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This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. There are example sentences to show how the language is used. Read all classes unseen passage with questions and answers in English

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## Unseen Passage for Class 8 CBSE With Answers Pdf

Unseen Passage 1 for Class 8 CBSE

Educating boys and girls together has always been an important and stressful issue. Many parents believe that the educational process can be more effective if the classes are divided according to the gender of the students. Although same-sex schools are considered too conservative and strict in today’s times. Nevertheless, there are still supporters of this manner of education. Some parents are not in favor of a co-educational system as they feel that the presence of the opposite gender distracts the attention of students and prevents them from concentrating on studies.

On the other hand, supporters of co-education feel that as boys and girls are different, it is a valuable experience for both genders to communicate with each other. Moreover, the earlier boys and girls begin to communicate, the sooner they acquire social skills, which are crucial to communicating freely in the world. Further, if there are girls in the class, boys may well possibly try to behave better in order not to lose face in front of the girls.

Apart from all that has been mentioned above, educating boys and girls together helps them understand and mutually respect each other from an early stage in life. This can possibly help in building a generation that doesn’t suffer from gender bias and is open to a healthy competition even between the two genders.

Unseen Passage For Class 8 Question 1.
Why according to the writer are some parents not in favor of the co-education system?
Some parents are not in favour of the co-education system as they feel that the presence of the opposite gender distracts the attention of students and prevents them from concentrating on studies.

Unseen Passage For Class 8 With Answers Question 2.
Why are socializing skills important?
They are is essential for acquiring socialising skills and they are required to communicate freely in the surrounding world.

English Unseen Passage For Class 8 Pdf With Answers Question 3.
Same-sex schools are considered
Conservative and strict in today’s times.

Unseen Passage Class 8 Question 4.
What according to the writer helps girls and boys develop mutual respect for each other?
According to the writer, educating boys and girls together helps them to understand and mutually respect each other from an early stage in life.

Passage For Class 8 Question 5.
Find words from the passage that mean
b. paying attention
c. vital
d. unfairness
a. conservative
b. concentration
c. crucial
d. bias

