Here we are providing 1 Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions: Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.
One Mark Questions for History Class 12 Chapter 6 Bhakti-Sufi Traditions: Changes in Religious Beliefs and Devotional Texts
Name the principal deity followed at Puri, Orissa.
Jagannatha, a form of Lord Vishnu.
Who were Alvars?
Alvars were those who immersed in the devotion of Lord Vishnu.
Who were Nayanars?
Devotes of Lord Shiva were called Nayanars.
Name a composition written by Alvars.
Name a woman devotee each of Alvars and Nayanars?
Andal (Alvar) and Karaikkal Ammaiyar (Nayanar).
Who were Virashaivas?
The followers of Basavanna in Karnataka were called Virashaivas or Lingayats.
Who challanged the idea of caste and the pollution attributed to certain groups by Brahmanas?
Who conquared Sindh in 711 A.D.?
Muhammad Qasim, an Arab General Conquered Sindh in 711 A.D.
Who were Ulamas?
Religious scholars of Muslims were called ulamas. They guided the rulers to rule according to the Sharia.
Which branch of the Ismailis developed new modes of communication, dissemination ideas derived from the Quran?
What is Ziyarat?
Practice of visiting tomb shrine of Sufi Shaikh was called Ziyarat.
Who composed Padmavat?
Malik Muhammad Jayasi composed Padmavat.
Who preserved the Kabir Bijak?
The Kabirpanth preserved the Kabir Bijak in Varanasi.
What was the most striking feature of sculpture as well as of texts of phase of 8th to 18th century ?
Probably the most striking feature of sculpture as well as of texts was the increasing visibility of different gods and goddesses. This indicates toward continuation and extension of worship of major deities, i.e., Vishnu, Shiva and the Goddess. Each of these deities were visualised in a number of forms.
Who were the Jogis ?
The Jogis were the disciples of Gorakh Nath and Aughur Nath. They were very popular in the North India and influenced the Sufi saints.
Who brought up Saint Kabir and what are his followers known as ?
Saint Kabir was brought-up by a weaver Niru and his wife Nima. Followers of Kabir are known as Kabirpanthi.
What is the position of Bhakti in Indian tradition ?
Bhakti is considered as a part of devotion in Indian tradition. One can attain God through this. Lord Krishna himself told about this in Bhagwat Gita.
Name the two Sufi Shaikhs during the period of Delhi Sultanate.
During the period of Delhi Sultanate, there were two Shaikhs namely Khwaja Muinuddin Chishti and Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya.
Why did the Nayanar saints express their opposition towards Jainism and Buddhism ?
The compositions of the Nayanars were marked for their opposition to Buddhism and Jainism. The historians believe that this hostility was due to competition for seeking the royal patronage. The Nayanars were inspired by this feeling.
Explain two religious beliefs and behaviours of Lingayats.
(i) Lingayats believed that once , a devotee dies, he will be united with Shiva and will not return to this world.
(ii) They do not practice funerally rites instead they ceremonially bury their dead.
Why and which changes came in status of Brahmanas in North India in 13th century ?
During last years of 12th century, Brahmanas had a very important place in Rajput kingdoms and they performed a number of secular and ritual functions. No one tried to challenge their position directly. But when Turks established Delhi Sultanate in 13th century, this condition changed. This undermined the power of many Rajput kingdoms and the Brahmanas associated with these kingdoms.
What do you mean by Zimmi ?
Give the meaning of Zirnrna. Who were Zimmis ? (C.B.S.E. 2011 (O.D.))
The word ‘Zimmi’ was derived from the Arabic word ‘Zimma’ which meant ‘protection’. In other words, the Zimmis were the protected people. They were non-Muslims and included Hindus, Jains, Jews and Christians. They lived under Muslim rulership and paid a tax called ‘Jaziya’. So they were entitled for protection by the Muslims.
By giving example clarify that Muslim rulers often adopted a fairly flexible policy towards their subjects.
There is no denying the fact that Muslim rulers often adopted a fairly flexible policy towards their subjects. For example, many rulers gave land grants and tax exemptions to Jaina, Hindu, Christian, Zoroastrian and Jewish religious institutions. They also expressed their respect and devotion towards non- Muslim religious leaders. These grants were given by rulers like Akbar, Aurangzeb, etc.
