## Rebels and the Raj Class 12 Important Extra Questions History Chapter 11

Here we are providing Class 12 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 11 Rebels and the Raj: The Revolt of 1857 and its Representations. Class 12 History Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 History Chapter 11 Important Extra Questions Rebels and the Raj: The Revolt of 1857 and its Representations

### Rebels and the Raj Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Who was the last Mughal emperor?

Question 2.
Who started the Doctrine of Lapse?
Lord Dalhousie.

Question 3.
Which state was captured by the British on the issue of misgovernance?

Question 4.
Who was Nawab of Awadh when it was captured in 1850 A.D.?
Nawab Wajid Ali Shah.

Question 5.
Who led the revolt of 1857 in Kanpur?
Nana Saheb, the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II.

Question 6.
Who led the revolt of 1857 in Awadh?
Begum Hazrat Mahal and her son Birjis Qadr.

Question 7.
Name the famous state captured under the Doctrine of Lapse?
Jhansi.

Question 8.
What was the immediate cause of the revolt of 1857?
The issue of greased cartridges.

Question 9.
Who said that ‘Awadh is just like a cherry that will drop into our mouth one day’?
Lord Dalhousie.

Question 10.
When and who started Subsidiary Alliance?
Subsidiary Alliance was started by Lord Wellesley in 1798 A.D.

Question 11.
Where was Nawab Wajid Ali Shah exiled?
He was exiled to Calcutta.

Question 12.
Name the major centres of the revolt of 1857.
Merrut, Delhi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Jhansi etc.

Question 13.
Who painted ‘In Memoriam’?
Joseph Noel Paton.

Question 14.
Who said, “Khoob Lari mardana woh to Jhansi Wali Rani thi”?

Question 15.
What was the role of cartridges covered with fat of animals in the mutiny of 1857?
Or
What was the immediate cause for the mutiny of 1857? ,
In 1857, the soldiers were given new cartridges coated with the fat of cows and pigs. The soldiers had to peel them out with their teeth before using them. It corrupted their caste and religious norms. Therefore, the Hindu and the Muslim soldiers refused to use these cartridges. They revolted against the British to preserve their faith.

Question 16.
Give an example of a revolt by a famous tribe before the mutiny of 1857.
Many peasant revolts were witnessed in different parts of the country before the rebellion of 1857. For example, Fraizies revolted against the oppression of farmers by the Zamindars of the Britishers. They were from a Muslim community.

Question 17.
Where was the fight for freedom fought in India? How did the Britishers crush it?
The struggle for the freedom of India was fought in Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Punjab. The British crushed it with the help of their own power and the cooperation of a few kings of the Indian states.

Question 18.
How the revolt of 1857 acquired legitimacy?
Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah accepted to become the leader of the revolt. Now, revolt could be carried on in the name of the Mughal emperor. In this way, Revolt of 1857 acquired legitimacy.

Question 19.
How events moved swiftly after 13th May in the mutiny of 1857?

• Delhi was captured by rebels.
• Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah gave his support to the mutiny.

Question 20.
“Rebel Sepoys (1857) began their actions with any signal.” Give any two signals in this regard.

1. At many places, it was the firing of the evening gun.
2. At few other places, this signal was the sounding of the bugle.

Question 21.
“Rumours and prophecies played a part in moving people to action before the Revolt of 1857.” Write any of the two rumours or prophecies in this regard.

1. There spread a rumor that the British had mixed bone dust of cows and pigs into the flour which was sold in the market.
2. A prophecy was made that on the centenary of the Battle of Plassey, on 23rd June 1857, the British rule would come to an end.

Question 22.
Why did the British become increasingly interested in acquiring the territory of Awadh?

• The Britishers felt that the soil of Awadh was very good for the cultivation of indigo and cotton.
• They also thought that this state could be developed into a principal market of North India.

Question 23.
When and who annexed Awadh into the British empire?
Awadh was conquered and annexed into the British empire by Lord Dalhousie in 1856.

### Rebels and the Raj Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
The Revolt of 1857 was associated not only with the people of the court but also with ordinary men and women. Besides the ranis, rajas, nawabs, and taluqdars, many common people, religious persons and self-styled prophets participated in it.

1. The message of rebellion was carried by ordinary men and women.
2. At some places, even the religious people spread the message of the Revolt of 1857. For example, in Meerut, a Fakir used to ride on an elephant. Many sepoys met him time and again.
3. After the annexation of Awadh, Lucknow had many religious leaders and self-styled prophets who preached the destruction of the British rule.
4. At many places, the local leaders played an important role. They urged the peasants, Zamindars, and tribals to revolt.
5. In Uttar Pradesh, Shah Mai motivated and mobilized the residents of Barout paragana.
6. Similarly, Gonoo, a tribal who cultivated in Singhbhum in Chotanagpur, became a rebel leader of the Kol tribe.

Question 2.
What were the causes for the discontent among the soldiers before the Mutiny of 1857?
Or
Discuss military causes for the Revolt of 1857.
There were many reasons for discontent among the soldiers:

1. Fear of New Cartridges: The sepoys were provided bullets which were coated with the fat of cows and pigs. Before use, the soldiers had to bite these bullets. So they feared that it would corrupt their caste and religion.

2. Grievances about Leave and Promotions: The sepoys were not easily granted leaves. They were also paid lower salaries as compared to the British soldiers. They were not given due promotions which enraged the soldiers and nurtured a sense of discontent among them.

3. Grouse Against Misbehaviour and Racial Abuse: Earlier, the British officials had very friendly relations with the sepoys. They joined them in their leisure activities and talked to them in the local language. They also familiarised themselves with their customs and culture. They posed themselves as fatherly figures to all the Indian soldiers. But after 1840s, there was a change for the worse. The British officers started considering themselves as superior. They treated Indian sepoys as their social inferiors and ignored their feelings and sensibilities. They even abused and assaulted them. It was naturally resented by the soldiers.

4. Nexus between Soldiers and Villagers: Awadh was the nursery of the Bengal Army. In other words, a large number of soldiers were recruited from the villages in the vicinity of Awadh. So these soldiers had a close relationship with the villages. Such a link between the two had grave implications during the mutiny.

Question 3.
List any five ways in which I taluqdars of Awadh were affected by the British Policy. (C.B.S.E. Sample Paper 2011)
Or
How did the British dispossess the taluqdars of Awadh during 1857? Explain with examples. (C.B.S.E. 2014 (D))
The taluqdars of Awadh felt influenced by the British policy in the following way:

1. The forts and castles of the taluqdars were demolished and their armed forces were disbanded.
2. They were deprived of their lands under the Summary Settlement of 1856. Many taluqdars lost even more than half the villages under their control.
3. Their freedom was snatched.
4. They lost a lot of power and respect because of the loss of their land.
5. The demand for revenue was doubled. It generated a sense of anger among the taluqdars.

Question 4. What was Subsidiary Alliance?
Or
Examine the provisions of the ‘Subsidiary Alliance System’ devised by Lord Wellesley in 1798 for India. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (O.D.))
Subsidiary Alliance was a system of land revenue introduced by Lord Wellesley in 1798 C.E. All the local rulers had to accept the following terms and conditions who entered into such an alliance with the British:

1. The ally would have to keep a British armed contingent in his territory.
2. The British would be responsible for the protection of their ally from any type of external and internal threats to their power.
3. Resources for maintaining the British contingent would be provided by the ally.
4. The ally could not enter into the agreement with other local rulers or foreign companies or engage in warfare without the permission of the British.
5. One British Resident would be stationed in the Court of the allied king.

Question 5.
What was the thinking of the British behind the removal of taluqdars in Awadh? Up to what extent, this thinking was correct?
The British land revenue officials thought that if they could remove taluqdars then they could give land to their actual owners. It will reduce the level of exploitation of peasants and increase the revenue returns for the State but this did not actually happen. There was a definite increase in revenue returns for the State but the burden of demand on peasants remained the same.

Officials soon came to know that most of the areas of Awadh were actually heavily overassessed. At some places, the increase of revenue demanded was from 30% to 70%. That is why neither taluqdars and nor the peasants were happy. The result of the dispossession of taluqdars was the breakdown of the whole of the social order. The ties of loyalty and patronage were disrupted which had bounded the peasants to the taluqdars.

Question 6. How the relationship of the sepoys with the British officers underwent a significant change in the years preceding the uprising of 1857?
Or
Examine the relationship of the Indian sepoys with their superior white officers in the years preceding the uprising in 1857. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
Or
“The relationship of the sepoys with the superior white officers underwent a significant change in the years preceding the uprising of 1857.” Support the statement with examples. (C.B.S.E. 2014 (O.D.))
Or
How did the white officers make it a point during 1820 till 1840 to maintain friendly relations with the sepoys? (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
During the years preceding the uprising of 1857, the relationship of the sepoys with their British officials underwent significant change. In the decade 1820, British officers stressed maintaining friendly relations with the sepoys. They would even take part in their leisure activities, wrestle with them, fence with them, and went out hawking with them. Some of these officials were fluent in speaking Hindustani and were familiar with local customs and culture. These officers had strictness and love of parents in them.

But this situation began to change in the decade of 1840. A sense of superiority began to develop among the officers and they started treating the Indian sepoys as their racial inferiors. They hardly cared about their sentiments. Abuse and physical violence became very common which increased the distance between sepoys and their officers. The place of trust was taken by suspicion. The episode of the greased cartridges was a classic example of this thing.

Question 7.
Which types of laws were used by the British to suppress the Revolt of 1857 in North India?
The British passed a number of laws to help them quell the insurgency before sending their troops to reconquer North India. With the help of a number of Acts passed in May and June 1857, the British put the whole of North India under Martial Law. Military officers and ordinary Britons were given the authority to try and punish Indians who were suspected of rebellion. It was put out that only one punishment could be given to rebels and that was death.

Question 8.
How did the Mutiny of 1857 start? Give a brief description of the events concerning the uprising in Meerut.
The uprising of 1857 started in the afternoon of 10 May, 4857 in the cantonment of Meerut. It broke out in the lines of the native infantry. It then quickly spread to the cavalry and soon engulfed the whole city. The ordinary people of the city also joined the sepoys who took up arms and attacked the white people. They ransacked their bungalows and burnt their property. They also destroyed the government buildings like the jail, the court, the treasury, and the post office and cut down the telegraph lines to Delhi.

The next day, i.e., on 11th May 1857, the sepoys reached the gates of the Red Fort in Delhi. They briefed Bahadur Shah, the last Mughal king, about the incidents in Meerut and requested him to both bless and lead the uprising against the white men. At first, the emperor was a bit hesitant but later on, he accepted their demand. His approval gave legitimacy to the revolt as it was carried on in the name of the Mughal emperor.

Question 9.
How did the Revolt of 1857 spread?
The Revolt of 1857 broke out on 10 May 1857. Starting from the cantonment of Meerut, it reached Delhi on the very next day. Within a few days, it spread to other parts of the country. Besides the soldiers, the ordinary people also participated in it. The soldiers took up arms and ammunition and attacked the white men. They destroyed government buildings and plundered public property.

At many places, the revolt started with a signal. But in many other places, it started with the firing of the evening gun or the sounding of the bugle. The Hindus joined hands with Muslims to exterminate the British. They also attacked the rich and the money-lenders who were allies of the British. They defied all kinds of authority and hierarchy. The mutiny had turned into a rebellion against the British. It had become the first war of independence in India. The British rule had fallen like a house of cards.