Unseen Passage 2 for Class 8 CBSE

In response to the increasing environmental damage wrought by poachers, authorities placed a ban on ivory in the 1980s. Although the ban resulted in an initial decrease in the sale and trade of illegal ivory and a concurrent increase in the elephant population, more pressing needs caused most Western nations to withdraw funding for poaching prevention programs. Without significant financial support, poorer countries were unable to effectively combat poachers. The resulting explosion in the ivory trade has seen prices increase to nearly 10 times the $45 per pound price at the beginning of the decade. Unfortunately, the countries with the worst poaching problems have also tended to be the ones least able to combat the problem due to unstable political systems, corruption, lack of comprehensive enforcement programs, or some combination of all these factors. One primary hindrance to better enforcement of the ivory ban came from an inability to definitively identify the country of origin of illegal ivory. Countries used this uncertainty to avoid responsibility for curbing illegal poaching in their territories by attempting to blame other countries for the oversights in enforcement. Now, though, zoologists have perfected a new DNA identification system. First, scientists gathered genetic data from the population of African elephants, an arduous effort that ultimately resulted in a detailed DNA-based map of the distribution of African elephants. Then, the researchers developed a method to extract DNA evidence from ivory, allowing them to match the ivory with elephant populations on the map. Zoologists hope this new method will pinpoint the exact origin of poached ivory and force countries to accept their responsibility in enforcing the ban. Unseen Passage For Class 8 Mcq Questions 1. The passage suggests which of the following about the ivory ban? (a) It will be successful now that the DNA-based map has been developed. (b) It has been mostly unsuccessful in reducing the trade of illegal ivory. (c) It will continue to be ineffective unless the problems of political corruption are solved. (d) Western monetary support was a major factor in its success. Answer: (d) Western monetary support was a major factor in its success. 2. The response of the countries with the worst poaching problems to the situation was most analogous to: (a) a tax evader who uses deceptive accounting practices to hide her income from auditors (b) an embezzler who steals from her company by pilfering small amounts of money over a long period of time (c) a criminal who argues that it is not he but one of his accomplices who is guilty of a crime (d) a con artist who convinces his victim that it is in the victim’s best interest to help him Answer: (c) a criminal who argues that it is not he but one of his accomplices who is guilty of a crime 3. The passage suggests which of the following about the DNA-based map created by zoologists? (a) Its assemblage involved a great deal of work on the part of the researchers. (b) Its creation will force countries to accept responsibility for the ivory poached from within their borders. (c) The map is able to pinpoint the exact elephant from which poached ivory was obtained. (d) It must be updated constantly to account for changes in elephant populations. Answer: (a) Its assemblage involved a great deal of work on the part of the researchers. 4. The passage is chiefly concerned with: (a) advocating a course of action for countries with poaching problems (b) exposing the weaknesses of the ivory ban (c) pleading with Western countries to re-institute financing for the ivory ban (d) detailing a way to overcome a problem that has lessened the effectiveness of the ivory ban Answer: (d) detailing a way to overcome a problem that has lessened the effectiveness of the ivory ban Unseen Passage 3 for Class 8 CBSE Andrew Fang is a legend in bowling. He was voted Sportsman of the Year in 2000. Andrew is only 23. He started bowling when he was nine, picking up the sport from his parents.. “When I was just starting out, my family supported me by paying for my training and equipment,” says the Arts undergraduate whose major is economics. Competition or not, Andrew has no problem keeping fit. “I like biking. Rain or shine, you’ll find me on my mountain bike cycling for at least two hours at Bukit Timah, four times a week. It takes my mind off problems and troubles,” says Andrew. Rest and recreation are as important as exercise. “I love sleeping,” Andrew says. “When I’m preparing for tournaments, I usually sleep eight to nine hours a day.” He also likes playing pool, reading a good novel or watching a show with his friends. When it comes to food, Andrew says he takes everything in moderation and stays away from fried and fatty food. He takes in more protein than the average person and tries to drink as much water as he can to prevent dehydration since he cycles so much. Because of his discipline, Andrew’s working relationship with his coach has been very smooth. Andrew’s priority, however, is education. “Getting my degree is my biggest wish now. After that, I can concen trate fully on professional bowling,” Andrew states firmly. Class 8 Unseen Passage Questions 1. Andrew Fang is introduced to bowling by his _ (a) parents (b) friends (c) coach (d) teacher Answer: (a) parents 2. What does Andrew do when he is stressed? (a) He goes bowling. (b) He climbs up Bukit Timah Hill. (c) He eats fried and fatty food. (d) He goes cycling on his mountain bike. Answer: (d) He goes cycling on his mountain bike. 3. How does Andrew prepare himself for tournaments? (a) He cycles for two hours every day. (b) He sleeps at least eight hours a day. (c) He plays pool and reads a good novel. (d) He takes in less protein and drinks more water. Answer: (b) He sleeps at least eight hours a day. 4. Which one of the following is most important to Andrew now? It is to (a) be a professional bowler (b) graduate from university (c) be voted as Sportsman of the Year (d) pay his parents for his training and the equipment Answer: (b) graduate from university 5. “Andrew Fang is a legend in bowling” means that (a) He has written a book on bowling (b) He is very disciplined and co-operates with his coach. (c) His achievements in sports must be remarkable. (d) His interest in bowling lasted for fourteen years. Answer: (c) His achievements in sports must be remarkable. Unseen Passage 4 for Class 8 CBSE A fundamental principle of pharmacology is that all drugs have multiple actions. Actions that are desirable in the treatment of disease are considered therapeutic, while those that are undesirable or pose risks to the patient are called “effects.” Adverse drug effects range from the trivial, e.g., nausea or dry mouth, to the serious, e.g., massive gastrointestinal bleeding or thromboembolism; and some drugs can be lethal. Therefore, an effective system for the detection of adverse drug effects is an important component of the health care system of any advanced nation. Much of the research conducted on new drugs aims at identifying the conditions of use that maximize beneficial effects and minimize the risk of adverse effects. The intent of drug labeling is to reflect this body of knowledge accurately so that physicians can properly prescribe the drug; or, if it is to be sold without prescription, so that consumers can properly use the drug. The current system of drug investigation in the United States has proved very useful and accurate in identifying the common side effects associated with new prescription drugs. By the time a new drug is approved by the Food and Drug Administration, its side effects are usually well described in the package insert for physicians. The investigational process, however, cannot be counted on to detect all adverse effects because of the relatively small number of patients involved in premarketing studies and the relatively short duration of the studies. Animal toxicology studies are, of course, done prior to marketing in an attempt to identify any potential for toxicity, but negative results do not guarantee the safety of a drug in humans, as evidenced by such well known examples as the birth deformities due to thalidomide. This recognition prompted the establishment in many countries of programs to which physicians report adverse drug effects. The United States and other countries also send reports to an international program operated by the World Health Organization. These programs, however, are voluntary reporting programs and are intended to serve a limited goal: alerting a government or private agency to adverse drug effects detected by physicians in the course of practice. Other approaches must be used to confirm suspected drug reactions and to estimate incidence rates. These other approaches include conducting retrospective control studies; for example, the studies associating endometrial cancer with estrogen use, and systematic monitoring of hospitalized patients to determine the incidence of acute common side effects, as typified by the Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program. Thus, the overall drug surveillance system of the United States is composed of a set of information bases, special studies, and monitoring programs, each contributing in its own way to our knowledge about marketed drugs. The system is decentralized among a number of governmental units and is not administered as a coordinated function. Still, it would be inappropriate at this time to attempt to unite all of the disparate elements into a comprehensive surveillance program. Instead, the challenge is to improve each segment of the system and to take advantage of new computer strategies to improve coordination and communication. Unseen Passage With Mcq For Class 8 Questions 1. The author is primarily concerned with discussing: (a) the importance of having accurate information about the effects of drugs (b) methods for testing the effects of new drugs on humans (c) procedures for determining the long-term effects of new drugs (d) attempts to curb the abuse of prescription drugs Answer: (a) the importance of having accurate information about the effects of drugs 2. The author implies that a drug with adverse side effects: (a) will not be approved for use by consumers without a doctor’s prescription (b) must wait for approval until lengthy studies prove the effects are not permanent (c) should be used only if its therapeutic value outweighs its adverse effects (d) should be withdrawn from the marketplace pending a government investigation Answer: (c) should be used only if its therapeutic value outweighs its adverse effects 3. Which of the following can be inferred from the given passage? (a) A centralized drug oversight function would improve public health. (b) Most physicians are not aware that prescription drugs have side effects. (c) Some rare adverse drug effects are not discovered during the limited testing. (d) Consumers are seldom unable to understand directions for proper use of a drug. Answer: (c) Some rare adverse drug effects are not discovered during the limited testing. 