Who were Mlechchhas ?
‘Mlechchha’ word is used for migrating communities. This name indicates that they did not believe and observe the norms of caste, society and spoke those languages which were not derived from Sanskrit.
Write two rituals of initiation into ‘Silsila’.
There were special rituals of initiation into Silsila and these were:
(i) One has to take an oath of allegiance.
(ii) He should wear a patched garment and shave his hair.
Where was the dargah of Shaikh Nizam- ud-din Aulia situated ? What was the feature of its open kitchen (langar) ?
Dargah of Shaikh Nizam-ud-din Aulia was situated on the banks of the river Yamuna in Ghiyaspur, on the outskirts of the then city of Delhi. The main feature of its open kitchen was that it was run on unasked-for charity or ‘futuh’.
Name those three poets or historians who visited Shaikh Nizam-ud-din and wrote about the Shaikh ?
Amir Hasan Sijzi, Amir Khusro and the court historian Ziya-ud-din Barani were poets or historians who visited Shaikh Nizam-ud-din Aulia and wrote about the Shaikh.
Name four practices adopted by Shaikh Nizam-ud-din Auliya which represent that he tried to assimilate love traditions.
(i) Bowing before the Shaikh.
(ii) Offering water to visitors.
(iii) Shaving the heads of inmates.
(iv) Yogic exercise.
What are Kabir’s Ulatbansi compositions ?
The Ulatbansi compositions of Kabir are intrinsically upside-down sayings. They are written in a form in which everyday meanings are inverted. They express difficulty in capturing the nature of the ultimate reality. They express Kabir’s mystical experiences.
Name two compositions of Kabir which convey a sense of Kabir’s mystical experiences.
Kabir’s compositions like “the lotus which blooms without flower” and the “fire raging in the ocean” conveys a sense of Kabir’s mystical experiences.
What is written about religion of Kabir in Vaishnav traditions? Who was his Guru ?
Hagiographies within the Vaishnava tradition suggest that Kabir was born a Hindu (Kabirdas) but was brought up by a poor Muslim family who belonged to the weaver community. Vaishnava traditions also suggest that Kabir was initiated into Bhakti by a Guru Ramananda.
Who was Mirabai ? Discuss any of her two works.
Mirabai was the most famous poetess of the Bhakti tradition. She composed many bhajans in praise of Lord Krishna whom she considered as her lover. Her songs are very popular in Gujarat and Rajasthan. She was against caste system and stood in defiance to the norms of the caste society.
Mention the two earliest Bhakti Movements of Tamil Nadu, giving the main difference between them. (C.B.S.E. 2011 0))
The two earliest Bhakti Movements of Tamil Nadu were started under Alvars and Nayanars. Alvars were disciples of Vishnu and Nayanars were disciples of Lord Shiva.
Name the two women poet saints of Tamil Nadu. Whom did they ‘ worship ? (C.B.S.E. 2011 (D))
Andal and Karaikkal Ammaiyar were the two women poet saints of Tamil Nadu. Andal was the devotee of Vishnu and Karaikkal was the devotee of Lord Shiva.
Mention two features of the protest movement started by Nayanars and Alvars ? (C.B.S.E. 2011 (D))
Point out similarity between Lingayats and Nayanars. (C.B.S.E. 2008, 2016 (O.D.))
(i) Both Alvars and Nayanars started a movement of protest against the caste system and the dominance of Brahmanas.
(ii) They even opposed Buddhism and Jainism.
Kabir Bijak and Kabir Granthavali are the two distinct but overlapping traditions. How are they preserved ? (C.B.S.E. 2015 (O.D.))
The Kabir Bijak has been preserved by the Kabirpanth in Varanasi and elsewhere in Uttar Pradesh. The Kabir Granthavali is associated with Dadupanth in Rajasthan. Many of his compositions are found in the Adi Granth Sahib.
“The message of Guru Nanak Devji was based on divinity.” Mention any two aspects of it.
(i) According to Guru Nanak Devji, there is no gender or form of the ‘Absolute’ or rab.
(ii) He proposed a simple way to connect to the Divine by remembering and repeating the Divine Name expressing his ideas through hymns called ‘shabad in Punjabi’.