tradition at the Ig Nobels?
(a) Throwing paper airplanes onto the stage
(b) Throwing tomatoes onto the stage
(c) Leaving the winners’ handprints on the stage
(d) Winners sweeping the stage

(v) Where is the ceremony recorded and broadcasted?
(a) Harvard Computer Society
(b) Kansas

B. Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) Why are Ig Nobel Prizes termed as a parody of the Nobel Prizes?
(ii) Who organises the Ig Nobel Prizes?
(iii) Who was the first person to receive both, a Nobel Prize and an individual Ig Nobel Prize?
(iv) What is the criteria for awarding Ig Nobel Prize?
(v) What is the Miss Sweetie Poo joke? When is it cracked?
(vi) Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘an imitation of the style of something or someone’.
(vii) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘a gradual process of change and development’.

III. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. Almost 3,000 years of food evolution has taken place for the pizza pie to reach its current delicious state today. Although flat breads have been around for 6,000 years, the word, “pizziare” started appearing in Italian writings as far back as 1000 B.C. The word pizza itself is believed to have originated from an Old Italian word meaning ‘a point’, which in turn became the Italian word “pizziare”, which means to pinch, or to pluck.

2. Tomatoes were first introduced to Italy from South America in 1522. At first, the tomato was believed to be poisonous. Fortunately, the poorer peasants of the region finally overcame their doubts about tomatoes in the 17th century and began adding it to the bread dough, and the first pizzas were created.

3. Before the tomato arrived in the 1500s, the first pizzas in Naples were white, made with garlic, olive oil, salt, anchovies, and probably lard. Neapolitans were the first in Europe to embrace the tomato, since it was deemed poisonous in Europe as a member of the nightshade family. With the rise in popularity of tomato, people started using it more and more. Mozzarella cheese was also slowly gaining ground. Mozzarella had become available in Italy only after water buffalo were imported from India in the 7th century (mozzarella was first made with water buffalo milk). Its popularity grew very slowly until the last half of the 18th century. In fact, cheese and tomatoes did not meet on a pizza until 1889.

4. The most commonly considered pizza (tomato, mozzarella, basil) was supposedly created on June 11, 1889 by a pizza-maker named Raffaele Esposito. This Pizzaiolo (pizza-maker in Italian and spelled Pizzaiuolo in Neapolitan) created a special pizza for the visit of Queen Margherita of Savoia. He made three different pizzas, but the Queen fell in love with one in particular, topped with three ingredients representing the three colours of the Italian flag. The Italian flag was represented by the tomatoes (red), mozzarella (white), and basil (green). Esposito named this pizza “Pizza alia Margherita” in honour of the Queen. Whether Esposito was the first to use those ingredients or not, this is known as the classic Neapolitan pizza or the modern-day tomato-and-cheese pizza.

5. In the latter half of the 19th century, pizza migrated to America with the Italians. By the turn of the century, the Italian immigrants had begun to open their own bakeries and were selling groceries as well as pizza. Gennaro Lombardi opened the first true US pizzeria in 1905 at 531/3, Spring Street in New York City, a part of town known as “Little Italy”.

6. In India, of late, pizza has become a popular food. It has become a fashion and also a manner of showing that one is part of the famous Western culture. In fact, it is more of a fashion statement. The popularity of the food is rocketing. This is evident from a report by Fortune magazine. The two giants of the pizza industry, Pizza Hut and Dominos, are in hot competition with each other in India. India has 134 Pizza Huts and 149 Dominos locations, with each chain opening 50 stores a year.

7. The popularity of pizza in India, Fortune claims, is because of its similarity to India’s native cuisine. Unlike Chinese and Japanese, Indians eat leavened bread (roti/naan), and a popular traditional version slathers it in butter and garlic- not unlike garlic bread, the most often ordered side dish at both Dominos and Pizza Hut franchises in India. Cheese (paneer) is ubiquitous in India’s northern cuisine. Tomatoes and all kinds of sauces are prevalent everywhere. Combine these ingredients into one gooey, oily, tasty dish that you can eat with your hands-as Indians traditionally do-and you have a hit. Compare this with other popular food or noodles. Sometimes, it slurps down our forks, and off the plate, and here we land up in a whole lot of mess. Add to this, the embarrassment which would have been caused had the place been a famous restaurant or the boss’s party. The one thing that increases the love for pizza among one and all is that we can all eat it with our hands.