4. The author introduces the example of thalidomide to show that some: (a) drug testing procedures are ignored by careless laboratory workers (b) drugs do not have the same actions in humans that they do in animals (c) drugs have no therapeutic value for humans (d) drugs are prescribed by physicians who have not read the manufacturer’s recommendations Answer: (b) drugs do not have the same actions in humans that they do in animals 5. The author of the passage regards current drug investigation procedures as: (a) important but generally ineffectual (b) lackadaisical and generally in need of improvement (c) comprehensive but generally unnecessary (d) necessary and generally effective Answer: (d) necessary and generally effective 6. The author is most probably leading up to a discussion of some suggestions about how to: (a) centralize authority for drug surveillance among international agencies (b) centralize authority for drug surveillance in the United States (c) coordinate better the sharing of information among the drug surveillance agencies (d) improve drug testing procedures to detect dangerous effects before drugs are approved Answer: (c) coordinate better the sharing of information among the drug surveillance agencies 7. The author relies on which of the following in developing the passage? (a) Examples (b) Statistics (c) Analogy (d) Rhetorical questions Answer: (a) Examples Unseen Passage 5 for Class 8 CBSE The classical realist theory of international relations has long dominated both academic institutions and the American government. Even at the birth of the nation, early political thinkers, such as Alexander Hamilton, promoted a realist view of international relations and sought to influence the actions of the government based on this perspective. While the classical realist school of international relations is not entirely homogeneous in nature, there are certain premises that all classical realists share. The primary principle underlying classical realism is a concern with issues of war and peace. Specifically, classical realists ask, what are the causes of war and what are the conditions of peace? The members of the classical realist school mainly attribute war and conflict to what is termed the security dilemma. In the absence of any prevailing global authority, each nation is required to address its own security needs. However, each nation’s quest for security—through military buildups, alliances, or territorial defenses necessarily unsettles other nations. These nations react to feelings of insecurity by engaging in their own aggressive actions, which leads other nations to react similarly, perpetuating the cycle. It is important to note that for realists, unlike idealists or liberal internationalists, international conflict is a necessary consequence of the structural anarchy that nations find themselves in. Whereas other schools may see international conflict as the result of evil dictators, historical chance, flawed socio political systems, or ignorance of world affairs, classical realists see war as the logical result of a system that by its nature lacks a true central authority. Hand in hand with this view of conflict as an inevitable condition of the global power structure is the realists’ view of the nation as a unitary actor. Because classical realists see international relations as a continuing struggle for dominance, the nation can not be viewed as a collection of individuals with disparate wants, goals, and ideologies. The realist view requires the formulation of a national interest, which in its simplest terms refers to the nation’s ability to survive, maintain its security, and achieve some level of power relative to its competitors. Realism is not without its critics, many of whom challenge the premise that war is the natural condition of international relations or that there can be a truly national interest. However, the realist school of international relations continues to shape foreign policy because of the successes it has had in describing real world interactions between nations. Unseen Passage For Class 8 With Mcq Questions 1. Which of the following, if true, would best support the classical realist theory of international conflict as it is described in the passage? (a) Some countries ruled by dictators maintain peaceful relations with their neighbours (b) Despite the presence of a world superpower, many countries continue to fight wars with their neighbours. (c) War has existed from the beginning of recorded history. (d) After the nations of the world form an authoritative world court, wars decrease dramatically. Answer: (d) After the nations of the world form an authoritative world court, wars decrease dramatically. 2. It can be inferred from the passage that members of the classical realist school would be LEAST likely to support. (a) a domestic policy that attempts to unify the nation’s citizens behind a common cause (b) an international policy that seeks to reduce threats of war by providing humanitarian aid to potential aggressor countries (c) an international policy based on building a strong military force to deter threats (d) an international policy based on joining a common defense contract with other nations Answer: (b) an international policy that seeks to reduce threats of war by providing humanitarian aid to potential aggressor countries 3. According to the passage, the formation of a national interest serves what function in the classical real ist theory of war and peace? (a) It provides the necessary justification for the classical realist view of a continuous global power struggle. (b) It is a convenience used by theorists to describe national interests where none exist. (c) It is less important to the theory than is the idea of the nation as a unitary actor (d) It is the part of the theory that receives the most criticism from opponents. Answer: (a) It provides the necessary justification for the classical realist view of a continuous global power struggle. 4. The author most likely regards the classical realist theory of international relations with (a) general apathy (b) skeptical dismissal (c) qualified acceptance (d) glowing approval Answer: (c) qualified acceptance My growing-up years were very average. I had no special talents. I can’t recall anyone ever telling me that I would do things that few dared to. I grew up in the small seaside town of Port Dickson, Malaysia. My childhood memories are filled with endless hours of hide-and-seek around the boats that were moored near our house. Although the ability to swim comes almost naturally to any kid growing up in Port Dickson, that wasn’t quite the case for me. Unseen Passage 6 for Class 8 CBSE Valley of Flowers is a national park in Uttarakhand, India. Nestled in the Western Himalayas, the valley is located at an altitude of 3,600 meters above sea level and is famous for charming meadows of alpine flowers. Myriad alpine flowers stretched across 87.5 sq km. make this place a colourful paradise. The beautiful valley is also a world heritage site with its pristine beauty and mystical surroundings attracting nature lovers, photographers and botanists. Valley of Flowers is bifurcated by Pushpawati River. The locals believe that the valley was once inhabited by fairies. It is one of the famous trekking destinations in India. One cannot stay at the Valley of Flowers, therefore, Ghangaria, the base camp for the trek to the Valley of Flowers, remains an ideal place to relax and sleep. The Valley of Flowers is a 3-km climb from Ghangaria. The Brahmakamal, the Blue Poppy and the Cobra Lily are some flowers that bloom in the valley. The Himalayan Balsam is the most predominant flower of the valley. The valley is covered with snow for most of the year. The valley opens on 1st June every year for visitors. There are huge glaciers in the Valley of Flowers in June. At this time, snow starts melting and the seeds of the last year’s plants start germinating. By July, all the flowers are in full bloom. One can find the maximum number of flowers until mid-August. Snowfall starts in October, and the valley is closed officially for public. Unseen Passage For Class 8 With Mcqs Question 1. Where is the Valley of Flowers located? Question 2. Based on your reading of the passage, complete the following sentences. a. The Valley of Flowers is stretched across b. The valley attracts Question 3. Name some flowers found in the valley and the best time to visit the place. Unseen Passage For Class 8 Pdf Question 4. Why do visitors have to stay in Ghangaria? Question 5. Find words from the passage that mean a. unspoiled b. fascinating c. growing d. elevation Unseen Passage 7 for Class 8 CBSE I build walls Walls that protect, Walls that shield, Walls that say I shall not yield Or reveal Who I am and how I feel. I build walls Walls that hide, Walls that cover what’s inside, Walls that stare or smile or look away, Silent flies, Walls that even block my eyes From the tears I might have cried. than I build walls away, Walls that never let me Truly touch Those I love so very much. Walls that need to fall! Walls mean to be fortresses Are prisons after all. Unseen Passage For Class 8 Pdf Questions 1. What are the walls in the poem made of? (a) Blood and flesh (b) Hidden feelings and thoughts (c) Bricks or any physical material (d) Cement and tiles Answer: (b) Hidden feelings and thoughts 2. The poet uses “Walls” as a (a) metaphor (b) alliteration (c) simlie (d) personification Answer: (d) personification 3. When walls act as a protection, they (a) touch the ones who are truly loved (b) surrender to strong feelings (c) do not reveal what is inside (d) make one shed tears Answer: (b) surrender to strong feelings 4. The expression ‘silent lies’ in the second stanza implies (a) walls make one hide one’s true feelings (b) walls lie silently around all of us (c) walls are silent (d) walls are liars Answer: (a) walls make one hide one’s true feelings 5. Why is not a good idea to have these ‘walls? (a) they are made up of bricks (b) they hurt others (c) they act as a fortress (d) they act as prison and keep loved ones. Answer: (d) they act as prison and keep loved ones. 6. Walls built to protect us ultimately turn into a prison. It is an example of a (a) puzzle (b) riddle (c) satire (d) paradox Answer: (d) paradox Type-II Read the passage given below and write the answer you consider the most appropriate in your answer sheet. Unseen Passage 1 for Class 8 CBSE History is often the story of the never-ending struggle for control over land. People have traveled great distances for land. They have endured pain and suffering for the chance to get land. They have fought in bloody battles and wars to claim their own little corner of Earth. Stories of explorers claiming new lands for their countries have one stunning thing in common. In culture after culture, native peoples have been overlooked and abused. Indigenous people have often lived in a country for thousands of years before it was “discovered.” In Africa, it was the native African tribes who were abused. In Australia it was the Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. In the Americas, it was the Native Americans, who were called “Indians” by mistake. The U.S. government signed many peace treaties with Native Americans when the nation was young. A peace treaty is a document in which both sides agree on the terms for peace. Unfortunately, these treaties were often unfair to Native AmericAnswer:Many natives did not understand English well. They did not understand the treaty. Some native leaders signed away their rights to land in order to get personal wealth. They neglected the needs of their people. The ultimate purpose of the treaties was to push Native Americans off their lands. These were the lands where their people had lived long before the arrival of European explorers. During the 1830s, the U.S. government forced the Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek, Seminole and other tribes off their land on the east side of the Mississippi River. They were marched around 1,200 miles to eastern Oklahoma, and then known as Indian Territory. Thousands died from disease and exposure on the way. This was such a devastating event to the Native Americans that it became known as the Trail of Tears. Once that had been accomplished, settlers decided they should be able to have any land on the west side of the Mississippi River, too. Several hundred Cheyenne were killed in the Sand Creek Massacre of 1864. In 1890, Lakota people were killed by soldiers at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Sadly, they were killed even though they had already surrendered. Many Americans are shocked and ashamed of the way native peoples were treated. We cannot change what has been. However, we can learn from our past and never treat people this way again. Answer the following questions based on the reading passage. 1. What was the Trail of Tears? 2. Name one reason that the Native Americans agreed to treaties that were unfair to them. 3. Members of which tribe were killed by soldiers at Wounded Knee? 4. What is a peace treaty? 5. What is the main purpose of this reading passage? 