Question 10.
Describe the annexation of Awadh by the British. Why did the British take a keen interest in it?
Or
Explain the provisions of the subsidiary Alliance imposed on Awadh ] in 1801 by the British. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (D))
Or
Critically examine Lord Dalhousie’s policy of annexation in Awadh. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (O.D.))
The British had long cherished to occupy and control Awadh. In 1851 C.E., Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General of India, had described the kingdom of Awadh as “a cherry that will drop into our mouth one day”. However, the British were able to annex Awadh to the British Empire in 1856 C.E.

The first step towards the acquisition of Awadh was the imposition of the Subsidiary Alliance in 1801 C.E. Subsidiary Alliance was a system devised by Lord Wellesley in 1798 C.E. It stipulated the following conditions on the Nawab:
(a) He will have to disband his military force.
(b) He will permit the British to send and station their troops within the kingdom.
(c) He will act in accordance with the advice of the British Resident.
(d) He will enter into agreements with other rulers or engage in warfare only with the permission of the British.

In other words, the Nawab had lost its independence and had become dependent on the British to maintain law and order within the kingdom. He had also lost his control over the rebellious chiefs and taluqdars.

The British Interest in Awadh: The British had a keen interest in acquiring the territory of Awadh. It is clear from the following points:

• The soil of Awadh was good for the production of cotton and indigo.
• It was ideally located to become the principal market of North-India.

Question 11.
How did the British display terror against the mutineers? Did they have any place for clemency?
After the Revolt of 1857, the British felt shocked. They were filled with a feeling of anger, vengeance and retribution. It is seen from the brutal way in which they execute the rebels. Many rebels were blown from the cannons. Many other rebels were hanged from the gallows. To make them feel afraid of the British power, the British officials widely circulated the images of these executions through popular journals.

No place for pleas of Clemency: The British were blind because of the upsurge of vengeance and revenge in their hearts. So they ridiculed all pleas for moderation and clemency. The British Press mocked when Governor-General Canning declared to show leniency and mercy to win back the loyalty of the sepoys. The Punch, a British Journal of comic satire, published a cartoon in which Canning was shown as a fatherly-figure, keeping his protective hand over the head of a sepoy who still held an unsheathed sword in one hand and a dagger in the other.

It showed that both the sword and the dagger were dripping with blood. In other words, the British people and press were adamant not to show any mercy or clemency towards the Indian rebels.

Question 12.
Discuss the general causes for the Revolt of 1857.
The following were the main reasons for the Revolt of 1857:

1. Many Indians had turned against the British because of the policy of Lapse initiated by Lord Dalhousie.

2. The British considered India as a market for raw material to factories in England. So they made many efforts to destroy the Indian trade and industry. It increased poverty in the country and therefore people started despising the British rule.

3. The Indian sepoys had a feeling of discontentment against the imperial rule. They got low salaries as compared to the British soldiers and were also maltreated. They could not bear this insult for long.

4. In 1856, the soldiers were given the new ‘Enfield’ Rifles. The cartridges of these rifles were coated with the fat of cows and pigs. So the Indian soldiers refused to accept and use these cartridges. Slowly and steadily this incident led to the emergence of the Revolt of 1857.

Question 13.
What were the causes for the mutiny of Indian soldiers in 1857?
Or
Describe the grievances of the Indian sepoys against the British rule before the revolt of 1857. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (D))
The following causes were responsible for the mutiny of soldiers in India in 1857:

1. The Indian soldiers were given the new Enfield Rifles. The cartridges of these rifles were coated with the fat of cows and pigs. The soldiers felt that when they would bite these bullets, it would corrupt their caste and religion.

2. In many cantonments, the Indian soldiers refused to use the flour which was said to have the bone dust of cows and pigs.

3. A law was passed in 1857 according to which the Indian soldiers could be sent across the sea to fight against any enemy. During those days, many Hindu soldiers considered it a sin against their religion to go across the sea.

4. The Indian soldiers were maltreated during the parade. The Indians could not bear this humiliation and insult for long.

5. There was discontentment among the Indian soldiers as they were paid less salary than their counterparts in the British. They also faced difficulty in getting leaves.

6. The British officials often poked fun at the culture and civilization of the Indian soldiers. So the Indian soldiers wanted to avenge their insult.

7. When Mangal Pandey, a soldier, was given cartridges coated with the fat of cows and pigs, he felt infuriated and killed a British official. So he was sentenced to death for this crime. It spread a wave of anger among all Indian soldiers. As a result, they rose in rebellion against the British.

Question 14.
Discuss the legacy of the Revolt of 1857.
Or
Critically evaluate the long-term impact of the Revolt of 1857 on Indian Politics.
Or
“The national movement in the 20th century draws its inspiration from the events of 1857.” Support this statement with examples. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (O.D.))
Undoubtedly, the Revolt of 1857 did not achieve the desired result. Although it did not succeed, it left a deep and long-term impact on Indian politics. It created an urge for freedom in the minds of the people. This seed of freedom planted in 1857 yielded its fruit in 1947 when India attained freedom. In fact, it was the first national struggle for freedom wherein the people wanted to get rid of British rule.

It prepared a base for the development of the modern national movement for independence. It left an indelible imprint on the minds of the Indians and initiated a new tradition of opposing the foreign rule at every step. Soon the heroic deeds of the heroes of this national struggle for freedom reached every home who became a symbol of power to the people.

Question 15.
Analyze the significance of unity amongst the Hindu and the Muslims during the events of 1857.
Most of the strength of the Revolt of 1857 lay in the unity between the Hindus and the Muslims. This spirit of unity and harmony was visible in the soldiers, the leaders, and the people. Bahadur Shah Zafar was a Muslim but even then, all the rebels accepted him as their leader. Not only this, the Hindu sepoys of Meerut moved towards Delhi and reached Red Fort to seek the blessings of the Mughal Emperor. The soldiers, the Hindus, and the Muslims were considerate towards the feelings and sentiments of each other.

For example, wherever the revolt succeeded, the cow slaughter was immediately banned so that the Hindus may not feel hurt. Besides, the Hindus and the Muslims had an equal representation in the leadership of the rebellion. Regarding the Hindu-Muslim unity, a senior British official admitted that they had not been able to divide the Hindu and the Muslims this time.

Question 16.
Describe how the British celebrated those, who they believed, saved the English and repressed the rebels during the revolt of 1857. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (D))
Only a few Indian rulers played a constructive role in the revolt of 1857. They included Bahadur Shah, Kunwar Singh, Rani of Jhansi, and Nana Sahib. They were the victims of the expansionist policy of the British. Their kingdoms were usurped by the Britishers on one pretext or the other. So these leaders led the revolution in their respective regions or province. They valiantly faced the British forces but most of the Indian rulers were selfish and afraid of the British power. So instead of taking part in the revolt, they helped the Britishers in crushing the revolt of 1857.

The Sindhiyas of Gwalior, the Holkars of Indore, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Rajput rulers of Jodhpur and other regions, the Nawab of Bhopal, and most of the other Indian rulers helped the Britishers. In fact, the British Govt was able to crush the revolt because of the help and co-operation of these rulers. In this regard, Canning, the then Governor-General of India, had said that these Sardars (Chiefs) “acted as a dam before the storm, otherwise this storm could uproot us with even a single wave”. The British rulers rewarded these rulers of India with Jagirs and rewarding posts.

Question 17.
Describe the alternative power structure that the rebels tried to establish during the revolt of 1857. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (D))
Or
Examine the structure of authority and administration that the rebels wanted after the collapse of British rule in India. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
The revolutionaries of 1857 were in search of an alternative strategy. For example, after the British rule was demolished in Delhi, Lucknow, and Kanpur, the revolutionaries wanted to set up a uniform rule or authority at all the places. Though this experiment did not succeed, yet it was clear from their efforts that they wanted to establish the rule that existed prior to the 18th century.

These leaders took the help of the old Darbari culture. They made appointments on different posts and made arrangements for the collection of land, revenue, and the disbursement of salary to the soldiers. They issued decrees to end loot. They also planned strategies to continue the war against the British rule and took steps to strengthen their control of the army. In all these attempts, the revolutionaries were taking the help of the Mughal period rulers in the 18th century. The Mughal period was a symbol of all those things which were lost.

Question 18.
How do the official accounts present the Revolt of 1857? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
Many official accounts are available for the revolt of 1857. Colonial administrators and military men left their versions in letters and diaries, autobiographies, and official histories. We can also gauge the official mindset and the changing British attitude through a number of memos and notes, assessments of situations, and reports that were produced. Many of these have now been collected in a set of mutiny records.

These tell us about the fears and anxieties of officials and their perception of the rebels. The stories of the revolts that were published in British newspapers and magazines narrated in detail the violence of the mutineers- and these stories inflamed public feelings provoking demands of retribution and revenge.

Question 19.
Examine the proclamations issued by the rebels in 1857 and explain why did they want to reject everything associated with the British rule in India. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))

1. In all their proclamations, the rebels repeatedly appealed to all sections of society. They did not take caste or creed into consideration.

2. Many proclamations were made by the Muslim princes. But all such proclamation took into consideration the sentiments of the Hindus.

3. This revolution was expressed in such a way that Hindus and Muslims will be equally affected by this.

4. Many pamphlets were issued which glorified the co-existence of different Communities under the Mughal Empire.

5. Bahadur Shah appealed in the name of Prophet Muhammad and Lord Mahavir to the public to rise against the white people.

Rebels rejected everything associated with the British rule in India because they had no faith in the British. They argued that the British had destroyed their traditional lifestyle “which they want to rejuvenate.

Question 20.
“The annexation of Awadh displaced not just the Nawab but also dispossessed the taluqdars of the region, causing break down of an entire social order.” Critically examine the statement. (CJB.S.E. 2011 (D))
The annexation of Awadh not only displaced the Nawab but also dispossessed the taluqdars of this region. The whole of the countryside of Awadh was dotted with the forts and estates of taluqdars. These people controlled the land and power of their areas for centuries. Before the arrival of the British, these taluqdars maintained armed sepoys and had their own forts. The British were not ready to tolerate their power which is why, exactly after the annexation of Awadh, the taluqdars were disarmed and their forts were destroyed.

The entire social order was broke down with the dispossession of taluqdars. The ties of patronage and loyalty were disrupted that had bound the peasants to the taluqdars. Before the Britishers, these taluqdars were oppressed but some of them seemed to be generous father figures. They extracted a number of dues from the peasants but helped them during their bad times. Now during the British rule, the peasants were directly exposed to over-assessment of revenue and non-flexible methods of revenue collection.

Question 21.
How do the British pictures of the mutiny of 1857 offer a variety of images that were meant to provoke different emotions and reactions? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (iO.D.))
British pictures offer a number of images that were prepared to provoke different emotions and reactions.
In some of the pictures made by the British, the British heroes were commemorated who saved the English and repressed the rebels. One of the painting ‘Relief of Lucknow’ was painted by Thomas Jones Barker in 1859, is an example of this type when the Lucknow was besieged by the rebel forces then the commissioner of Lucknow, Henry Lawrence, collected the whole of the Christian population and took shelter in the heavily fortified Residency.

Later on, Lawrence was killed but the Residency remained protected under the command of Colonel Inglis. On September 25, Henry Havelock and James Outram reached over there and cut through the rebel forces. They even reinforced the British troops. After 20 days, the new commander of British forces in India, Colin Campbell, came over there with his forces and saved the besieged British forces.