8. Experts estimate that the Indian pizza market will grow at a compound annual rate of 15 percent. As per estimates of the Ministry of Food Processing, the ready-to-eat market in India today exceeds 40 billion (US $800 million), with the size of the heat-and-eat pizza market being 2.5 billion (US$ 50 million). Most of those sales will come in large metropolises and mini-metros like Pune, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, and Hyderabad.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

(i) What does the word ‘pizza’ mean?
(a) To pinch
(b) To cut
(c) To slice
(d) To encircle

(ii) From where were tomatoes first introduced to Italy?
(a) North America
(b) Europe
(c) South America
(d) China

(iii) Which pizza represented the Italian flag?
(a) Tomato and mozzarella
(b) Mozzarella and basil
(c) Mozzarella, tomato and basil
(d) Mozzarella, tomato and spinach

(iv) Who opened the first true US pizzeria in 1905?
(a) Raffaele Esposito
(b) Gennaro Lombardi
(c) Neapolitans
(d) None of these

(v) Why is pizza popular in India?
(a) Because it has become a fashion
(b) Because it is a part of the famous western culture
(c) Because of its similarity to India’s native cuisine
(d) All of these

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

(i) Why was mozzarella not used initially in pizzas? When was it first used?
(ii) Why did Raffaele make a special pizza? How many pizzas did he make?
(iii) When did pizza migrate to America? Who opened ‘Little Italy’ in US?
(iv) According to Fortune, why is pizza becoming popular in India?
(v) According to the author, how does pizza differ from noodles?
(vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘considered’.
(vii) Find a word from the passage (para-7) which means ‘found everywhere’.

IV. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. Jane Goodall was born in London, England, on April 3, 1934. On her second birthday, her father gave her a toy chimpanzee named Jubilee. Jubilee was named after a baby chimp in the London Zoo and seemed to foretell the course that Jane’s life would take. To this day, Jubilee sits in a chair in Jane’s London home. From an early age, Jane was fascinated by animals and animal stories. By the age of 10, she was talking about going to Africa to live among the animals there. At that time, in the early 1940s, this was a radical idea because women did not go to Africa by themselves.

2. As a young woman, Jane finished school in London, attended a secretarial school, and then worked as a documentary filmmaker for a while. When a school friend invited her to visit Kenya, she worked as a waitress until she had earned the fare to travel there by boat. She was 23 years old.

3. Once in Kenya, she met Dr. Louis Leakey, a famous paleontologist and anthropologist. He was impressed with her thorough knowledge of Africa and its wildlife and hired her to assist him and his wife on a fossil-hunting expedition to Olduvai Gorge. Dr Leakey soon realised that Jane was the perfect person to complete a study he had been planning for some time. She expressed her interest in the idea of studying animals by living in the wild with them, rather than studying dead animals through paleontology.

4. Dr. Leakey and Jane began planning a study of a group of chimpanzees who were living on the shores of Lake Tanganyika in Kenya. At first, the British authorities would not approve of their plan. At the time, they thought it was too dangerous for a woman to live in the wilds of Africa alone. But Jane’s mother, Vanne agreed to join her, so that she would not be alone. Finally, the authorities gave Jane the clearance she needed in order to go to Africa and begin her study.

5. In July of 1960, Jane and her mother arrived at Gombe National Park then called Tanganyika and now called Tanzania. Jane faced many challenges as she began her work. The chimpanzees did not accept her right away, and it took months for them to get used to her presence in their territory. But she was very patient and remained focussed on her goal. Little by little, she was able to enter their world.

6. At first, she was able to watch the chimpanzees only from a great distance, using binoculars. As time passed, she was able to move her observation point closer to them while still using camouflage. Eventually, she was able to sit among them, touching, patting, and even feeding them. It was an amazing accomplishment for Jane and a breakthrough in the study of animals in the wild. Jane named all of the chimpanzees that she studied, stating in her journals that she felt each had a unique personality.