6. Choose the same meaning word from the passage. (a) agreements between two states (b) Having no protection Answer: 1. The forcing of native Americans off their land by the U.S. government and the march to Indian ter ritory in the 1830s 2. Example of correct answer: They didn’t understand English well. 3. Lakota 4. It is a document where both sides agree on the term for peace. 5. Native people have been abused for centuries by people wanting their land. 6. (a) Treaties (b) exposure Unseen Passage 2 for Class 8 CBSE Mrs Packletide was a middle-aged woman who lived with her maid, Miss Mebbin, in Curzon Street, London. She was rich and she travelled a lot. She enjoyed visiting new places and meeting different people. She liked excitement and adventure. Most importantly, she liked to tell her friends in London about her experiences in other countries. Once, Mrs Packletide decided to go to India for a tiger hunt. She wanted to do this because her friend, Loona Bimberton, had a tiger skin and showed it off to all her friends. So Mrs Packletide made up her mind to go to India, shoot a tiger and bring back the skin to England. Mrs Packletide made arrangements for the travel and the tiger hunt very carefully. The hunt was going to cost her a thousand rupees. This was a lot of money in those days. She had to pay this amount because the villagers had to find a tiger in the forest first and then drive it into the open by scaring it with fire. This would help Mrs Packletide sitting up in a tree to take aim from a vantage pointy All the arrangements had been made before Mrs Packletide came to India. A platform had been built in the tree so that Mrs Packletide and her maid could sit comfortably while waiting for the tiger. A goat had been tied to a small tree in the middle of the field for the tiger. The villagers told Mrs Packletide that she could shoot it when it was devouring the goat. They assured her that U would be quite safe. The tiger they had chosen was a* very old one. The momentous night arrived. Mrs Packletide and Miss Mebbin were up in the tree on the platform. Mrs : Packletide armed herself and Miss Mebbin sat beside her nervously. They waited for a long time. When it was nearly midnight, they could hear shouts and see fire in the distance. The shouts grew louder but stopped abruptly. A few minutes later, a large tiger walked slowly out of the forest. It spotted the goat in the middle of the field and moved towards it. Sensing its impending doom, the goat began to bleat. When the tiger was very close to it, Mrs Packletide fired a shot. The crack of the gun reverberated across the field. The next minute, the tiger jumped into the air and fell to the ground dead. Both creatures lay motionless. To be sure, they waited in the tree in the darkness until the next morning. When they got down and went near the tiger, Miss Mebbin pointed out that the goat had been shot and not the tiger. In all probability, the tiger had died of fright! Mrs Packletide returned to England with the tiger skin. She had to buy a small house for Miss Mebbin to keep her quiet about the tiger hunt. This cost more money than the tiger hunt did. Mrs Packletide gave a big party to her friends to show off her tiger skin. When she was asked if she was going for another húnt, she said, “No, darling, it’s too expensive.” Answer the following questions based on the reading passage. 1. What was the main reason why Mrs Packletide liked to travel? 2. Why did Mrs Packletide want to go on a tiger hunt after visiting her friend, Loona Bimberton? 3. How did the villagers intend to get the tiger to go to the field? 4. Which 4-word phrase in paragraph 3 tells us that Mrs Packletide had a good view? 5. Explain clearly why a goat was tied to the tree in the middle of the field. 6. Find the synonyms for the following words/phases (a) An advantage(para3) (b) To swallow greedily(para 4) Answer: 1. She liked to tell her friends about her experiences in other countries. 2. She wanted to be able to show off a tiger skin to her friends. 3. They would drive it into field by scaring it with five. 4. The phrase is “from a vantage point.” 5. The goat was used to lure the tiger. 6. (a) vantage (b) devouring Unseen Passage 3 for Class 8 CBSE Sally was only eight years old when she heard her parents, Mr and Mrs Smith, talking about her little brother, George. George was cancer-stricken with a deadly disease that had claimed many lives and only a surgery could save him. However, the family had no financial ability to pay for a surgery. Sally’s spirits were dampened other’s grim health condition. As Sally pondered about how she could help her dear brother, she overheard Mr Smith whisper that only a miracle could save George’s life. Upon hearing that, Sally knew exactly what she had to do. She went to her bedroom and pulled out her piggy bank from its hiding place in the closet. She shook all the change out onto the floor and counted it carefully. After counting the coins for the third time, Sally bundled them up in her favourite handkerchief, slipped out of the apartment and made her way to the pharmacy that was just around the corner. After arriving at the pharmacy, Sally waited patiently for the pharmacist to give her his attention. Yet, the pharmacist was too busy speaking to a well-dressed gentleman to be bothered with an eight-year-old. Hoping to attract some attention, Sally twisted her feet on the ground to make a scuffling noise. Unfortunately, her attempt was futile, Keeping to her persistent nature, Sally cleared her throat aloud. Still, no one in the store acknowledged her presence. Finally, she took a coin out from her precious handkerchief and slammed it on the glass counter. That did it! Annoyed, the pharmacist hollered that he had no time to entertain Sally. Sally retorted with an equal dose of annoyance and told the pharmacist that she had to speak to him about her brother. The innocent girl plained that her little brother was very ill and she wanted to buy a miracle from the pharmacy. As the pharma cist stared at Sally in complete bewilderment, Sally elaborated that only a miracle could save her little brother as her family could not afford to send him for an operation. With a slight chuckle in his voice, the pharmacist informed Sally that he did not sell a miracle and was unable to help her. Sally insisted that she had money and demanded to purchase a miracle, but the pharmacist turned down her request repeatedly. Touched by what he had heard, the well-dressed gentleman asked how much money Sally had with her. Sally answered that she had a dollar and eleven cents and that was all the money she had in the world. “That’s exactly the price of a miracle to save a little brother,” the gentleman replied. He took Sally’s money and requested her to take him to meet her parents and little brother. That well-dressed gentleman was Dr. Carlton Armstrong; a renowned surgeon, who specialised in treating Grorge’s potentially deadly illness. Two weeks later, George’s operation was successfully completed and he embarked on his route to recovery. Looking back at the chain of events, Mr and Mrs Smith were glad that their little boy was truly saved by a miracle, one that happened through the kindness and generosity of Dr. Armstrong. For Sally, she believed that the miracle which saved her brother’s life merely cost one dollar and eleven cents, plus the simple faith of a little child. Answer the following questions based on the reading passage. 1. What was the main problem that Mr and Mrs Smith were facing? 2. Explain clearly why Sally “pulled out her piggy bank from its hiding place” 3. What were the two things that Sally did unsuccessfully to attract the pharmacist’s attention? 4. What does “That” in paragraph 3 refer to? 5. Which word in the fourth paragraph has the same meaning as “snapped angrily”? 6. Who was the well dressed gentleman? Answer: 1. Mr and Mrs Smith did not have enough money to pay for the surgery for Sally’s brother. 2. Sally wanted to use all her savings out from her piggy bank and wanted to use the money to buy a miracle for the brother 3. Sally twisted her feet on the ground to make a scuffling noise and cleared her throat aloud. 4. It refers to Sally slamming coin on the glass counter. 5. The word is “retorted. 6. The well dressed gentleman was Dr. Carlton Armstrong; a renowned surgeon, who specialised in treating Grorge’s potentially deadly illness. Unseen Passage 4 for Class 8 CBSE In 1945, a 12-year-old boy saw something in a shop window that set his heart racing. But the price – five dollars – was far beyond Reuben Earle’s meAnswer:Five dollars would buy almost a week’s groceries for his family. Nevertheless, he opened the shop’s weathered door and went inside. Standing proud and straight in his flour sack shirt and washed-out trousers, he told the shopkeeper what he wanted, adding, “but I don’t have the money right now. Can you please hold it for me for some time?” “I’ll try,” the shopkeeper smiled. “Folks around here don’t usually have that kind of money to spend on things. It should keep for a while.” Reuben respectfully touched his worn cap and walked out into the sunlight with the bay rippling in a freshening wind. There was purpose in his loping stride. He would raise the five dollars and not tell anybody. Hearing the sound of hammering from a side street, Reuben had an idea. He ran towards the sound and stopped at a construction site. People built their homes in Bay Roberts, using nails purcahsed in Hessian sacks from a local factory. Sometimes the sacks were discarded in the flurry of building and Reuben knew he could sell them back to the factory for five cents a piece. Every day after chores and school, Reuben scoured the town, collecting the Hessian nail bags. On the day the two-room school closed for the summer, no other student was more delighted than Reuben. Now he’d have more time for his mission. Finally spring burst into glorious green and Reuben’s spirits erupted. The time had come! He ran into the barn, climbed to the hayloft and uncovered the tin can. He poured the coins out and began to count. Then he counted again. He needed 20 cents more. Could there be any sacks left anywhere in town? The shadows were lengthening as Reuben arrived at the factory. The sack buyer was about to lock up. “Mister! Please don’t close up yet.” The man turned and saw Reuben, dirty and sweat stained. “Come back tomorrow, boy.” “Please, Mister. I have to sell the sacks now – please.” The man could tell Reuben was close to tears. “Why do you need this money so badly?” “It’s a secret.” The man took the sacks, reached into his pocket and put four coins in Reuben’s hand. Reuben murmured a thank you and ran home. Then, clutching the tin can, eha headed for the shop. “I have the money,” he solemnly told the owner. The man went to the window and retrieved Reuben’s treasure. He wiped the dust off and gently wrapped it in brown paper. Then he placed the parcel in Reuben’s hands. Racing home, Reuben burst through the front door. His mother was scrubbing the kitchen stove. “Here, Mum! Here!” Reuben exclaimed as he ran to her side. He placed a small box in her work-roughened hand. She unwrapped it carefully to save paper. A blue-velvet jewel box appeared. Dora lifted the lid, tears beginning to blur her vision. In gold lettering on a small, almond-shaped brooch was the word “Mother”. It was Mother’s day, 1946. Answer the following questions based on the reading passage. 1. What was Reuben’s “mission”? 2. Which four-word phrase in the first 4 paragraphs tells us that Reuben was excited by what he saw in the shop window? 3. What was the value of$5 in the 1940s?
4. Explain clearly what the shopkeeper meant when he said “Folks around here don’t usually have that kind of money to spend on things”.
5. How did Reuben raise the money to buy what he wanted?
6. Pick the antonyms of the following words/phrases from the passage.
(a) new (para 2) (b) shortening (para6)
1. It was to collect and sell enough sacks to earn five dollars to buy a gift for his mother.
2. The phrase is “set his heart racing”.
3. It was enough to buy groceries for a week for Reuben’s family.
4. He meant that people who lived there were not very rich.
5. Reuben took the Hessain nail bags which were discarded and sold them to the factory for five cents each
6. (a) weathered (b) lengthening