The British historians described the siege of Lucknow and their survival as the ultimate victory of the British power. The painting of Barker shows the moment of Campbell’s entry. It created a sense that the troubled times and the rebellion were over. The British emerged victoriously.

Question 22.
Explain how the merchants in India were badly affected by the monopolization of trade by the British Government, according to the Azamgarh Proclamation of 25th August 1857. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
The Azamgarh proclamation of 25th August 1857 is one of the most important sources of our knowledge about what the rebels wanted. The Proclamation said that “It is well known to all, that in this age, the people of Hindustan, both Hindus and Mohammedans, are being ruined under the tyranny and the oppression of the infidel and treacherous English”. It also says that the British Govt had monopolized the trade and all the important merchandise. The British monopolized the trade of indigo and trade of unimportant things was left for the people. The British taxed with postages and tolls, etc., and merchants were liable to jail and had to face a lot at the complaint of a worthless person.

Question 23.
Explain how the mutinies were so organized in India in 1857. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
The Revolt of 1857 was well-planned and well-coordinated. It is evident from the following points:

1.There was coordination and harmony between sepoys and the ordinary people. Both wanted to target the white people.

2. The revolt got a tinge of legitimacy as it was carried forward under the leadership of Bahadur Shah Zafar the last Mughal Emperor in India.

3. The Hindus and the Muslims united and rose together against the white people.

4. There was communication between the sepoy lines of various cantonments.

5. Another example of good planning and organization can be cited from Awadh where Captain Hearsey of the Awadh Military Police was provided protection by his Indian subordinates during the mutiny. The 41st Native Infantry, which had killed all its white officers, insisted that the military police would either kill Captain Hearsey or hand him over as a prisoner but the military police refused to kill Captain Hearsey.

At last, they decided to settle the issue in a panchayat having native officers drawn from ehchsTegiment. In other words, many decisions during the rebellion were taken collectively.

Question 24.
Explain briefly how the rebel proclamations in 1857 were visualized to achieve unity among all sections of the population. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
The rebel proclamations in 1857 appealed again and again to all groups of population irrespective of their creed, caste, color, etc. Most of the proclamations were issued on the names of Muslim princes. But these proclamations also addressed the sentiments of Hindus. This rebellion was seen as a war in which Hindus and Muslims both had equally to gain or lose.

The British tried to create religious divisions among Hindus and Muslims but. these were hardly seen during the uprising. The British spend? 50,000 in Bareilly in western U.P., in Dec. 1857, to incite the Hindus against the Muslims but failed in their attempt.

Question 25.
Examine the participation of taluqdars of Awadh in the Revolt of 1857. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
The taluqdars of Awadh felt influenced by the British policy in the following way:

1. The forts and castles of the taluqdars were demolished and their armed forces were disbanded.
2. They were deprived of their lands under the Summary Settlement of 1856. Many taluqdars lost even more than half the villages under their control.
3. Their freedom was snatched:
4. They lost a lot of power and respect because of the loss of their land.
5. The demand for revenue was doubled. It generated a sense of anger among the taluqdars.

### Rebels and the Raj Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
To what extend the discontent against the foreign rule was responsible for the Revolt of 1857? Can it be called the first war of Iatliao Independence?
Or
What were the reasons for the revolt of 1857? Was it a mutiny of sepoys or a national struggle for freedom? Justify your answer with arguments
The mutiny of 1857 is termed the first war of Indian Independence. It is true that tin’s rebellion was started by the sepoys but soon it had become a mass rebellion. It was a revolutionary uprising against the British. The main reason for this rebellion was extensive discontent among the common people. The people of India were oppressed by the policies and imperialist exploitation of the British. The native rulers, farmers, traders, soldiers, and the ordinary people all suffered insult and humiliation under British rule. All of them wanted to get free from th^ British by any means. So as the fire of rebellion broke out in 1857, the people belonging to different religions, castes, and sections of society participated in it. The following points will clarify that this revolt was the result of extensive discontentment among the people:

A. Political Causes:

1. The Subsidiary Alliance of Lord Wellesley and the Doctrine of Lapse enforced by Lord Dalhousie generated a sense of discontentment and dissatisfaction among all the Indians.
2. The pension of Nana Sahib was stopped due to which he turned against the British.
3. The Rani of Jhansi was not permitted to adopt a son so she was also annoyed with the British.
4. The Zamindars and chiefs were also against the British because their laid had been snatched by the British officials and rulers

B. Economic Causes:

1. Due to the industrial revolution, the things produced in England were quite cheap. As a result, the sale of British goods increased immensely. The Indian industry almost collapse and many artisans and craftsmen of India lost their means of livelihood and therefore they turned against the British.

2. Because of the British. the policy of trade, the Indian trade was shattered^ If Indian things were sent to England, a heavy-duty was imposed on these things. Consequently, the Indian goods became very costly, and therefore there was a decline in the demand for Indian goods. In fact, the Indian trade lost its ground.

3. During the British rule, the Zamindars were considered as the owners of the land. They collected a fixed revenue and deposited it in the government treasury. On the other hand, they collected revenue from the farmers as per their wish. As a result, the farmers felt suffocated and wanted to get rid of this oppression and exploitation.

4. Heavy taxes were imposed on the people of India. The taxes were so much that the people found it .difficult to survive. Ultimately they revolted against the government.

C. Social And Religious Causes:

1. The Christian missionaries were engaged in the process of religious conversion. They were exhorting Indians to adopt Christianity due to which many Indians turned against them.

2. William Bentinck had introduced many reforms in Indian society. He had abolished customs like Safi and permitted the remarriage of Hindu widows. He also banned child marriages. Many Hindus considered it as an interference in their religious affairs.

3. There was also widespread discontentment among the Indians because of the British system of Education. As the British introduced western education, western ideas, and western institutions, many Indians felt that it was an attempt to turn them into Christians.

4. Many Indians were enraged when the Christian missionaries criticized Hindu scriptures.

D. Military Causes:

1.In 1856, the British Parliament passed a law by which the Indians could be sent across the sea to fight against any enemy. During those days, the Hindus considered it a sin against their religion to cross the sea. So they opposed the British rule.

2. The Indian soldiers were maltreated during the parade. So they could not bear their insult for long.

3. The Indian soldiers got less salary as compared with their British counterparts. It generated a sense of discontentment among the Indian soldiers.

4. The British officials made fun of the Indian culture and civilization even in front of the Indian soldiers. Naturally, the Indian soldiers wanted to avenge their insult.

E. Immediate Cause:

The soldiers were given new Enfield rifles. The cartridges of these rifles were coated with the fat of the cows and pigs. So a few sepoys of the Barrackpur cantonment refused to use them. Mangal Pandey, a soldier, felt so enraged that he killed a British official. He was later on hanged to death for this offense. All other Indian soldiers lost their patience and revolted against the British.

Nature of the Rebellion

1. People from1 all the sections of society
participated in the rebellion though their number was limited.
2. The people and the soldiers were against the British. They wanted to get rid of them.
3. The soldiers revolted not to seek any concessions but to get freedom from the foreign rule.
4. The rebellion did not spread in all parts of
a country. Many cities remained calm and quiet. If they were calm, it did not mean that they were with the British. They were silent due to their infirmities but were definitely against the British.
5. The Hindus and the Muslims unitedly fought against the British. They were not happy with the British rule. So they collectively rose against the British. Thus, the revolt of 1857 was not a mutiny but the first war of Indian Independence.

Question 2.
How the Revolt of 1857 began? How it spread everywhere or became a rebellion?
Or
Describe the main events of the Revolt of 1857.

1. Mutinies began at Cantonment of Meerut: The sepoys in the cantonment of Meerut broke out in mutiny on the late afternoon of 10th May 1857. The mutiny began in the lines of the native infantry. It very quickly spread to the cavalry and then in the city. The ordinary people of surrounding villages and towns also joined the sepoys. The sepoys captured the bell of arms where arms and ammunition were kept.

Then they attacked the white people and started to burn their bungalows and property. The record office, court, jail, treasury, post-office, etc., were plundered and destroyed. The telegraph line joining Delhi with Meerut was cut down. As darkness descended, many sepoys (a group) rode on horses towards Delhi.

2. Delhi: The group of sepoys arrived at the gates of the Red Fort on the early morning of 11th May 1857. It was the holy month of Ramzan in which Muslims pray and have the fasts. The Mughal emperor heard the commotion at the gates of Red Fort. The sepoys told him that they had come from Meerut after killing alb the English men there because they asked them to bite bullets which were coated with the fat of cows and pigs with their feet®. They also told him that it will corrupt the faith of Hindus and Muslims.

Then another group of sepoys also entered Delhi. Ordinary people of Delhi also joined them. A large number of Europeans were killed. Rich people of Delhi were attacked and looted. Delhi had gone out of control of the British. Some sepoys even entered the Red Fort and demanded the blessing of the emperor. Bahadur Shah was surrounded by sepoys and was left with no option but to comply. In this way, revolt acquired a type of legitimacy because now it could be carried on in the name of the Mughal emperor.

North India remained quiet through 12th and 13th May. Once the news spread about the fall of Delhi and Bahadur Shah’s concept of rebellion, the situation changed very quickly. Mutiny rose swiftly in Cantonment after Cantonment in the Gangetic valley and some to the west of Delhi.

3. Spread of Revolt: Sepoys began their activities with any specific signal. At many places, this signal was firing of the evening gun and at many places, it was sounding of the bugle.

The targets of attack widened when ordinary people began joining the revolt. Moneylenders and rich people became the objects of rebel wrath in major towns like Kanpur, Lucknow, and Bareilly. They were considered not only as oppressors by the peasants but were seen as allies of the British. Houses of the rich were looted and destroyed in many places. The mutiny of sepoys became a rebellion very quickly.

4. Awadh: The most dangerous form of the revolt was seen in Awadh where Nawab was removed by the British on the issue of misgovernance. Here, the leader of the revolt was the young son of Nawab Birjis Qadr.

### Rebels and the Raj Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Why did the moneylenders and the rich people become victims of the wrath of mutineers in the Revolt of 1857?
The rebels humiliated all the elites and specifically targeted the moneylenders and the rich people because they considered them as local oppressors and the allies; of the British. These people exploited and oppressed, the farmers. So the rebels attacked them. They looted and demolished their homes.

Question 2.
Why was the revolt in Awadh so extensive?
Awadh was one of the major centers of the Revolt of 1857. It was because of the following reasons:

1. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was the beloved and
popular leader of the people but the British dethroned him. They accused him of misgovernance and sent him on exile to Calcutta which increased discontentment among the people.
2. The British army recruited a large number of sepoys from the villages of Awadh. These sepoys were given low wages and faced difficulty in getting leave: So they felt discontent and unhappy at the events that happened in Awadh.
3. The sepoys of Awadh were also enraged because of the greased cartridges.

Question 3.
The Revolt of 1857 was evidently a war for independence. It can be substantiated with the following arguments:

1. It was a revolt in which sepoys, as well as the ordinary people, participated.
2. The Hindus and the Muslims united to rise against the Britishers. They targeted not only the white men but also their allies like, the moneylenders who fleeced and oppressed the peasants.
3. The people generally defied all kinds of authority and hierarchy.

Question 4.
How did the Nawab of Awadh become powerless with the Subsidiary Alliance?

1. The Nawab of Awadh was deprived of his military force with the subsidiary alliance. As a result, the Nawab became increasingly dependent on the British to maintain law and order within the state.
2. Now he had no control over the rebellious chiefs and taluqdars.