7. One of the first significant observations that Jane made during the study was that chimpanzees make and use tools, much like humans do, to help them get food. It was previously thought that humans alone used tools. Also thanks to Jane’s research, we now know that chimps eat meat as well as plants and fruits. In many ways, she has helped us to see how chimpanzees and humans are similar. In doing so, she has made us more sympathetic towards these creatures, while helping us to better understand ourselves.

8. The study started by Jane Goodall in 1960 is now the longest field study of any animal species in their natural habitat. Research continues to this day in Gombe and is conducted by a team of trained Tanzanians.

9. Jane’s life has included much more than just her study of the chimps in Tanzania. She pursued a graduate degree while still conducting her study, receiving her Ph.D. from Cambridge University in 1965. In 1984, she received the J. Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize for helping millions of people understand the importance of wildlife conservation to life on this planet. She has been married twice: first to a photographer and then to the director of National Parks. She has one son.

10. Dr. Jane Goodall is now the world’s most renowned authority on chimpanzees, having studied their behaviour for nearly 40 years. She has published many scientific articles. She has written two books and has won numerous awards for her groundbreaking work. The Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education, and Conservation was founded in 1977 in California but moved to the Washington, D.C., area in 1998. Its goal is to take the actions necessary to improve the environment for all living things.

11. Dr. Goodall now travels extensively, giving lectures, visiting zoos and chimp sanctuaries, and talking to young people involved in environmental education. She is truly a great conservationist and an amazing human being.

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

(i) What do chimpanzees eat?
(a) Only meat
(b) Only plants
(c) Only fruits
(d) All of these

(ii) Where did Jane and her mother arrive in the July month of 1960?
(a) Africa
(b) Lake Tanganyika
(c) London
(d) Gombe National Park

(iii) What was a breakthrough in the study of animals in the wild?
(a) To watch chimpanzees from a distance
(b) To move the observation point closer
(c) To be able to sit among chimpanzees
(d) None of these

(iv) Why did Jane receive the J. Paul Getty Wildlife Conservation Prize?

(a) For pursuing a graduate degree while still conducting her study
(b) Helping millions of people understand the importance of wildlife conservation
(c) For founding the Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education and Conservation
(d) For travelling extensively, giving lectures, and visiting zoos

(v) Which of the following is not true about chimpanzees?
(a) Chimpanzees are often comfortable with strangers.
(b) Chimpanzees eat meat as well as plants and fruits.
(c) Chimpanzees use tools to help them get food.
(d) Different chimpanzees have different personalities.

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

(i) Why did Doctor Leakey choose Jane to work with him?
(iii) How has Jane Goodall’s work helped us understand chimpanzees better?
(iv) What might happen to them in the future due to her work? Use examples from the passage to support your answer.
(v) What is the main goal of Jane Goodall Institute for Wildlife Research, Education and Conservation?
(vi) Find a word from the passage (para-3) which means ‘an organised journey for a particular purpose’.
(vii) Find a word from the passage (para-6) which means ‘an important discovery or event that helps to improve a situation or provide an answer to a problem’.

VI. Read the following passage carefully. (12 marks)

1. Archaeology is the scientific study of the remains of past human culture. Archaeologists investigate the lives of early people by studying the objects that people have left behind. Such objects include buildings, artwork, tools, bones, and pottery. Archaeologists may make exciting discoveries, such as a tomb filled with gold or the ruins of a magnificent temple in the midst of a jungle. However, the discovery of a few stone tools or grains of hardened corn may reveal even more about early people.

2. Archaeological research is the chief means to learn about societies that existed before the invention of writing about 5,000 years ago. It also provides an important supplement to our knowledge of ancient societies that left written records. In America, archaeology is considered a branch of anthropology, the scientific study of humanity and human culture. European archaeologists, however, think of their work as closely related to the field of history. Archaeology differs from history in which historians mainly study the lives of people as recorded in written documents. Archaeologists look for information about how, where, and when cultures developed.