Unseen Passage 5 for Class 8 CBSE

The sun had just risen. The annual marathon in my town is usually held during a heat wave. My job was to follow the runners in an ambulance to render medical attention. The driver and I were in an air-conditioned ambulance behind approximately one hundred athletes waiting for the race to start. “We’re supposed to stay behind the last runner, so drive slowly,” I said to the driver, Doug, as we began to cteep forward.

“Let’s just hope the last runner is fast!” He laughed. As they began to pace themselves, the runners were running way ahead. It was then that my eyes were drawn to a woman in blue running shorts and a baggy white T-shirt. She clenched her fists tightly. She pushed her self forward, ready to begin the race. “Doug, look!” We knew we were already watching our “last runner.” Her feet were turned in, yet her left leg was turned out. Her legs were so crippled and bent that it seemed impossible for her to be able to walk, let alone run a marathon.

Doug and I watched in silence as she slowly moved forward. We did not utter a word. We would move forward slightly, then stop and wait for her to gain some distance. Then we would slowly move a little more. As I watched her struggle to put one foot in front of the other, I found myself cheering for her and urging her forward. I wanted her to stop, and at the same time, I prayed that she would not. Finally she was the only runner left in sight. Tears streamed down my face as I sat on the edge of my seat and watched with awe, amazement and even reverence as she pushed forward with sheer determination through the last miles. When the finish line came into sight, trash lay everywhere and the cheering crowds had long gone home.

Yet, standing straight and ever so proud waited a lone man. He was holding one end of a ribbon of crepe paper tied to a post. She slowly crossed through, leaving both ends of the paper fluttering behind her. There was a look of triumph in her before she collapsed and lay limp on the ground. Hurray! She made it. Without a moment’s delay, I dashed forward and rendered aid to my first and only casualty for the day.

I do not know this woman’s name, but that day she became part of my life – a part I often depend on. For her, it wasn’t about beating the other runners, or winning a trophy, it was about finishing what she had set out to do, no matter what. When I think things are too difficult or too time consuming, or I get those I-just-can’t-do-it feeling, I always think of the last runner. Then I would realize how easy the task before me really is.

1. From paragraph 1, quote a two-word phrase which indicates clearly that the marathon was held on a very hot day.
2. Why did Doug “hope the last runner is fast”?
3. How do you know that the last runner was determined to finish the race right from the beginning?
4. Where were the writer and Doug throughout the race?
5. In the second last paragraph, what does “it” refer to?
6. Find the synonyms for the words/phrases given below.
(a) to provide(para 1) (b) An unpleasant feeling of fear(para 2)
1. It is “heat wave”.
2. He wanted to end his job early.
3. She clenched her fists tightly and pushed herself forward.
4. They were in an air-conditioned ambulance.
5. It refers to completing the race.
6. (a) render (b) clenched

Unseen Passage 6 for Class 8 CBSE

On the trail, Sharon and Macy talked excitedly about the future. Both were saving for university. Sharon hoped to become a chef. Macy was thinking about a career in dentistry. Each enjoyed the other’s contrasting nature. Sharon was tall and tended towards shyness while Macy’s dark complexion highlighted her lively, outspoken personality.

After stopping at the lower waterfall, the two hikers climbed the steep path to the thin trail that hugged the edge of the cliff above Tahquitz Creek. Neither knew that recent heavy rains had eroded a part of the trail. It was late afternoon when they reached the small trail. After they had enjoyed the spectacular view for a while, Sharon headed off the trail and started toward the stream. Halfway down, she suddenly let out a startled cry. The rocks beneath her feet had given way. Macy watched in horror as her friend fell into the canyon. I have to help, though Macy, panic-stricken. She called out to the crumpled body on the rocks below, but there was no response. Ignoring the obvious danger, she started down the cliff herself.

A moment later, Macy slipped and lost her footing. Rocks rained around her as she, too, plummeted into the darkening canyon. The backpack on her back probably saved Sharon’s life. It provided a cushion when she skidded down the cliff and landed on her back. Her legs were scratched and bleeding. Looking up, she gasped in horror to see Macy fall like a stone, bouncing off the rock wall with a sickening thud five metres away. Sharon crawled toward Macy’s battered body. Macy lay on her back, her legs twisted inward at a horrible angle so that a bone stuck out of her flesh. Blood was everywhere. Reaching for her friend’s hand, Sharon could not find a pulse. “Oh God,” she cried, “please don’t let her die!” Macy’s eyes flickered open.

She tried to speak but was overcome by pain. Her head and back felt on fire. I can’t move my legs, she thought. Sharon hoped her voice didn’t betray the fear she felt, but then she saw it didn’t matter. Macy had slipped into unconsciousness. As she stood up, Sharon realized how badly hurt she was. The fall had fractured a bone in her neck, and a stabbing pain ran down her spine with each step. Sharon headed for the creek, knowing that it would lead out of the canyon. When she reached it, she had to hike down the centre of the near-freezing, thigh-deep water because the undergrowth at the banks were too dense.

After nearly an hour, she came to a huge rock. She began to climb but lost her footing and slid into the creek again, Stunned and in immense pain, she lay in the water until the cold anesthetized her wounds. Then she crawled onto a nearby ledge and tried to stand. The four-inch gash in her leg was bleeding badly. Shivering, she tore off a part of her sleeve, used it as a bandage and wrapped it around the wound. Half an hour later, the leg had stopped bleeding, but the pain in her neck and back had grown. Soon it would be too dark for rescurers to come. She lay on the smooth rock and began to pray.