Question 5.
What was the implication of a link between the sepoys and the rural world in the course of the uprising of 1857?
The link between the sepoys and the rural world had a great impact on the nature of the uprising. When the sepoys defied the orders of their superiors and took up arms then they were quickly joined by their relatives of villages. Everywhere people went over to towns and joined the collective acts of rebellion.

Question 6.
“The condition of peasants of Awadh deteriorated with the removal of taluqdars.” Elucidate the statement.
Or
“The dispossession of taluqdars meant the breakdown of an entire social order.” Critically examine the statement. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (O.D.))
Taluqdars were oppressors even in the pre- British times but a number of taluqdars also appeared to be generous father figures in the eyes of masses. They used to extract a number of dues from the peasants but also helped them during their bad times. Now during the British rule, the peasants were directly exposed to the over-assessment of revenue and non-flexible methods of revenue collection.

There was no guarantee that the revenue demand of the state would be reduced or collection postponed in case of crop failure or in the times of hardship. Peasants also had no guarantee that they would get the loan and support in times of festivities which the taluqdars had earlier provided.

Question 7.
“Rumours circulate only when they resonate, with the deep fears and suspicion of the people.” How was this statement true in the context of the Revolt of 1857? (C.BS.E. Sample Paper 2011)
Or
“The rumours in 1857 began to make sense when seen in the context of the policies pursued by the British from the late 1820s.” Support your answer with evidence. (C.B.S.E, 2009 (D))
Or
Explain how rumours and prophecies played an important part in moving people to action during the Revolt of 1857. (C.B.S.E. 2014 (O.B.))
In reality, the rumours spread only if they create a feeling of awe and doubt among the people. The British policies created a sense of awe and terror in the minds of the people. So the rumours spread with a rapid speed. The following policies had a hand in the spread of the rumors:

1. Under the leadership of Lord William Bentinck, the British Government was implementing special policies to reform the Indian society through the western system of education, western ideas, and western institutions.
2. With the help of a few sections of society, they opened and established many English medium schools, colleges, and universities.
3. The British formulated laws to abolish Sati Pratha in 1829 and legitimize the Hindu widow remarriage.
4. The Christian Missionaries propagated Christianity in the whole of India.
5. The adopted son was not recognized to inherit ’ the property of his parents.
6.  The cartridges were coated with the fat of cow or pig. The soldiers had to cut them, before use, with their teeth.

Question 8.
Art and Literature, as much as the writing of history, have helped in keeping alive the memory of 1857. Explain this statement by citing an example of Rani of Jhansi.
Or
“Visual images and literature as much as the writing of history have helped in keeping alive the memory of the revolt of 1857.” Assess this statement. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (O.D.))
Or
Describe how art and literature helped in keeping alive, the memory of 1857. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))
Art and literature played a significant role in keeping alive the memory of the Revolt of 1857. The writing of history also weaved around the revolt. It is evident from the following points:

1. The leaders of the revolt were presented as heroic figures. They were highly praised for having risen against oppressive imperial rule.

2. The events of 1857 were celebrated as the first war of independence in which all sections of the people of India put a joint battle against the repressive British rule.

3. The poets composed many heroic poems. For example, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan wrote the lines: “Khoob Lari Mardani Woh To Jhansi Wali Rani Thi”. The children in many parts of India grew up reading these lines about Rani of Jhansi who had fought valiantly against the British. She is often presented as a ‘mardana’ – masculine figure chasing the enemy.

She held a sword in one hand and the reins of the horse in the other. She wore armour and fought for the freedom of her motherland. She killed many British soldiers alone. She valiantly fought against the imperial rule till her last. So she is presented as a symbol of firm determination to resist injustice, oppression and alien rule.

Question 9.
Discuss the role of rumours and prophecies in the expansion of the Revolt of 1857.
Or
“Rumours and prophecies played a part in moving the people into action during the revolt of 1857”. Examine the statement with rumours and reasons for the believed.” (C.B.S.E. 2017 (O.D.))
Rumours and prophecies played a significant role in the Revolt of 1857. It is clear from the following examples:
Rumours about Cartridges: There was a rumour that the new cartridges of Enfield Rifles were greased with the fat of cows and pigs. This rumor fried fire are the sepoy-lines of North India.

Rumors about Flour Mixed with Bone Dust: There was a rumor that the British had conspired to destroy the caste and religion of both the Hindus and the Muslims. Some people spread the rumour that the British had mixed bone dust of cows and pigs into the flour that was sold in the market. So the common people, as well as the sepoys in various cantonments, refused to touch and eat this flour. Some people considered it as the British attempt to convert Indians to Christianity. The British contradicted these rumours but nobody believed them.

Distribution of Chapattis: Another thing that defied any explanation was the distribution of chapattis from village to village. At night, a person gave five chapattis to the watchman of the village. He asked him to make five more chapattis and distribute them in the next village. The meaning and purpose of such distribution of the chapattis remained an enigma to most of the people.

Question 1.
Why were the Rumours Believed by the People? The rumours reflect the mind of the people who were agitated against the British. They brought out the fear and apprehensions, faiths and convictions of the people. They exposed the fears and suspicions of the people. It can be understood from the following points:

1.Lord William Bentinck, the Governor-General of the British Empire in India, introduced certain reforms in the Indian society. He introduced western education, western ideas, and western institutions. He set up English-medium institutions. But the Hindus considered his attempts as the methods of westernisation of Indiahi&ociety.
2. Lord William Bentinck abolished customs like Sati and child-marriage1,( British also permitted the remarriage of Hindu widows. But the traditional Hindus took these steps, as an interference in their religious affairs. They as if the British were bent upon to destroy all those sacred ideas that the Indians had long cherished.
3. As the people considered the alien rule as impersonal and oppressive, they believed in all rumors and prophecies about this British rule.

Question 2.
Why was the revolt in Awadh so extensive?
Awadh was one of the major centres of the Revolt of 1857. It was, because of the following reasons:

1. Nawab Wajid Ali Shah was the beloved and popular leader of the people but the British dethroned him. They accused him of misgovernance and sent him on exile to Calcutta which increased discontentment among the people.
2. The British army recruited a large number of sepoys from the villages of Awadh. These sepoys were given low wages and faced difficulty in getting leave; So they felt discontent and unhappy at the events that happened in Awadh.
3. The sepoys of Awadh were also enraged because of the greased cartridges.

Question 3.
The Revolt of 1857 was evidently a war for independence. It can be substantiated with the following arguments:

1. It was a revolt in which sepoys, as well as the ordinary people, participated. ,
2. The Hindus and the Muslims united to rise against the Britishers. They targeted not only the white men but also their allies like, the moneylenders who fleeced and oppressed the peasants.
3. The people generally defied all kinds of authority and hierarchy.

Question 4.
How did the Nawab of Awadh become powerless with the Subsidiary Alliance?

1. The Nawab of Awadh was deprived of his military force with the subsidiary alliance. As a result, the Nawab became increasingly dependent on the British to maintain law and order within the state.
2. Now he had no control over the rebellious chiefs and taluqdars.

Question 5.
What was the implication of the link between the sepoys and the rural world in the course of the uprising of 1857?
The link between the sepoys and the rural world had a great impact on the nature of the uprising. When the sepoys defied the orders of their superiors and took up arms then the^were quickly joined by their relatives of villages. Everywhere people went over to towns and joined the collective acts of rebellion.

Question 6. “The condition of peasants of Awadh deteriorated with the removal of taluqdars.” Elucidate the statement.
Or
“The dispossession of taluqdars meant the breakdown of an entire social order.” Critically examine the statement. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (O.D.))
Taluqdars were oppressors even in the pre- British times but a number of taluqdars also appeared to be generous father figures in the eyes of masses. They used to extract a number of dues from the peasants but also helped them during their bad times. Now during the British rule, the peasants were directly exposed to the over-assessment of revenue and non-flexible methods of revenue collection.

There was no guarantee that the revenue demand of the state would be reduced or collection postponed in case of crop failure or in the times of hardship. Peasants also had no guarantee that they would get the loan and support in times of festivities which the taluqdars had earlier provided.

Question 7.
“Rumours circulate only when they resonate, with the deep fears and suspicion of the people.” How was this statement true in the context of the; Revolt of 1857? (CJ3.S.E. Sample Paper 2011)
“The rumours in 1857 began to make sense when seen in the context of the policies pursued by the British from the late 1820s.” Support your answer with evidence. (CJS.S.E. 2009 (D))
Or
Explain how rumours and prophecies played an important part in moving people to action during the Revolt of 1857. (C.B.S.E. 2014 (O.D.))
In reality, the rumours spread only if they create a feeling of awe and doubt among the people. The British policies created a sense of awe and terror in the minds of the people. So the rumours spread with a rapid speed. The following policies had a hand in the spread of the rumors:

1. Under the leadership of Lord William Bentinck, the British Government was implementing special policies to reform the Indian society through the western system of education, western ideas, and western institutions.
2. With the help of a few sections of society, they opened and established many English medium schools, colleges, and universities.
3. The British formulated laws to abolish Sati Pratha in 1829 and legitimize the Hindu widow remarriage.

### Rebels and the Raj Important Extra Questions Source-Based

Question 1.
The Azamgarh Proclamation, 25 August 1857

This is one of the main sources of our knowledge about what the rebels wanted:

Section III — Regarding Public Servants: It is not a secret thing, that under the British Government, natives employed in the civil and military services have little respect, low pay, and no manner of influence; and all the posts of dignity and emolument in both the departments are exclusively bestowed on Englishmen, …… Therefore, all the natives in the British service ought to be alive to their religion and interest, and abjuring their loyalty to the English, side with the Badshahi Government, and obtain salaries of 200 and 300 rupees for the present, and be entitled to high posts in the future……..

Section TV—Regarding Artisans. It is evident that the Europeans, by the introduction of English articles into India, have thrown the weavers, the cotton dressers, the carpenters, the blacksmiths, and the shoemakers, etc., out of employ, and have engrossed their occupations, so that every description of native artisan has been reduced to beggary. But under the Badshahi Government, the native artisans will exclusively be employed in the service of the kings, the rajahs, and the rich; and this will no doubt ensure their prosperity Therefore, these artisans ought to renounce the English services.
(i) How did the introduction of English articles affect the artisans?
With the arrival of a large number of foreign goods in India, the British established their sole control over all kinds of artisans. As a result, they became unemployed. Their condition became like that of the beggars.

(ii) How did the conditions of the artisans improve under the Badshahi Government?
In the monarchical government, the native craftsmen were employed in the service of the kings and the rich people. In this way, they got a chance for their development. It brought a considerable change in their condition.

(iii) Why were the Public servants dissatisfied with the British Government?
In the British government, the government servants were not given any respect. They were paid less. They were even devoid of any power. The status posts were given only to the Englishmen. So the Indian government employees were not satisfied with the British government.

(iv) What did the rebel proclamation repeatedly appeal for?
The declarations of the revolutionaries appealed time and again that all the Indians should take special care of their religion and interest. They should give up their loyalty and service for the British and side with the monarchical government.