Like other social scientists, they search for reasons why major changes have occurred in certain cultures. Some archaeologists try to understand why ancient people stopped hunting and started farming. Others develop theories about what caused people to build cities and to set up trade routes. In addition, some archaeologists look for reasons behind the fall of such early civilizations like the Mayas in Central America and the Romans in Europe.

3. Archaeologists examine any evidence that can help them explain how people lived in past times. Such evidence ranges from the ruins of a large city to a few stone flakes left by someone making a stone tool long ago.

4. The three basic kinds of archaeological evidence are artefacts, features, and ecofacts. Artifacts are objects that were made by people and can be moved without altering their appearance. Artefacts include objects like arrowheads, pots and beads. Artefacts from a society with a written history may also include clay tablets and other written records. Features consist mainly of houses, tombs, irrigation canals, and other large structures built by ancient people. Unlike artifacts, features cannot be separated from their surroundings without changing their form.

Ecofacts reveal how ancient people responded to their surroundings. Examples of ecofacts include seeds and animal bones. Any place where archaeological evidence is found is called an archaeological site. To understand the behaviour of the people who occupied a site, archaeologists must study the relationship between the artefacts, features, and ecofacts found there. For example, the discovery of stone spearheads near bones of an extinct kind of buffalo at a site in New Mexico showed that early human beings had hunted buffalo in that area.

5. If objects are buried deep in the ground, their position in the earth also concerns archaeologists. The scientists study the layers of soil and rock in which objects are found to understand the conditions that existed when the objects were placed there. In some places, archaeologists find many levels of deposits called strata. The archaeological study of strata, called stratigraphy, developed from the study of rock layers in geology. Archaeologists use special techniques and equipment to gather archaeological evidence precisely and accurately. They also keep detailed records of their findings because much archaeological research destroys the remains being studied. Locating sites is the first job of the archaeologist. Sites may be above found, underground or underwater. Some large sites are located easily because they are clearly visible or can be traced from descriptions in ancient stories or other historical records. Such sites include the pyramids of Egypt and the ancient city of Athens in Greece.

6. Archaeologists use systematic methods of discovering sites. The traditional way to find all the sites in a region is through a foot survey. In this method, archaeologists space themselves at measured distances and walk in pre-set directions. Each person looks for archaeological evidence while walking forward. Scientific methods are used to help discover underground sites. Aerial photography, for example, can reveal variations in vegetation that indicate the presence of archaeological evidence. Archaeologists describe, photograph, and count the objects they find. They group the objects according to type and location. Three steps are followed to interpret the evidence found. They are classification, dating, and evaluation. [CBSE 2019 SET-IT]

A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following questions by
choosing the most appropriate option. (1 × 5 = 5 marks)

(i) What are the best sources of finding out archaeological facts?
(a) Artwork, building, bones and pottery
(b) Tombs filled with gold
(c) Grains of hardened corn
(d) Ruins of a magnificent temple

(ii) What are the basic kinds of archaeological evidence?
(a) Artefacts, features and ecofacts
(b) Mayan and Roman civilizations
(c) Cultural developments in written documents

(iii) What is an archaeological site?
(a) Where tombs and buildings exist
(b) Where archaeological evidence is found
(c) Where extinct animal bones are located
(d) Where ancient civilizations perished

(iv) How is archaeology taken in America?
(a) As lives of people as recorded in written documents
(b) As study of humanity and human culture
(c) As closely related to the field of history
(d) As written records of ancient people

(v) Which of the following do archaeologists not study?
(a) Ancient hunting and farming (b) Ancient cities and trade routes
(c) Fall of some civilizations (d) Weather and climate

B. Answer the following questions briefly. (1 × 7 = 7 marks)

(i) What do archaeologists do?
(ii) What is archaeological research?
(iii) What do European archaeologists think of their subject?
(iv) What kinds of evidence are used by archaeologists?
(v) What methods do archaeologists employ to discover archaeological sites?
(vi) Find a word from the passage (para-1) which means ‘thrilling’ or ‘interesting’.
(vii) Find a word from the passage (para-4) which means ‘reacted’.