1. Sharon and Macy were different in several ways. Give one example from the first paragraph.
2. From paragraph 2, quote the word which clearly indicates that the view from the top of the canyon was magnificent.
3. What danger awaited the two hikers as they headed towards the trail?
4. “I have to help” (paragraph 3). What does Macy’s response tell you about her? Explain your answer.
5. How did Sharon survive the fall?
6. Choose the synonyms from the passage of the word /phrases
(a) surprised (para 2) (b) become crushed (para 3)
1. Sharon was shy but Macy was more outspoken and lively.
OR Sharon hoped to become a chef while Macy wanted to become a dentist.
2. The word is “spectacular”.
3. A part of the trail had been eroded by heavy rain and they would fall into the canyon if they walked along it.
4. She is a person who cares more about the safety of her friend. She was panic-stricken, yet she ignored the obvious danger in trying to help her friend.
OR
She was selfless. She was not concerned about her own safety but went down the canyon to save her friend.
5. Sharon’s backpack saved her life when she skidded down the cliff and landed on her back because it acted as a cushion and absorbed the impact of the fall
6. (a) startled (b) crumpled

Unseen Passage 7 for Class 8 CBSE

On one of the upper branches of the Congo River in Africa, lived an ancient family of hippopotamuses, which boasted a pedigree dating back beyond the days of Noah-beyond the existence of mankind-far into the dim ages when the world was new. They had always lived upon the banks of this same river so that every curve and sweep of its waters, every pit and shallow of 5 its bed, every rock and stump and wallow upon its bank was as familiar to them as their own mothers. Not long ago, the queen of this tribe of hippopotamuses had a child which she named Keo because it was so fat and round. Keo was the jolliest hippopotamus that ancient family had ever known. His little red eyes were forever twinkling with fun, and he laughed often, whether there was anything to laugh at or not.

Therefore the black people who dwelt in that region called him “Ippi”, the jolly one, although they dared not come near him on account of his fierce mother, and his equally fierce uncles and aunts and cousins, who lived in a vast colony upon the river bank. While these black people, who lived in little villages scattered among the trees, dared not openly attack the royal family of hippopotamuses, they were amazingly fond of eating hippopotamus meat whenever they could get it. This was no secret to the hippopotamuses. And, again, when the blacks managed to catch these animals alive, they had a trick of riding them through the jungles as if they were horses, thus reducing them to a condition of slavery.

Whenever the hippopotamuses smelled the oily odour of people, they were accustomed to charge upon them furiously, and if by chance they overtook one of the enemies they would rip him with their sharp tusks or stamp him into the earth with their huge feet. It was continual warfare between the hippopotamuses and the black people. Gouie lived in one of the little villages of the blacks. He was much attached to the idea of capturing the hippopotamuses and frequently considered many ways to catch them. Once, he set about digging a great pit in the ground, midway between two sharp curves of the river.

When the pit was finished he covered it over with small branches of trees, and strewed earth upon them, smoothing the surface so artfully that no one would suspect there was a big hole underneath. Then Gouie laughed softly to himself and went home to supper. That evening the queen said to Keo, “I wish you’d run across the bend and ask your Uncle Nikki to come here. I have found a strange plant and want him to tell me if it is good to eat.” The jolly one laughed heartily as he started upon his errand for he felt as important as a boy does when he is sent for the first time to the grocery shop at the corner to buy a pound of sugar.

1. Where did this story take place?
2. Why was Keo nicknamed “ippi”?
3. Which three-word phrase in Paragraph 2 has the same meaning as the phrase “due to”?
4. What does This’ in paragraph 3 refer to?
5. How did the hippopotamuses react towards the villagers?
6. Find the antonym of the following words from the passage.
(a) gentle (para 2) (b) scent (para 4)
1. This story took place on one of the upper branches of the Congo River in Africa.
2. “Ippi” means “Jolly one” and Keo was jolly.
3. The three-word phrase is “on account of.”
4. It refers to the fact that the black people living in little villages were amazingly fond of eating hip popotamus meat whenever could get it.
5. The hippopotamus would charge upon the villagers furiously whenever they smelled the oily odour of people and would rip him up with their sharp tusks or stamp him into the earth with their huge feet if they over took one of the enemies.
6. (a) fierce
(b) odour

Unseen Passage 8 for Class 8 CBSE

When Minli decided to cycle home from her best friend, Calling’s place, she was not nervous. After ell,she had lived there all her life. She was eleven years old and certainly not afraid of the dark, and it was only a twenty minute ride home anyway. However, halfway home, when she could not see the lights of the street, she began to wish she had not been quite so brave, and had expected ride home from Mr. Tan. She pedaled faster. She went around a slight bend. The pale moonlight barely lit the streets. Her heart was thumping loudly and she was panting as she pedaled away top speed, so she did hear the car until it suddenly drove past her like a silent black ghost. She squealed in shock and skidded to a stop.

The big black limousine also stop, The break lights glowing bright red in the mist. The tyres screeched as it reversed down the road to Minli. The car stopped along side her. She tried to look inside, but the window were tinted almost black and she could not see nothing. Then the window on the passenger’s side began to slide silently down. Minli found she was holding her breath,to frightened even to move. In the soft glow of many instruments, Minli saw something move inside. Then a very bright light suddenly clicked on and Minli found her self staring at a little gray-haired old lady! Minli almost burst into giggles or even tears. “Hello,dear,” said the little old lady. “Can u help me? I’m afraid I’m lost.

Can u tell me where I might find the nearest airport? It’s very important. I have to be there in the next ten minutes.” “Airport? I’ll will say you’re lost,” Minli said, getting off her bike and walking closer to the car.”You have to go back down this road the way you just come for about five kilometres. Then,when the road ends,take left turn and drive for another five or so kilometres. That puts back on the main highway. Then u turn right and follow the signs for about another five kilometres.

I’m afraid there’s no way you’re going to make it in the ten minutes though.” “Thank you very much, dear. You’re very kind to an old lady. Don’t worry. It’s easy to drive around at this hour. I’ll think I’ll be able to get there in time.” The window wound up again and the car moved off. A little way ahead, it did a three-point turn and came back. The head lights flashed as it went passed Minli. She smiled and waved. “Poor old dear. She hasn’t got a chance,” Minli thought.

1. Give one reason why Minli was not afraid of cycling home by herself.
2. What did Minli regret not doing? 3. Who do you think Mr Tan was?
4. Which sentence tells us that where Minli was, it was completely dark?
5. How do we know that Minli was nervous? Give two ways.
6. Find the synonym of the following words from the passage.
(a) quick breaths (b) colouration
1. She was familiar with the place.
2. Minli regretted not accepting a ride home from Mr Tan.
3. I think Mr Tan was Calling’s father.
4. It is “The pale moonlight barely lit the streets”.
5. Minli’s heart was thumping loudly and she was panting when she was cycling.
6. (a) painting
(b) tinted

Unseen Passage 9 for Class 8 CBSE

In ancient China, a certain prince from the region of Thing-Zda was about to be crowned emperor; however, according to the law, he first had to get married. Since this meant choosing the future empress, the prince needed to find a young woman whom he could trust absolutely. On the advice of a wise man, he decided to summon all the young maidens of the region so as to find the most worthy candidate. An old lady, who had served in the palace for many years, heard about the preparations for this gathering and she was very upset, for her daughter nurtured a secret love for the prince. When the old lady got home, she told her daughter and was horrified to learn that she intended to go to the palace.

The old lady was desperate. She knew that her daughter would not stand a chance. All the richest and most beautiful girls from the region would be present. She did not want her daughter’s suffering to turn into madness. However, her daughter turned a deaf ear to her advice. She knew that she would not be chosen but it was her only chance to spend at least a few moments close to the prince, and that would make her happy. That night, when the young woman reached the palace, all the most beautiful girls were indeed there, wearing the most beautiful clothes and the most beautiful jewels, and prepared to do anything to seize the opportunity on offer. Surrounded by the members of his court, the prince announced the challenge.

He gave each maiden . a seed and said that the young woman who brought him the loveliest flower would be the future empress of China. The girl took her seed and planted it in a pot. She took care of it with great patience and tenderness. Three months passed and no shoots had appeared. She tried everything she could; she consulted the farmers and peasants, who showed her the most varied methods of cultivation, but all to no avail. At last, six months were up, and still nothing had grown in her pot. Even though she had nothing to show, she knew how much effort and dedication she had put in during that time, and so she told her mother that she would go back to the palace on the agreed date and at the agreed hour.

Inside, she knew that this would be her last meeting with her true love, and she would not have missed it for the world. The day of the audience arrived. The girl appeared with her pot, and saw that all the other candidates had achieved wonderful results: each girl bore a flower lovelier than the last, in the most varied forms and colours. Finally, the longed-for moment came. The prince studied each of the candidates’ pot with great care and attention.

Having inspected them all, he announced the result and chose the servant’s daughter as his new wife. All the other girls present protested, saying that he had chosen the only one of them who had failed to grow anything at all. In response, the prince calmly explained the reasoning behind the challenge. “This young woman was the only one who cultivated the flower that made her worthy of becoming the empress: the flower of honesty. All the seeds I handed out were sterile.”