Question 2.
What the Sepoys Thought

This is one of the artist (petition or application) of rebel sepoys that have survived:

A century ago the British arrived in Hindostan and gradually entertained troops in their service, and became masters of every state. Our forefathers have always served them, and we also entered their service…By the mercy of God and with our assistance the British also conquered every place they liked, in which thousands of us, Hindustani men were sacrificed, but we never made any excuses or pretenses nor revolted…

But in the year eighteen fifty-seven, the British issued an order that new cartridges and muskets which had arrived from England were to be issued; in the former of which the fats of cows and pigs were mixed; and also that attach of wheat mixed with powdered bones was to be eaten; and even distributed them in every Regiment of infantry, cavalry, and artillery…

They gave these cartridges to the sowars (mounted soldiers) of the 3rd Light Cavalry, and ordered them to bite them; the troopers objected to it and said that they would never bite them, for if they did, their religion and faith would be destroyed… upon this the British officers paraded the men of the 3 Regiments and having prepared 1,400 English soldiers, and other Battalions of European troops and Horse Artillery, surrounded them, and placing six guns before each of the infantry regiments, loaded the guns with grape and made 84 new troopers prisoners, and put them in jail with irons on them… The reason that the sowars of the Cantonment were put into jail was that we should be frightened into biting the new cartridges.

On this account we and all our country-men having united together, have fought the British for the preservation of our faith…. we have been compelled to make war for two years and the Rajahs and Chiefs who are with us in faith and religion, are still so and have undergone all sorts of trouble; we have fought for two years in order that our faith and religion may not be polluted. If the religion of a Hindoo or Mussalman is lost, what remains in the world?
(i) With which rebellion were these sepoys associated?
These sepoys were associated with the Revolt of 1857.

(ii) How did the Indian Youth help the British?
The Indian youth won many regions for the British. They made many sacrifices to conquer these territories. They never retreated from achieving their mission.

(iii) Which order of the British led to the Revolt of 1857?
In 1857, the British issued an order that the Indian soldiers would have to use the new cartridges and muskets. These cartridges and muskets had the coating of the fat of cows and pigs. Besides the Indian soldiers were given the flour of wheat to eat. But this flour was mixed with bone dust of animals. The Indian soldiers felt that if they complied the British order, their religion and faith would be destroyed. So they united for the preservation of their faith. There was an acute dis¬contentment among them because of new cartridges and muskets.

(iv) How were the sepoys treated when they refused to use the new cartridges?
When the Indian sepoys refused to use new cartridges and muskets, they were not treated well. The British became cruel and inflicted all kinds of troubles and tortures. All the Indian soldiers were surrounded and six guns were placed before each of the infantry regiment. Eighty-four soldiers were put behind bars to frighten all other soldiers.

Question 3.
Rebel of Rebellion Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah

Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah was one of the many maulvis who played an important part in the revolt of 1857. Educated in Hyderabad, he became a preacher when young. In 1856, he was seen moving from village to village preaching jihad (religious war) against the British and urging people to rebel. He moved in a palanquin, with drumbeaters in front and followers at the rear. He was therefore popularly called Danka Shah—the maulvi with the drum (danka). British officials panicked as thousands began following the Maulvi and many Muslims began seeing him as an inspired prophet.

When he reached Lucknow in 1856, he was stopped by the police from preaching in the city. Subsequently, in 1857, he was jailed in Faizabad. When released, he was elected by mutinous 22nd Native Infantry as their leader. He fought in the famous Battle of Chinhat in which the British forces under Henry Lawrence were defeated. He came to be known for his courage and power. Many people in fact believed that he was invincible, had magical powers, and could not be killed by the British. It was this belief that partly formed the basis of his authority.
(i) Who was Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah?
Many maulvis played a significant role in the revolt of 1857. Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah was one of them.

(ii) Discuss his activities against the British in 1856.
In 1856, he went from village to village and preached Jihad (religious war) against the British. He urged all the people to rebel against the British. He moved in a palanquin. The drum¬beaters moved before him. His followers moved at his back. So he was popularly called as Danka Shah, that is, the maulvi with a drum.

(iii) Why were the British officers tense? What did they do to control the activities of Ahmadullah Shah?
The British officials felt tense and panicky when thousands of people followed the maulvi. He had become an inspired prophet for many Muslims. So the British wanted to control and check his activities. They stopped him from preaching in Lucknow in 1856 and he was sent to jail in Faizabad in 1857.

(iv) What did the people think about him?
The people respected the maulvi for his courage and power. They considered him invincible and possessing magical powers.

Question 4.
The Rebel of 1857: Shah Mai

Shah Mai lived in a large village in pargana Barout in Uttar Pradesh. He belonged to a clan of Jat cultivators whose kinship ties extended over chaurasia des (eighty-four villages). The lands in the region were irrigated and fertile, with rich dark loam soil. Many of the villagers were prosperous and saw the British land revenue system ass oppressive: the revenue demand was high and its collection inflexible. Consequently, cultivators were losing land to outsiders, to traders and moneylenders who were coming into the area.

Shah Mai mobilised the headmen and cultivators of chaurasia des, moving at night from village to village, urging people to rebel against the British. As in many other places, the revolt against the British turned into a general rebellion against all signs of oppression and injustice. Cultivators left their fields and plundered the houses of moneylenders and traders. Displaced proprietors took possession of the lands they had lost. Shah Mai’s men attacked government buildings, destroyed the bridge over the river and dug up metalled roads – partly to prevent government forces from coming into the area, and partly because bridges and roads were seen as symbols of British rule.

They sent supplies to the sepoys who had mutinied in Delhi and stopped all official communication between British headquarters and Meerut. Locally acknowledged as the Raja, Shah Mai took over the bungalow of an English officer, turned it into a ‘hall of justice”, settling disputes and dispensing judgements. He also set up an amazingly effective network of intelligence. For a period the people of the area felt that firangi raj was over, and their raj had come. Shah Mai was killed in battle in July 1857.
(i) Name any four rebels of the Revolt of 1857.
(b) Nana Sahib
(c) Shah Mai

(ii) Who was Shah Mai?
Shah Mai lived in a large village which fell in Barout pargana in Uttar Pradesh. He was a Jat cultivator. His kinship ties extended over eighty-four villages.

(iii) What was the reason for the prosperity of most of the people of his village?
Most of the villagers were prosperous because of the following:
(a) The land was fertile and well-irrigated.
(b) It had a rich dark loam soil.

(iv) Why were the people annoyed with the British Government?
The people were discontent with the British Rule because of the following:
(a) Their land revenue system was oppressive.
(b) The revenue demand was high.
(c) The collection of revenue was inflexible.

Question 5.
Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times

What happened in the cities during the months of the revolt? How did people live through those months of tumult? How was normal life affected? Reports from different cities tell us about the breakdown in routine activities. Read these reports from the Delhi Urdu Akhbar, 14 June 1857:

The same thing is true for vegetables and saag (spinach). People have been found to complain that even kaddu (pumpkin) and baingan (brinjal) cannot be found in the bazaars. Potatoes and arvi (yam) when available is of stale and rotten variety, stored from before by farsighted kunjras (vegetable growers). From the insides of the garden the city, some produce does reach a few places but the poor and the middle class can only lick their lips and watch them (as they are earmarked for the select).

There is something else that needs attention which is causing a lot of damage to the people which is that the water-carriers have stopped filling water. Poor Surface (gentility) are seen carrying water in pails on their shoulders and only then the necessary household tasks such as cooking, etc. can take place. The halalkhors (righteous) have become haramkhors (corrupt), many mohallas have not been able to earn for several days and if this situation continues then decay, death and disease will combine together to spoil the city’s air and an epidemic will spread all over the city and even to areas adjacent and around.
(i) From where has this report been taken?
This report has been taken from the Delhi Urdu Akhbar dated 14 June 1857.

(ii) How was the normal life of the cities affected?
Because of the Revolt of 1857, the normal life of the cities was affected. There was a complete breakdown of routine activities.

(iii) What was the position of vegetable supply in the cities?
The supply of vegetable was disrupted. The people complained about the non-availability of even pumpkin and brinjal. If potatoes and; jam were available, they were stale and rotten. No doubt, some people brought vegetable from the gardens that existed in the cities. But these vegetables was very costly. Only the rich and the middle classes could afford it.

(iv) What does the second report tell us?
According to the second report, the water- carriers had stopped filling water. Many people carried water in pails on their shoulders. It was used mostly for cooking.

## Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Class 12 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 2

Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Important Extra Questions Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences

### Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
From which countries, people have been migrating to India ?
Central and Western Asia as well as South East Asia.

Question 2.
To which countries Indian traders migrate ?
Malaysia and Singapore.

Question 3.
Why did skilled labourers migrated to Middle-East ?
Due to increase in oil production.

Question 4.
Which information have been added in Census ?
Place of Birth and Place of Residence.

Question 5.
How many migrants are in India on the basis of last residence ?
31.5 crores.

Question 6.
Explain why female migration is higher from rural to rural areas in India. (Delhi 2019)
This is because of marriage of female from one village to the another village. After marriage women is to live at another village away from her parents village. That is why female migration is higher from rural to rural areas in India.

Question 7.
From which, country maximum migration has taken place ?

Question 8.
Which state has maximum migrants ?
Maharashtra—23 lakh.

Question 9.
Which state has maximum emigrants ?

Question 10.
State two causes of migration.
Push factor and Pull factors.

Question 11.
In which state of India is the number of immigrate the largest. (Outside Delhi 2019)

### Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Name the two main types of I migration. Name the four main streams of migration.
The migration is of two types :
(а) Internal. Within the country.
(b) International. Out of the country.

The internal migration has four streams :
(i) Rural to rural
(ii) Rural to urban
(iii) Urban to urban
(iv) Urban to rural.

Question 2.
Differentiate between immigration and emigration. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Immigration-Migrants who move into a new place. Emigration-Migrants who move out of a place are Emigrants.

Question 3.
In Intra-state migration, from rural to urban areas males have the larger share. Why ? (C.B.S.E. 2017)
Or
Explain why male migration is higher than, females from rural to urban areas in India. (Delhi 2019)
Men migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of work and employment. The push factors compel men to migrate.

Question 4.
In Mumbai Agglomeration, the number of migrants is the highest. Why ?
Mumbai Agglomeration is the largest town of India. The state is also large in size. Mumbai is the largest port and industrial town of India. So people migrate to this town in search of work and employment.

Question 5.
ExpIain the main reasons for the migration of. males and females separately in India. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Males migrate mainly for work and employment. Females migrate from their parental house due to their marriage. Males move for life security while women move for medical treatment, etc.

Question 6.
Distinguish between Pull factors and Push factors affecting migration.
There are two main causes of migration:
(a) Push factors
(b) Pull factors.
(a) Push factors. These factors compel people to leave their place of residence. In India, people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty, high population pressure on land, lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc. Besides these, natural disaster like flood, drought, earthquakes, Tsunami, wars and local conflicts also give extra push to migrate.

(b) Pull factors. There are pull factors which attract people from rural areas to cities. The most important pull factor for majority of the rural migrants to urban areas is the better opportunities, availability of regular work and relatively higher wages. Better opportunities for education, better health facilities and sources of entertainment, etc., are also quite important pull factors.

Question 7.
Write a note on immigration from neighbouring countries.
India also experiences, immigration from and migration to neighbouring countries. Indian Census 2001 has recorded that more than 5 million persons have migrated to India from other countries. Out of these, 96 per cent came from the neighbouring countries : Bangladesh (3.0 million) followed by Pakistan (0.9 million) and Nepal (0.5 million). Included in this are 0.16 million refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Myanmar. As far as emigration from India is concerned, it is estimated that there are around 20 million people of Indian Diaspora, spread across 110 countries.

Question 8.
Distinguish between Intra-State Migration and Inter-State Migration.

 Intra State-Migration Inter-State Migration 1. If the movement of population is within remains the same State, it is called Intra­State Migration. 2. For example, migration between Agra and Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh). 1. If the movement of the population occurs beyond the boundaries of the State, it is called Inter-State Migration. 2.  For   example, migration between Agra (Uttar Pradesh) and  Bharatpur (Rajasthan).

### Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Define a Migrant. On what factors does migration depend ? Explain the terms ‘Pull’ and ‘Push’ factors used in migration. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Migration. The movement of population from one place to another is called migration. A migrant person is one who at a given census was enumerated at a place other than his/her place of birth.

There are four streams of migration :

• Rural to rural
• Rural to urban
• Urban to urban
• Urban to rural.

Causes of Migration :
Migration occurs due to many factors :

• Search for jobs.
• To get better living conditions in towns.
• Migration due to marriages of females.
• Social insecurity.
• Political disturbances.

Pull factors. When migration occurs due to the attraction of a city or town, it is called ‘Pull factor’. People migrate in search of better facilities for education, recreation, health, etc. to towns.

Push factors. When people do not find means of livelihood in the villages, they move towards towns. Rural resources of land were not able to sustain any longer. They are just ‘pushed out’ to big cities. This is called Push factor.

Question 2.
Describe the economic, demographic, social and environmental consequences of Migration.(C.B.S.E. 2014)
Or
Examine the economic and social consequences of migration in India.(C.B.S.E. 2016)
Or
How is migration a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over a space? Explain the economic con-sequences of migration in India. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017 Set-T)
Or
Explain the causes and consequences of Rural Urban migration in India. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Consequences of Migration. Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. People tend to move from place of low opportunity and low safety to the place of higher opportunity and better safety. This, in turn, creates both benefits and problems for the areas, people migrate from and migrate to. Consequences can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms.

1. Economic Consequences. A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange. In 2002, India received US$11 billion as remittances from international migrants. Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants. Use of Foreign Remittances. (1) Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses etc. (2) For thousands of the poor villages of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, etc. remittance works as life blood for their economy. (3) Migration from rural areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa to the rural areas of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh accounted for the success of their green revolution strategy for agricultural development. 2. Demographic Consequences. Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure. However, high out migration from Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states. Similar imbalances are also brought in the recipients states. 3. Social Consequences. Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them. (1) Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures. (2) It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations. (3) It widens up the mental horizon of the people at large. (4) But it also has serious negative consequences such as anonimity, which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals. (5) Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse. 4. Environmental Consequences. • Overcrowding of people due to rural-urban migration has put pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure in the urban areas. • This ultimately leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement and formation of slums shanty colonies. • Apart from this, due to over-exploitation of natural resources, cities are facing the acute problem of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes. 5. Others. (1) Migration (even excluding the marriage migration) affects the status of women directly or indirectly. (2) In the rural areas, male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well mental pressure on the women. (3) Migration of ‘women’ either for education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in the economy but also increases their vulnerability. (4) If remittances are the major benefits of migration from the point of view of the source region, the loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people is the most serious cost. ### Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions HOTS Question 1. “The sex-ratio in Asian Urban areas remains male dominated, while in rural areas it remains female dominated.” Evaluate the statement. (Outside Delhi 2019) Answer: Men migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of work and employment. The push factors compel men to migrate so the sex ratio in Asian Urban areas remains male dominated and rural areas remains female dominated because of marriage. After marriage the girl is to live at another area away from her parents house. Question 2. Explain any three push factors that have caused rural to urban migration in India. (C.B.S.E. 2013) Answer: Push factors compel people to leave their place of residence. • People migrate from rural areas to urban areas mainly due to poverty. • People migrate due to lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care and education. • Natural disasters also force people to migrate. ## Colonialism and the Countryside Class 12 Important Extra Questions History Chapter 10 Here we are providing Class 12 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 10 Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives. Class 12 History Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams. ## Class 12 History Chapter 10 Important Extra Questions Colonialism and the Countryside: Exploring Official Archives ### Colonialism and the Countryside Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Question 1. When and who started the permanent settlement of land? Answer: It was started by Lojrji Cornwallis in 1793 A.D. Question 2. How much of the Zamindaries changed lands after the introduction of permanent settlement of land? Answer: Around 75% of the total Zamindaries. Question 3. Why did Zamindars default on payments? Answer: Because of high revenue demand and accumulation of unpaid balance. Question 4. What was sunset law? Answer: If payment was not paid before the sunset of the fixed date, the land will be confiscated. Question 5. Who was the most powerful in North Bengal? Answer: The Jotedars were the most powerful in North Bengal. Question 6. When was the fifth report submitted to the British Parliament? Answer: In 1813 A.D. Question 7. Where did Francis Buchanan travel? Answer: Buchanan traveled through the Rajmahal hills. Question 8. What work did Paharias do? Answer: They were hunters, shifting cultivators, food gatherers, charcoal producers, silkworm rearers etc. Question 9. Why did the British encouraged clearing of forests? Answer: Because they wanted to bring more land under cultivation to get more taxes. Question 10. What was Damien-i-Koh? Answer: This was a land demarcated for Santhals in 1832. Question 11. Who was called Dikus? Answer: Moneylenders were called Dikus. Question 12. Who was David Ricardo? Answer: He was an Economist who gave certain ideas to the British government about land rent. Question 13. When was Cotton Supply Association founded? Answer: In 1857 A.D. Question 14. What was the objective of the Cotton Supply Association? Answer: To encourage cotton production in every part of the world. Question 15. Why were the estates of the Zamindars auctioned in the colonial Bengal? Or Why were many Zamindars .auctioned after the permanent settlement in Bengal? Give two reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D)) Answer: 1. Sometimes the big Zamindars were unable to pay the revenue. The amount of unpaid revenue went on accumulating year after year. 2. So the government often auctioned the estates of those Zamindars who failed to pay the due revenue Question 16. When was the Fifth Report submitted to the British Parliament? What was its objective? Answer: The Fifth Report was submitted to the British Parliament in 1813. It was about the administration and activities of the East India Company in India and proved helpful in regulating and controlling their rule. Question 17. What was the Sunset Law of revenue? Answer: According to Permanent Settlement of Land, it was necessary for the Zamindars to pay the revenue punctually. But according to Sunset Law, if any Zamindar was unable to pay the revenue by sunset of the specified date, then the Zamindari was bound to be auctioned by the government to recover the dues. Question 18. Why the Jotedars were more powerful in villages than that of the Zamindars? Give two reasons. Answer: 1. The Zamindars lived in urban areas and Jotedars were located in villages with poor villagers. They had direct control over a large section of villagers. 2. Jordans were often amongst the purchasers in the case of auction of the Zamindaris. Question 19. Why ryots (peasants) remained loyal to the former zamindar instead of the new Zamindars? Give two reasons. Answer: 1. The ryots considered themselves bound to the former Zamindar through a sense of loyalty and saw the former Zamindar as a figure of authority. 2. The sale of Zamindari disturbed their pride and their sense of identity. Question 20. Which two factors helped the Zamindars to consolidate their power at the beginning of the 19th century? Answer: 1. At the beginning of the 19th century, the depression in prices remained no more and the prices of agriculture produce became high. 2. The government made rules of revenue payments flexible which helped the Zamindars to consolidate their power. Question 21. When Cotton Supply Association and the Manchester Cotton Company were founded in Britain? What was their objective? Answer: Cotton Supply Association in Britain, was founded in 1857 and Manchester Cotton Company was formed in 1859. Their objective was to encourage the production of cotton in every part of the world so that their Company could grow. Question 22. Tell any two drawbacks of the RyotWari system of revenue introduced in the Bombay Deccan in 1920. Answer: 1. At many places, the amount of revenue was very high. Therefore, many peasants deserted their villages and migrated to new regions. 2. Many areas had poor soil and fluctuating rainfall. When the rains failed, the peasants had a bad crop due to which they found it impossible to pay the revenue. Question 23. India was seen as a country that could supply cotton to Lancashire if the American supply dried up. Why was it so? Answer: The land of India was suitable for the cultivation of cotton. Question 24. Examine the impact of the limitation law passed by the British in 1859? (CBSE 2018) Answer: This law was meant to check the accumulation of interest one time and three years validity of the bonds sighed between money lenders and reports. Consequently, the money lenders manipulated and forced the people to sign the deeds after 3 years. ### Colonialism and the Countryside Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type Question 1. When was the Permanent Settlement introduced in Bengal? Who enforced it? What ideas worked behind its imposition? Or With what major objectives did he British colonial power introduce permanent settlement in Bengal during the 19th century? (C.B.S.E. 2013 (D)) Answer: The British introduced a new system of revenue collection in Bengal. It was called the Permanent Settlement. What was the system? It was introduced by Lord Charles Cornwallis in 1793. Under this system, the East India Company had fixed the revenue that each Zamindar had to pay. If any Zamindar failed to make the payment of the revenue in time, his estates were auctioned to recover the due revenue. The ideas behind the system: By introducing the Permanent Settlement, the British officials wanted to resolve the problems that they faced. They were aware that the rural economy of Bengal was in crisis because of the following factors: • There was the recurrence of many famines. • There was a considerable decline in agricultural production. The regular flow of Revenue: The need for Hour. The British officials realised the need to enhance revenue resources. This could be done by encouraging investments in agriculture and trade. Therefore they permanently fixed the rates of revenue to ensure a regular flow of revenue. Question 2. Explain the Permanent Settlement of land. Answer: The Permanent Settlement was made between the rajas and taluqdars of Bengal. These taluqdars were classified as the Zamindars. They paid the revenue fixed in perpetuity. The main features of the Permanent Settlement were as follows: 1. The Zamindars were not the owners of land in the village. 2. The Zamindars were the collectors of revenue of the State. 3. The Zamindars had many villages under them. Sometimes they had as many as 400 villages under their control. 4. The villages coming under one Zamindar formed one revenue estate. 5. The Zamindars collected rent from the villages under their control and paid this revenue to the officials of the East India Company. 6. The Zamindars were responsible for the regular payment of revenue to the East India Company. If ever they failed to do so their estate was auctioned. Question 3. What steps were taken by the ‘East India Company to control and regulate the Zamindars and to restrict I their autonomy? Or Explain how the East India Company subdued the authority of the Zamindar in Bengal during the 18th century. (C.B.S.E 2015 (D)) Or The East India Company had recognised the Zamindars important but wanted to control and regulate them. Explain the steps taken by them to subdue their authority in the 18th century. (CBSE 2016 (D)) Answer: No doubt, the East India Company considered the Zamindars very important. Yet it wanted to control and regulate them. It wanted to restrict their autonomy and that they should submit to the control of the Company. So it took the following steps to tame them: 1. The troops of Zamindars were disbanded. 2. The customs duties were abolished. 3. The courts (cutcheries) of the Zamindars were brought under the supervision of a Collector who was appointed by the East India Company. 4. The power of Zamindars to provide local justice and local police was snatched. 5. The emergence of the collectorate as, an alternative centre of authority restricted the jurisdiction of Zamindars. When a raja failed to pay the revenue, an official of the East India Company rushed to his Zamindari. He had clear instructions to take charge of the District and destroy all the influence and authority of the raja and his officers. Question 4. How did the Zamindars collect revenue from the ryots? Why was the collection of revenue a problem for them? Answer: For the purpose of revenue collection, a Zamindar had several villages under his control. He used to visit these villages with his ‘amlah’. However, it was a great problem to collect the revenue because of the following reasons: 1. Sometimes the production of the crop was low. 2. Sometimes the crops had to be sold at low prices. It made payment of dues difficult for the ryots. 3. Sometimes the ryots deliberately delayed the payment. They created problems for the Zamindars. 4. The Zamindars were unable to assert their power over ryots. No doubt they were empowered to prosecute the defaulters but it took a very long time in the judicial process. There were more than thirty thousand pending suits in Burdwan alone, all concerned with the arrears of rent payments Question 5. Why did the British introduce new systems of revenue in place of Permanent Settlement in areas outside Bengal? Or Explain David Ricardo’s ideas of rent of land. (C.B.S.E. 2009) Or Examine how Ricardo’s idea of land ownership was introduced in the Bombay Deccan. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (O.D.)) Answer: When the British Government expanded its rule outside Bengal, it introduced new systems of revenue. It discarded the system of Permanent Settlement and did not introduce it in any area. It was because of the following reasons: No Share in Enhanced Income: There was an increase in agricultural price after 1810 C.E. It increased the income of the Zamindars in Bengal. Since the revenue was already fixed under the Permanent Settlement, the colonial state was unable to claim any share from the enhanced income of the farmers. As the government wanted to expand its financial resources, it introduced temporary revenue settlements in the newly annexed territories in the nineteenth century. Impact of the Ideas of David Ricardo: The British Government introduced some of the ideas of David Ricardo, a famous economist, in the state of Maharashtra. Ricardo believed that a land-owner should claim only the average rent that prevailed at a given time. Many peasants in Bengal had leased out their land and were living on the rental income and such income had to be taxed. Thus, the British introduced the Ryotwari System of revenue settlement in the Bombay Deccan. Herein, the revenue was settled directly with the ryot. The revenue paying capacity of the ryot was assessed. The ryot paid his fixed share. New Systems Thus, we see that the British Government introduced many new revenue policies such as: • Temporary Revenue Settlements • Ryotwari Settlement. Question 6. Give any five features of the life of the Paharis. Or Describe the lifestyle of the Paharis in the late 19th century. Answer: Paharis lived around the hills of Rajmahal. Following were the main features of their life: 1. They lived in huts under the tamarind groves and rested under the shadow of mango trees. 2. They considered the whole of the region as their personal land. 3. They hunted in the forests and practised shifting cultivation. 4. They often resisted the entry of outsiders into their region. 5. Their chiefs used to maintain unity in their respective groups and used to settle their mutual disputes. Chiefs also led their people in case of battles with other tribes and outsides. Question 7. Which policy was adopted by British officials towards Paharias in the decade of 1770? What changes came in it in the decade of 1780 and what was its result? Or Critically examine the policies adopted by the Britishers to control Paharis. (C.B.S.E. 2014 (D)) Or Examine the policies adopted by the British towards the Paharias during the early 18th century in Bengal. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (O.D.)) Answer: In the decade of 1770, the British adopted the brutal policy of extermination towards Paharias and began hunting them down and killing them. Change in the Policy: In the decade of 1780, Collector of Bhagalpur, Augustus Cleveland, adopted the policy of pacification. This policy proposed to give annual allowance to Paharia Chiefs and they were made responsible for controlling their men. They were also expected to maintain order in their localities and keep discipline among their own people. Result: A number of Paharia chiefs refused to take the annual allowance. Those who accepted the allowance lost the authority within their community. They came to be seen as stipendiary chiefs being in the pay of the colonial government. Question 8. What was Damin-i-Koh? How it came into being? Or What was Damin-i-Koh? (C.B.S.E. 2016 (D) Answer: Damin-i-Koh was the land of Santhals situated in the Rajmahal hills. The British persuaded the Santhals to live in the foothills of Rajmahal by giving land to them. By 1832, a large part of the land was demarcated as Damin-i-Koh and was declared as the land of Santhals. They had to live in this region, practise plough agriculture and had to become settled agriculturalists. There was a stipulation in the certificate of land grants that the minimum of 1/10 of the total area had to be cleared and had to be cultivated within the first 10 years. The whole of this region was surveyed and mapped. This region was enclosed by boundary pillars. In this way, this region was separated from the world of settled agriculturists of plains and Paharias of the hills. Question 9. What was the impact of the end of the American Civil War on Indian cotton market and money-lending trade? Or Assess the impact of the American Civil War on the cotton imports of the British. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (D)) Answer: As a boom in cotton market lasted for long, Indian cotton merchants began to visualise the capturing of the world market in raw cotton by permanently displacing the U.S.A. But this condition changed in 1865. American Civil War came to an end and it again began producing cotton. As a result, Indian export of cotton to British declined steadily. Under these circumstances, moneylenders and export merchants of Maharashtra were no longer keen on providing long-term loans. They observed that the demand for Indian cotton is decreasing and prices of cotton are also coming down. That is why they stopped their business and refused to give advances to peasants. Now they began concentrating on the recovery of loans. In this way, a source of taking loans, for peasants, came to an end. Question 10. Write a brief note on the Deccan Riots Commission and its report. Or Critically examine the Deccan Riots Commission’s Report. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (D), (2019 (O.D.)) Answer: When the revolt spread in Deccan, the Bombay Government did not take it seriously. But the Indian Government was worried by the memories of 1857 Revolt and therefore, it pressurised the Bombay Government to set up a commission to find out causes of the revolt. The commission investigated in riot-affected districts took statements of ryots, moneylenders and eyewitnesses. It also collected statistical data on revenue rates, prices and interest rates of different regions and even collected reports of District Collectors. On the basis of, the collected information, the commission prepared a report and produced it to the British Parliament, in 1878. This report is known as the Deccan Riots. The report which provides the basic material to historigg|$ who wanted to study the peasant riots.