1. Why did the prince decide to get married?
2. Why was the old lady upset when she first heard that the prince was getting married?
3. List two things the old lady’s daughter did to make her seed grow.
4. With reference to the phrase “prepared to do anything to seize the opportunity on offer” (line 20), what was the opportunity the writer was referring to?
5. Quote the sentence to show that the old servant’s daughter finally gave up hope of ever marrying the prince.
1. He was about to be crowned emperor but according to the law, he first had to get married.
2. The old lady’s daughter nurtured a secret love for the prince.
3. She took care of it with great patience and tenderness and consulted the farmers and peasants, who showed her the most varied methods of cultivation.
4. The writer was referring to the opportunity to become the Prince’s new wife.
5. The sentence is “Inside, she knew that this would be her last meeting with her true love, and she would not have missed it for the world.”

Unseen Passage 10 for Class 8 CBSE

I first met Benjy in 1965. A store owner was putting a sign above his door that read “Puppies For Sale”. Signs like that have a way of attracting children, and sure enough, I appeared under the store owner’s sign. “How much are you going to sell the puppies for?” I asked. The store owner replied, “Anywhere from $30 to$50.”

I reached in my pocket and pulled out some change, “I have $2.50. Can I please ook at them?” I requested. The store owner smiled and whistled. Out of the kennel came Lady, who ran down the aisle of his store followed by five teeny, tiny balls of fur. One puppy was lagging behind. Immediately I singled out the lagging, limping puppy and said, ‘What’s wrong with that little dog?” The store owner explained that the veterinarian had discovered that the little puppy did not have a hip socket) It would always limp. It would always be lame. I became excited and told the store owner that it was the puppy that I had wanted to buy. The store owner disagreed and said that he would rather give that dog to me instead. I got quite upset. I looked straight at the store owner’s eyes, pointing my finger and said, “I don’t want you to give him to me. That little dog is worth every bit as much as alt the other dogs and I’ll pay the full price. In fact, I’ll give you the$2.50 now and $1 a month until I have him paid for.” The store owner countered, “Do you really want to buy this little dog? He’s never going to be able to run and jump and play with you like the other puppies.” To this, I reached down and rolled up my pants to reveal a badly twisted, crippled left leg supported by a big metal brace. I looked up at the store owner and replied softly, “Well, I don’t run well myself, and the little puppy will need someone who understands!” I managed to convince the store owner who allowed me to take Benjy home. My parents did not think much of my plan of keeping a lame puppy and they were unwilling to pay for it. I could see that the only problem here was money. Getting my way this time was not going to be easy. That was fifteen years ago. Benjy slept on my bed every night and we had long and meaningful conversations. In fact, Benjy was largely responsible for my decision to pursue a career as a veterinarian. When my new hospital opened its doors, my parents brought Benjy to me. He looked horrible. He had become quite ill that week. I did a thorough check on him and was forced to a bitter conclusion. You see, I have been in the practice long enough to know when a situation was hopeless. It seemed fitting that in the new hospital, Benjy was the first dog whose suffering we should ease. We had the last of our long conversations before he fell asleep gently in my arms. Farewell, Benjy. Answer the following questions based on the reading passage. 1. What was the store owner’s purpose of hanging the sign on tho door? 2. How was Lady related to Benjy? 3. What caused Benjy to be lame? 4. How did the store owner persuade the author against having the little puppy? 5. Why did the author think that he would understand Benjy? Answer: 1. It was to advertise/ attract people to the sake of the puppies. 2. Lady was Benjy’s mother. 3. Benjy did not have a hip socket and that caused it to be lame. 4. The store owner persuaded the author against having the little puppy by telling him that the puppy would never be able to jump, run and play with the author like other puppies. 5. He was crippled, just like Benjy. ### Unseen Passage Practice Questions Type-I for Class 8 CBSE Unseen Passage 1 for Class 8 CBSE On the surface, the conquest of the Aztec empire by Herman Cortes is one of the most amazing military accomplishments in history. With a small fighting force numbering in the hundreds, Cortes led the Spanish explorers into victory against an Aztec population that many believe topped 21 million. In light of such a seemingly impossible victory, the obvious question is: how did a small group of foreign fighters manage to topple one of the world’s strongest, wealthiest, and most successful military empires? Several factors led to Cortes’ success. First, the Spanish exploited animosity toward the Aztecs among rival groups and convinced thousands of locals to fight. In one account of a battle, it is recorded that at least 200,000 natives fought with Cortes. Next, the Spanish possessed superior military equipment in the form of European cannons, guns, and crossbows, leading to effective and efficient disposal of Aztec defenses. For example, Spanish cannons quickly defeated large Aztec walls that had protected the empire against big and less technically advanced armies. Despite the Spanish advantages, the Aztecs probably could have succeeded in defending their capital city of Tenochtitlan had they leveraged their incredible population base to increase their army’s size and ensured that no rogue cities would ally with Cortes. In order to accomplish this later goal, Aztec leader Motecuhzoma needed to send envoys to neighboring cities telling their inhabitants about the horrors of Spanish conquest and the inevitability of Spanish betrayal. In addition, the Aztecs should have exploited the fact that the battle was taking place on their territory. No reason existed for the Aztecs to consent to a conventional battle, which heavily favored the Spanish. Motecuhzoma’s forces should have thought outside the box and allowed Cortes into the city, only to subsequently use hundreds of thousands of fighters to prevent escape and proceed in surprise “door-to-door” combat. With this type of battle, the Aztecs would have largely thwarted Spanish technological supremacy. However, in the end, the superior weaponry of the Spanish, the pent-up resentment of Aztec rivals, the failure of Aztec diplomacy, and the lack of an unconventional Aztec war plan led to one of the most surprising military outcomes in the past one thousand years. Answer the following questions based on the reading passage. 1. Which of the following best characterizes the main point the author is trying to convey in the passage? (a) Aztec failure to fight an unconventional war led to an unnecessary defeat (b) Spanish victory was neither as impressive nor as surprising as it may first appear (c) Herman Cortes masterminded an amazing military accomplishment (d) The myopic vision of the Aztecs led to their unnecessary downfall 2. The passage is sequentially organized in which of the following ways? (a) Define a problem; explain the sources of the problem; offer a solution to the problem (b) Pose a question; offer an answer to the question; offer an alternative answer to the question (c) Introduce a mystery; offer an explanation for the mystery; provide an alternative explanation for the mystery (d) Introduce an enigma; explain the reasons for the enigma; discuss the inevitability of the enigma 3. According to the passage, all of the following led to Cortes success except: (a) Advanced crossbows (b) Local Spanish allies (c) Nimble military force (d) Local tribal friction 4. The author implies which of the following about the nature of Aztec regional influence and power? (a) Achieved with a non-traditional military campaign (b) Engendered some anger (c) Achieved through alliances (d) Based upon small yet swift and brutal military force 5. The author’s tone can best be described as? (a) Analytical (b) Anger (c) Frustrated (d) Optomistic Unseen Passage 2 for Class 8 CBSE China’s rising power is based on its remarkable economic success. Shanghai’s overall economy is currently growing at around 13% per year, thus doubling in size every five or six years. Everywhere“there are start-ups, innovations, and young entrepreneurs hungry for profits. In a series of high level meetings between chinese and African officials, the advice that the African leaders received from the Chinese was sound, and more practical than they typically get from the World Bank. Chi nese officials stress the crucial role of public investments, especially in agriculture and infrastructure, to lay the basis for private sector-led growth. In a hungry and poor rural economy, as China was in the 1970s and as most of Africa is today, a key starting point is to raise farm productivity. Farmers need the benefits of fertilizer, irrigation and high-yield seeds, all of which were a core part of China’s economical take off. Two other equally critical investments are also needed : roads and electricity, without which there cannot be a modern economy. Farmers might be able to increase their output, but it won’t be able to reach the cities, and the cities won’t be able to provide the countryside with inputs. The government has taken pains to ensure that the electricity grids and transportation networks reach every village in China. China is prepared to help Africa in substantial ways in agriculture, roads, power, health and education. And that is not an empty boast. Chinese leaders are prepared to share new high yield rice varieties, with their African counterparts and, all over Africa, China is financing and constructing basic infrastructure. This illustrates what is wrong with the World Bank. The World Bank has often forgotten the most basic lessons of development, preferring to lecture the poor and force them to privatise basic infrastructure, which is untenable, rather than to help the poor to invest in infrastructure and other crucial sectors. The Banks’s failure began in the early 1980s when under the ideological sway of them American President and British Prime Minister it tried to get Africa and other poor regions to cut back or close down government investments and services. For 25 years, the bank tries to get governments out of agriculture, leaving impoverished peasants to fend for themselves. The result has been a disaster in Africa, with farm productivity stagnant for decades. The bank also pushed for privatization of national health systems, water utilities, and road and power networks, and has grossly underfinanced these critical sectors. This extreme free-market ideology, also called “structural adjustment”, went against the practical lessons of development successes in China and the rest or Asia. Practical development strategy recognises that public investments – in agriculture, health, education, and infrastructure-are necessary complements to private investments. The World Bank has instead wrongly seen such vital public investments as an enemy of private sector development. Whenever the banks’ ideology failed, it has blamed the poor for corruption, mismanagement, or lack of initiative. Instead of focusing its attention on helping the poorest countries to improve their infrastructure, there has been a crusade against corruption. The good news is that African governments are getting the massage on how to spur economic growth and are getting crucial help from China and other partners that are less wedded to extreme free-market ideology than the world Bank. They have declared their intention to invest in infrastructure, agriculture modernistation, public health, and education. It is clear the Bank can regain its relevance only if it becomes practical once again, by returning its focus to financing public investments in priority sectors. If that happens, the Bank can still do justice to the bold vision of a world of shared prosperity that prompted its creation after World War II. Answer the following questions based on the reading passage. 1. The author’s main objective in writing the passage is to (a) illustrate how China can play a more concrete role in Africa. (b) Use China’s Success as an example of the changes required in World ideology. (c) Recommend that China adopt the guidelines of the World Bank to sustain growth. (d) make a case for the closure of the World Bank since it promotes US interests over those of other countries. 2. What effect has the World Bank policy had on African nations? (a) The African government has restricted private sector investment in agriculture. (b) Africa has focused more on health and education rather than on agriculture. (c) US and Britain have volunteered substantial aid to Africa as Africa has complied with World Bank ideology. (d). The agriculture sector in these countries is not as productive as it could be. 3. Which of the following cannot be said about structural adjustment? (a) It is the World Bank’s free market ideology adapted by Asian countries. (b) Under this strategy public sector investment in priority sectors is discouraged. (c) As a development strategy it has failed in Africa. (d) With this strategy there has been a lack of adequate investment in critical sectors. 4. Why is the author optimistic about Africa’s future? (a) Africa has decided to adopt a structural adjustment ideology which has benefited many nations. (b) China has urged the World Bank to waive the interest on its loans to Africa. (c) Africa has committed itself to adopting China’s strategy for economic growth. (d) The World Bank has committed itself to invest huge sums in Africa’s development. 5. What advice has the author given the World Bank? (a) Adopt a more practical ideology of structural adjustment. (b) Change its ideology to one encouraging both public and private sector investment in basic infra structure. (c) Reduce the influence of the US and Britain in its functioning. (d) Support China’s involvement in developing Africa. Туре-II Unseen Passage 1 for Class 8 CBSE It was a Sunday morning. I was quietly playing on my own. Father called out, “Boys, come here.” Something was wrong. His tone of voice set off a small alarm bell in my head. I quickly reviewed my conscience. It was clear. Ravi must be in trouble again. I wondered what he had done this time. I walked into the living room. Mother was there, too. “Ravi, Piscine, I have a very important lesson for you.” “Oh really, is this necessary?” interrupted Mother, her face flushed. I swallowed. If Mother, who was normally calm, was worried, it meant we were in serious trouble. “Yes, it is. It may very well save their lives,” replied Father. “Come with me.” The small alarm bell in my head became big bells. We set out like prisoners off -in to their execution. We left the house, went through the gate and entered the zoo. It was early and the zoo was not opened yet to the public. Animal keepers and ground keepers were going about their work. We passed birds, bears, apes and monkeys. We came to the big cats, the tigers, lions and leopards. Babu, their keeper, was waiting for us. All around were great big cages divided up by thick, green, iron bars. The cages were empty — save one: where Mahisha, a 550 pound tiger, was prowling. As soon as we stepped in, it leapt up to the bars of its cage and set off a full-throated snarl. The sound was so loud and fierce it seemed to shake the whole cat house. My knees started to quake. I got closer to Mother. She was trembling, too. Even Father seemed to pause and steady himself. Only Babu was indifferent to the outburst. Father turned to us and asked, “What animal is this?” “It’s a tiger,” Ravi and I answered in unison. “Are tigers dangerous?” my father asked again “Yes, Father. Tigers are dangerous “Tigers are very dangerous,” Father shouted. “I want you to understand that you are never- under any circumstances – to touch a tiger, to-pet-a tiger, to put your hands through the bars of a cage, even to get close to a cage is that clear? Ravi? Piscine?” Ravi nodded vigorously. I nodded even more vigorously. “I’m going to show you how dangerous tigers are,” Father continued. “I want you to remember this lesson for the rest of your lives.” Father then nodded to Babu, who left through a door and returned a few seconds later with a goat in his arms. He placed the goat in an empty cage next to Mahisha’s, then slowly pulled up the trap door that separated the goat from Mahisha. Answer the following questions based on the reading passage. 1. How was Ravi related to the author? 2. Which sentence tells you that the author and his family did not look forward to the lesson that they were going to have? 3. How can you tell that the author was frightened by the tiger’s roar? 4. What was the reason Father took the children to see the tiger? 5. What do you think will happen to the goat? Unseen Passage 2 for Class 8 CBSE Andre had always trusted Somchat, his Thai employee who spoke halting English. Always diligent and helpful, he was very well-liked by Andre’s clients and business contacts. When Andre’s business was hit by recession, he had to downsize his operation by moving to a cheaper office premise. On the day before moving, Andre stayed later than usual. While moving around the office cluttered with boxes of office property and personal belongs, something shiny in one box suddenly caught his eye. It was all wrapped up except for a tear in the protective brown paper. But Andre recognised it instantly. It was his ‘missing antique Chinese sailing boat’ given by Mr Chin Wu, a client whom Andre had looked after very well with Somchat’s help. Andre’s eyes rested on the wordings on the box – it read: “Somchat – personal”. “I … Sorry! That junk is mine…Mr Chin gave me. That one not yours!” Somchat stammered in confusion when he was confronted the next day. He became even more incoherent and finally completely tongue-tied when his colleagues wagged their fingers at him and joined in to reprove him. Andre felt angry and betrayed. Unable to trust Somchat anymore, Andre made up his mind. “I don’t know how to explain, Mr Andre…But someday, somehow, I will come back and explain…” Somchat was still struggling to clear his name when he was sacked on that day. But Andre shrugged that off. A few months later, Andre heard that Somchat had started working in a five-star hotel in Indonesia. He wrote a few letters to Andre but he tore them all up without reading any. Then came the tragic news: The hotel where Somchat worked had been bombed by the terroists. Unfortunately, he was among the casualties. Andre felt sorry for the poor man. Except for the theft, Somchat had been a likeable fellow. That evening, when Andre was alone in his office, he sorted out some of the boxes which had been left unpacked. While rummaging through them, his eyes caught glint of metal. He could not believe his eyes when he yanked it from the box. It was a boat identical to the one displayed on his desk, the one which Chin Wu claimed to be “one of a kind”. Unknown to Andre, Chin Wu had also presented Somchat with a similar junk. Andre’s heart sank when he realised what terrible thing he had done. The last words of a friend now dead came back to him once more: “Someday I will come back and explain…” Answer the following questions based on the reading passage. 1. Why was Somchat popular among the clients and business contacts? 2. Why did Andre have to downsize his business? 3. How do you know that the office was in a mess on the eve of moving? 4. Where did Andre find his ‘missing antique Chinese sailing boat (paragraph 2)? 5. Why did Andre feel angry and betrayed? Unseen Passage 3 for Class 8 CBSE When Gloria Estefan started primary school, she could not read, write nor speak English. She felt lost and unhappy and completely frightened. However, someone changed her life – her English teacher, Mrs Collins. Her family had fled Cuba in 1959 when she was only a year old in the hope of finding a better life in America. Initially they moved to Miami where the family settled in a cluster of apartments with other Cuban women and children who had immigrated. The women were close-knit and supportive. While she felt safe, she was also isolated. They all spoke Spanish, and she rarely heard English. On her very first day in school, which she was looking forward to, she was completely shell-shocked. She came home and told her mother that she had learnt her first English word “stupid”. It was the nickname a boy had given her. In every way possible, she was set apart from her classmates. She was the only his panic and non-white student. She also found it difficult grasping the English language as it was her second language. The culture, her school friends and the food they ate were different from hers. As such, she was set apart from her classmates. One person made that year bearable for her, Mrs Collins. She was young and African American, so she understood how Gloria felt as she was the only non-white student in class. Mrs Collins never doubted that Gloria could catch up with the other students in time. Still, the teasing continued. The boy who called her stupid would not let up, mocking her for her accent. He was a good student and the proud holder of the class’s reading award. It was an honour given periodically to a student, based on excellence in schoolwork, participation and homework. Gloria wanted that coveted award. As Mrs Collins cheered her on, she gained confidence and language skills. By mid-year, she was well on her way to speaking English fluently and had a good grasp of reading. With the award ceremony coming up, she worked as hard as she could. When, Mrs Collins announced Gloria as the winner, in front of the whole class, it was her proudest moment. She immediately took the reading award right out of that boy’s hot little hands. The boy was shocked. She felt so happy for herself, there really was no room for gloating. Of course, her win caused a mini uproar. The mother of the boy who teased her complained that the only Hispanic in the class, the girl who had just learned English, had taken the coveted prize from her son. In her strong, gentle way, Mrs Collins stood ground. It became a lesson in fairness. This served as a motivation for Gloria who worked even harder in school and earned more ‘A’ grades. She even went on to study French in high school and college. Today, Gloria Estefan is a successful singer and entertainer. She continues to reflect on her past as she enjoys her success. When asked about who had inspired her success, she mentioned her teacher, Mrs Collins. Answer the following questions based on the reading passage. 1. Did Gloria Estefan’s family move to America? 2. Word in the second paragraph has the same meaning as a group of families”? 3. Was Gloria called “stupid” (line 11) on the first day of school? 4. Paragraphs 4 and 5, state two reasons that caused Gloria to be ‘shell-shocked” (line 10) on her first day in school. 5. Why was English considered Gloria’s second language? Unseen Passage 4 for Class 8 CBSE I came out of the Museum of Natural History and was crossing the street on my way to the subway, when i saw the crowd about halfway down the block and the police cars too. I could hear the whine of an ambulance. For a minute, I hesitated, but then I walked on. The crowds of the curious just get in the way of officials trying to save lives. Dad always complains about thåt. Of course, I knew I would read about it in the afternoon papers. Besides, I would ask Dad about it after dinner. That night, over dinner, I found out that the victim had run into the museum, trying to shake his attackers off but he did not succeed and was killed: According to Dad, the victim and his two attackers were what were left of the gang that broke into a jewellery store two weeks ago. The police managed to get the jewels back, but they did not grab ail the men. And not all the jewels either. One diamond was left. A big one — worth$30,000. The woman who reported the killing said he said three words to her, very slowly, ‘Try – Sarah – Tops.’ Then he died. “Who’s Sarah Tops?” asked Mum. Dad shrugged.