Question 11.
Which revenue system was introduced in the Bombay Deccan? What were its features?
The British introduced a new revenue system in Bombay Deccan. It was known as the Ryotwari Settlement. It had the following features:

1. The revenue was settled directly with the ryot.
2. Taking into consideration all types of soil, the average income of the harvest was estimated.
3. It was assessed how much revenue a ryot could pay.
4. The share of State was fixed in proportion to the income of the ryot.
5. After every thirty years, the lands were re-surveyed and the rates of revenue were increased accordingly.
6. The demand for revenue was not permanent but temporary.

Question 12.
How was the Ryotwari Settlement different from Permanent Settlement? Why was it introduced?
In the Permanent Settlement, the taluqdars were the owners of the land. They paid a fixed rent to the Company and distributed their land among the peasants. They earned the desired interest from them. In other words, the Permanent Settlement benefitted the rich Zamindars. They had to pay the revenue that was fixed in perpetuity. The state was unable to claim its share in the enhanced income of the farmers. On the contrary, under the Ryotwari system, the government got tax from those who cultivated lands with their own hands.

Under the Ryotwari system, all the middlemen were removed. This system was better tan the Permanent Settlement of revenue. It increased’ the rights of the farmers. It also increased the income of the State. In fact, the Ryotwari Settlement was introduced to alleviate the drawbacks of the Permanent Settlement.

Question 13.
What were the reasons for the peasants of India being under debt?
Dining the British rule, most of the peasants remained under debt because of the following reasons:

1. The farmers had to pay a fixed revenue to the State. Sometimes they did not have a good crop. So they had to seek a loan to pay their revenue.
2. The farmers often took a loan on the occasions of marriage, birth or death in the family.
3. They had to pay a high rate of interest to the moneylenders. The income of the peasants was very low. If ever a farmer took the loan, he could* not return it except its interest.
4. The farmers were unable to save any of their produce. Whenever there was any famine or flood, they had to take a loan from the moneylender. So during the British rule, more than 80% peasants were under debt.

Question 14.
When did Buchanan reach the Rajmahal hills? What did he see in the village that he visited?
Buchanan reached the Rajmahal Hills in the early nineteenth century. He found these hills as impenetrable. They posed a great risk and danger to the travellers like him. Buchanan also found the hilly people as hostile, apprehensive and not willing to talk to any traveller. In fact, all the Paharis looked at him with suspicion and distrust.

Visit a Village: At the end of 1810, Buchanan crossed Ganjuria Pahair and reached a village. It was an old village which had a few tracts of land which were cleared for cultivation. He was surprised to see what change could be brought by the application of human labour. He was impressed with the beauty and richness of the area. He found the rocky soil of the village uncommonly fine. He found the tobacco and mustard of this village as finest in the world. He was happy to see that the Santhals had extended their area of cultivation.

Question 15.
What explains the anger of the Deccan ryots against the moneylenders?
The ryots were enraged and infuriated when the moneylenders refused to grant them loans. They may be under debt but they were sad to find all the moneylenders insensitive to their plight. They were anguished to see that the moneylenders had violated the customary norms of the country-side.

Moneylending was quite widespread even before the colonial rule. The moneylenders have always been very powerful in society. There were a few customary norms between the moneylenders and ryots. First of all, the moneylenders charged a fair and reasonable rate of interest.

The interest could not be more than the principal amount. The ryots were sad that these basic norms were broken by the moneylenders under the colonial rule. When investigations were made, the Deccan Riots Commission came to know that a moneylender had charged over Rs 2000/- as interest on a loan of Rs 100/- There were several instances like this. So it was natural for the ryots to be sad at the injustice done to them and the violation of the basic custom of moneylending.

The ryots found moneylenders as dubious and deceitful. They saw that many money-lenders manipulated laws and forged accounts.

Attempts to check the Moneylenders: The Colonial government passed a Limitation Law in 1852. It stated that the loan bonds signed between the moneylenders and ryots would be valid for only three years. It was done to check the accumulation of interest over time. But the moneylenders again flouted this law by signing a new bond every three years. In the new bond, they calculated the original loan and the accumulated interest. They added the amount and entered it as the principal amount in the new bond.

The Fraudulent means Adopted by the Moneylender. The moneylenders fleeced the ryots by adopting various unfair means such as:

1. They refused to give receipts when the payment of loan was made.
2. They entered fictitious figures in bonds.
3. They bought the harvest of the peasants at very low prices.
4.  They brought the property of the peasants under their control.
5. They made the illiterate peasants sign and put thumb impressions on documents.
6. They did not explain to the farmers what clauses they had inserted in the bonds.

Question 16.
Why did the British want to clear forests and expand settled cultivation? Enumerate any five reasons.
Due to the following reasons, the British wanted to clear the forests and expand the settled cultivation of land:

1. By adopting the settled cultivation of land, the colonial government wanted to enhance its revenue.
2. It could grow cash crops for export.
3. The British could establish an ordered and civilised society.
4. They associated forests with wildness. They considered the forest people as savage, unruly and primitive. They found these people difficult to govern. So they exhorted the Santhals to clear the forests and encouraged settled agriculture.
5. They wanted to tame, civilise and persuade the forest people to give up hunting and take up ploughing to cultivate the land.

Question 17. Why were the Paharlas, living in the Rajmahal hills, forced to withdraw deeper into the hills? How was their life affected? Explain. (C.B.S.E.2012(O.D.))
Due to pacification campaigns of Britishers and continuation of these policies, the Paharis living in the Rajmahal hills were forced to withdraw deeper into the hills, insulating themselves from hostile forces and carrying on a war with outsiders. Buchanan travelled through the region in the winter of 1810-11. The Paharis at that time naturally viewed him with suspicion and distrust. Their moving into hills destroyed their way of life and means of survival. It also snatched away from their control over their forests and lands.