“I don’t know. I don’t even know if that’s really what he said. The woman was hysterical. If she’s right and that’s what he said then the killers didn’t get the diamond. Maybe the dead man left it with Sarah Tops, whoever she is.”. “Is there a Sarah Tops in the phone book, Dad?” i asked. Dad said, “Did you think we didn’t look? No Sarah Tops. Nothing in the city directory. Nothing in our files. Nothing.” Mum said, “Maybe it’s not a person. Maybe it’s a company. Sarah Tops Cakes or something.” “Could be,” said Dad, “There’s no Sarah Tops company, but there are other types of Tops companies and they’ll be checked for anyone working there named Sarah.” “Well,” I said, sort of let down and disappointed. And then it hit me.

What if- What followed happened very quickly. Dad got me into the museum an hour later. We were let in by a guard. We took the lift to the fourth floor, where the big shapes loomed in the bit of light that shone this way and that as the guard moved his torch. We entered the hall and there they all were. Some in glass vases; but the big ones in the middle of the large room. Bones and teeth and spines of giants that ruled the earth, millions of years ago. I went towards one. “What’s this?” I said, pointing out a piece of coloured plaster to the guard. “Chewing gum,” said the guard, frowning.

“Those darn kids I said, “The man was trying to get away and he saw his chance to throw this -hide it from the gang -” Dad took the gum from me, squeezed it, and then pulled it apart. Inside, something caught the light and flashed. Dad put it in an envelope and said to me, “How did you know?” I said, “Well, look at it” It was a magnificent skeleton. It had a large skull with bone stretching back over the neck vertebrae. It had two horns over the eyes, and a third one, just a bump, on the snout. The nameplate said: Triceratops.

1. What two things did the narrator see on his way to the subway?
2. The narrator hesitated but ‘walked on’ (line 4). What were two reasons the narrator gave for doing so?
3. What crime was committed in the museum?
4. Give one evidence from the passage to show that the narrator’s father was a police officer.
5. Why were victim and his attackers wanted by the police?

Unseen Passage 5 for Class 8 CBSE

We were eight teenagers on a week-long service project to repair the homes of the less fortunate residing in the Appalachian mountains. The area seemed to contradict itself, for it held so much beauty yet housed so much poverty. Maybe we hailed ourselves as being able to serve those people in need; I do not think we ever imagined what we could gain from it would perhaps be more valuable than any services we could render. Our white van meandered through the broken West Virginia landscape and pulled up alongside Jim’s avocado coloured house. As the doors opened, we poured out with hammers in hand,”ready to start our routine.

We rotated jobs as we basked in the southern sun; some of us scraped and painted windows, while others stained the deck or repaired the roof. All the while, Jim, a retiree, sat in a lawn chair observing us – the kindest of old men, only too sorry that he could not labour alongside us on the ladders. We passed the time with inside jokes and songs, truly enjoying ourselves regardless of the tedium of painting window after window as Jim just silently observed with a cane in one hand to support him in case he wanted to get up. As the clock neared noon, we took our lunch break in the shade of a small tree in Jim’s front yard.

Sam, our -moderator, planted Jim’s chair beside us and announced that since he was eager to help in any way possible, Jim would lead us in a before-meal prayer. He saw our tired faces and heard the rumbles from our stomachs. He kept it succinct and we started digging into our food. “Let me tell you a story…,” he then began. From the pit of his humble heart, he began to unravel his eighty some-odd years for us. He was a school teacher who had a dog named Pretty-Face. He told of old hunting expeditions in the mountains where his life was almost lost to a bear, and he talked of conquering a rattlesnake, even showing us the rattles.

Then his cavernous eyes just wandered off as if he was no longer talking for our benefit, but more for his own. He described that day his dog died, as fat tears rolled down his weathered cheeks and he gripped the end of his cane. He recalled her loyalty to the end as with one last thump of the tail, looking up at him, Pretty-Face passed on. He remembered his wife gazing up at him much the same way seconds before her death. He always affectionately called his wife ‘Mama’, and he told of how she had always stayed up until the small hours of the morning to bake the bread for the next day while he, often tired from a long day of teaching or hunting, would retire to bed.

“Why hadn’t I taken the extra time to stay up with her?” he said in a distant voice as his eyes gazed beyond us. “Why couldn’t I do so? Why?” I remember how profoundly those words rang inside of me. Here was a man brimming with wisdom and reflections on his life, telling me to make the most of mine, to take the extra time with those I love. I was inspired; I was mesmerised by this extraordinary old man whom I had thought I was helping. Jim’s house was not a job at all; it was a classroom.

1. What does the word ‘it’ (line 5) refer to?
2. Which sentence in paragraph 2 tells us that it was not the first time the author and her friends were helping the less fortunate?
3. List two tasks that the author and friends had to do at Jim’s house.
4. Explain clearly why Jim was unable to labour alongside the author and her friends.
5. Why do you think Jim kept the prayer before Their lunch ‘succinct’ (paragraph 3)?
6. Find the synonyms for the following words
(a) To make continuos sound (para 3) (b) Hollow (para 5)

Unseen Passage 6 for Class 8 CBSE

With relief, I headed out into the sunlight again, and decided to go shopping. All I had to live on until I found a job was the small sum of money I had squirreled away from my maid’s wages. Now that I was a woman about town, I needed to buy something decent to wear, a new dress to lift my spirits. I walked from the embassy to the big department stores at Oxford Circus. I had been there before with my cousin Basma when I’d first come to London. Aunt Maruim had sent us down to buy me a few things, since when I arrived, I had no winter clothes.

Actually I had had no clothes at all, except the outfit I had worn on the aeroplane and one fine leather sandal. Strolling through the racks at Selfridges, I found the enormous variety of choices mesmerising. The thought. that I could stay here as long as I wanted and try on all these clothes – all these colours, styles, sizes – was intoxicating. The thought that for the first time in history, I was in charge of my own life was intoxicating – no master yelling at me to feed the babies, make the tea, scrub the floor and scour the toilets, For the next several hours, I set to work trying on outfits in the dressing room with the help of two sales assistants, Using my limited English and sign language, I communicated that I wanted something longer, shorter, tighter, brighter.

At the end of my marathon session, when dozens of discarded garments lay in stacks outside my fitting room, one of the assistants smiled at me and said, “Well love, what did you decide to have?” The sheer volume of choices overwhelmed me, but by this point, I was getting nervous that down the street, in the next store, there might be something even better. Before I parted with any of my precious money, I had better find out. “I am not having anything today.” I said pleasantly, “but thank you.” The poor assistants, standing with their arms full of dresses, looked at me in disbelief, then at each other in disgust. I sailed past them and continued on my mission.

After visiting several places, I still had not bought anything. As always, the true joy for me was simply to try on things. As I left one building and entered another, I realised the spring-like day was fading. The winter evening was coming on and I still had no place to spend the night. With this thought in mind, I entered the next store and saw a tall, attractive African woman examining a sale table of sweaters. She looked like a fellow Somalian, and I studied her, trying to decide how to talk to her. Picking up a sweater, I smiled at her and said in Somali, “I am trying to buy something, but I cannot decide what I want.” Perhaps it was my lucky day. We clicked instantly and after chatting for a while, the woman said her name was Halwu.

She was quite friendly and laughed a lot. “Where do you live, Waris? What do you do?” she asked. “Oh you are going to laugh. I’m sure you’ll think I am crazy, but I live nowhere. I don’t have any place to live because my family left me today. They went back to Somalia.” I saw the look of empathy in her eyes; as I later learned that this woman had been through a lot herself. I continued my story, “My uncle was the ambassador here, but now he’s gone and the new man is coming, so this morning, they kicked me out, and right this minute, I have no idea where I’m headed.” I laughed. She waved in the air to silence me, as if the movement of her hand could sweep away all my problems. 7. “Look, I live around the corner at the YMCA. I don’t have a big place, but you can come and stay for the night.