Question 18.
What was the other name of the Bombay Deccan revenue system of the 1820s? Mention any three features of it. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (O.D.))
The revenue system introduced by the British Government in the Bombay Deccan was called as the Ryotwari Settlement. It had the following features:

1. The revenue was directly settled with the peasant or the ryot.
2. It estimated the average income from different types of soil.
3. It also assessed the revenue-paying capacity of the ryot.
4. It fixed a proportionate amount of the revenue as the share of the state.

Question 19.
Examine the circumstances that led to the passing of ‘Limitation Laws’ by the British in 1859. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D.))

1. The Ryots came to see the moneylenders as devious and deceitful. They complained of money-lenders manipulating laws and forgoing accounts.
2. Most of the times, the money-lenders had charged over? 2000 as interest on a loan of 100 Ryots complained of the injustice of such exactions and the violation of custom.
3. One general norm was that the interest charged could not be more than the principal. But this norm was generally violated.

Consequently in 1859, the British passed a Limitation Law that stated that the loan bonds signed between moneylenders and ryots would have validity for only three years.

### Colonialism and the Countryside Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
How did the Santhals settle in the Rajmahal hills? Discuss the role of the British in this regard.
The Santhals settled in the Rajmahal hills at around 1800 C.E. They displaced the hill-folk who lived in this region. They cleared many forests. They cultivated the land. Earlier the Santhals had come into Bengal around the 1780s. Then they settled in the Jangal Mahals. In fact, they were ideal settlers due to which their settlements expanded rapidly. They had forty villages in 1838. But about 1473 Santhal villages had come up by 1851. In other words, the Santhals were merely 3000 in 1838 but grew up to 82,000 by 1851.

The Role of the British: The British wanted to establish an orderly, refined and settled society. They did not like the Paharias as they were savage, primitive and unruly. They associated forests with wildness as found the hill-folk difficult to govern. By 1770, they adopted a brutal policy of extermination towards the Paharis. They hunted them down and killed them. As the British had failed to tame the Paharis and transform them into settled agriculturists, they turned to the Santhals.

The Land for Santhals: The British favoured the Santhals by allotting them land in the foothills of Rajmahal. To facilitate their settlement, the British demarcated a large area of land as Damin-i-Koh. They declared it as the land for the Santhals. They wanted all the Santhals to live within it. The Santhals had continuous mobility and were in a tireless search for the place to settle. The British did them a great favour by allotting them the Damien-i-Koh.

Question 2.
The travels and surveys of Buchanan were the basis of development and progress for the British East India Company. Justify this statement by giving suitable examples.
Francis Buchanan came to India in 1794. He was a physician and served in the Bengal Medical Service till 1815. He also served as a surgeon to Lord Wellesley, the Governor-General of India for a few years.

But on the request of the Bengal Government, he undertook detailed surveys of the areas under the control of East India Company. He had become an employee of the East India Company.

1. Buchanan was always inspired by the love of the landscape. He had a keen desire to discover the unknown. So he went everywhere accompanied by draughtsmen, surveyors, palanquin bearers and coolies. The expenses of his travel were met by the East India Company. On his part, Buchanan provided the Company with all the requisite information. He accomplished his work to the satisfaction of the Company. However, many people considered him as an agent of the government.

2. Buchanan was a keen observer of things. Wherever he went, he saw stones and rocks. He also observed the different strata and layers of soil. He searched for minerals and invaluable stones. He also recorded the sites where iron-ore, mica, granite and saltpetre were available. He carefully noted the local practices of salt-making and iron-ore mining.

3. Buchanan was a man of vision and always thought how the land could be made more productive. He thought of the crops which could be cultivated in a particular soil. He was a perfectionist who cared for which trees to cut down and which ones to be grown. His priorities were always different from the local inhabitants. He always served the commercial concerns of the East India Company and stood for progress and development. He did not like forest dwellers who were primitive and savage. He wanted that forests should be turned into agricultural lands.

Question 3.What was the impact of the expansion in settled agriculture on the life of the Paharis? What was the policy of the British Government and the Santhals in this regard?
The expansion in settled agriculture had an adverse effect on the life of the Paharis. It can be seen from the following points:

1. The Paharis did not cut forests.
2. They did not like to touch the plough.
3. They remained savage, turbulent, unruly and primitive.
4. They were intimately connected to the forest. They became hunters, shifting cultivators, food- gatherers, charcoal producers and silkworm rearers.
5. They lived in huts near the tamarind trees. They rested under the shade of mango trees.
6. They considered the forest as their land and regarded it essential for their identity and survival.

The British Policy: The Paharias had their base in the hills but they regularly raided the plains where the settled agriculturists lived. They asserted their “ower over the settled communities. They negotiated political terms with the outsiders and got a regular tribute from them. They also got money from the traders to protect them, to allow them to use passes controlled by them and to ensure that their goods were not plundered by anyone.

1. The Policy of Extermination: The British encouraged forest clearance and asked the Zamindars and Jotedars to turn uncultivated lands into rice fields. They favoured settled agriculture so that they may enlarge the sources of land revenue and produce crops for export. They wanted to set up an orderly and refined society but associated forests with wildness.

They found the forest people as savage, unruly, turbulent, primitive and difficult to govern. So to make the foreign people tamed and civilised, the British persuaded them to give up hunting and take up the plough to cultivate the land. But most of the hill-folk raided settled villages and took away the cattle and foodgrains of the settled people. The colonial officials found it very difficult to control and subdue the Paharis. Consequently, in the 1770s, the British adopted a brutal policy of extermination. They hunted down the Paharis and killed them.

2. The Policy of Pacification: By the 1780s, Augustus Cleveland, the Collector of Bhagalpur, proposed a policy of pacification towards the Paharis. Under this policy, the Paharia chiefs were given an annual allowance. The duty of the Paharia chiefs was to ensure proper conduct of their men.

Making payment of the annual allowance, the British wanted all the Paharia chiefs to discipline their hill-folk and to maintain order in all the localities. This policy proved harmful to the Paharis. Many Paharia chiefs did not accept the allowances and those who accepted this amount lost their creditability and authority within their community. They were considered as subordinate employees or stipendiary chiefs of the Colonial government.

3. Prejudice for White Men: To save themselves from the hostile British forces, the Paharis went deep into the mountains. But they continued their war against the outsiders. They felt that the white men were representing a power which destroyed their way of life and means of survival. They realised that the British weakened their control over their forests and lands.

The Policy of Santhals: The Santhals were ideal settlers and cleared the forests and cut down the timber. They ploughed land and grew rice and cotton. They took over many lower hills and compelled the Paharias to recede deeper into the Rajmahals hills. They symbolised the power of plough against the use of hoe by the Paharis.

No doubt the Paharias resisted when the Santhals settled on the peripheries of the Rajmahal hills. But ultimately they were forced to move deeper into the hills. They were confined to more barren and rocky upper hills. It had an adverse effect on their lives. They became poor in the long run and found the fertile soils inaccessible.

Question 4.
Critically examine main aspects of the policy of Permanent Settlement introduced by Lord Cornwallis. What was its impact on the condition of peasants?
Or
What changes Lord Cornwallis brought in the revenue policy of Bengal?
Lord Charles Cornwallis was the commander of the British forces during the American War of Independence. Later on, he became the Governor-General of Bengal. In 1793, he introduced the policy of Permanent Settlement. Under this arrangement, the revenue to be paid by a Zamindar was already fixed in perpetuity. It was a kind of contract to pay the fixed revenue to the State. In fact, the Zamindars did not own the land and collected revenue from the taluqdars and paid it to the State.

Good Results.
The Permanent Settlement yielded the following good results:

1. It permanently fixed the rates of revenue.
2. It ensured a regular flow of income to the State.
3. It enabled entrepreneurs to earn a profit.
4.  It led to the emergence of a new class of yeomen farmers and rich landowners.
5. It brought an improvement in agriculture. By encouraging investment in agriculture, it developed, not only agriculture but also trade and revenue resources.
6. Several villages were put under the control of the Zamindars who collected rent from these villages and paid this revenue to the East India Company.
7. It ensured a sense of security in the Zamindars.

Evil Effects.
This policy adversely affected the condition of farmers. It is evident from the following points:

1. Sometimes the ryots found it difficult to pay their dues to the Zamindars.
2. The revenue was invariable.
3. The Sunset Law was not appreciated by the Zamindars. Under it, if a Zamindar did not make payment by sunset of the specified date, his land was auctioned.
4. It limited the power of the Zamindars to collect rent from the ryots.
5. Rent collection was a perennial problem especially when the harvest was low.
In brief, the purpose of Charles Cornwallis in introducing Permanent Settlement was to improve the condition of farmers. But. this policy did not yield good results. A few rich Zamindars benefitted from it but most of the peasants suffered losses and went under debt. The government also suffered losses in revenue.

Question 5.
What were the reasons for tension between relations of moneylenders and ryots after the decline of Maharashtra’s cotton export?
Or
“The ryots came to see the moneylenders as devious and deceitful.” Justify the statement in the context of the ryotwari system in India in the late 18th century. (CBSE 2016 (D))
With the decline of cotton export, money-lenders and export merchants of Maharashtra were no longer keen on providing long-term loans. Ryot community became very angry as they were denied loans by the moneylenders. They were not infuriated because they came under great debt, but because moneylenders were insensitive to their miserable condition. Moneylenders were also disobeying the traditional customs and rules of rural areas.

The deviousness of Moneylenders: The process of moneylending was definitely widespread even before the colonial rule. Moneylenders were generally very powerful individuals. A number of customary norms were there between the relations of moneylenders and ryots and these norms even regulated their relations. One of the general norms was that the interest charged must not be more than the principal amount. This norm was made to limit the exactions of moneylenders and to define the term ‘fair interest’. But this norm was generally violated by the moneylenders during colonial rule. In one of the case investigated by the Deccan Riots Commission, moneylender charged more than Rs 2000 of interest on the principal of Rs 100. Ryots gave a number of petitions or complaints about injustice of such exactions and the violation of this traditional custom.

Peasants came to see the moneylenders as deceitful as devious. They complained that moneylenders were manipulating the laws and were forging the accounts. The British passed a Limitation Law in 1859 which stated that the bond of loan signed between moneylender and ryots would be valid only for three years. The main objective of this law was to stop the accumulation of loan for a long time.

But moneylenders turned the law around in their own favour. They forced the ryots to sign a new bond after every three years. The new bond included the original loan and accumulated interest and a new set of interest was charged on some of them both. In the petitions submitted by ryots to Deccan Riots Commission described that law of this process worked and how different methods were used by moneylenders and these were:

1. Ryots were not given any receipt in case of payment of loans.
2. Moneylenders entered fictitious figures in the bonds.
3. Moneylenders used to buy peasant harvest at low prices and finally took over their property.

### Colonialism and the Countryside Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Discuss the difficulties faced by the Zamindars in collecting revenue from the peasants (ryots). Give any two points.
Sometimes it was very difficult for the ryots to pay their dues to the Zamindars. It can be seen from the following points:

1. The farmers (ryots) failed to pay the revenue when their crops were damaged or when they got less price for their harvest.
2. Sometimes the payments were deliberately delayed by the farmers. It led to the accumulation of unpaid balances.

Question 2.
What was the relation between ryots and under-ryots?
Ryot is a term used to describe the peasants. It was spelt as Raiyat in the British records. They did not cultivate the land directly and leased it out to under-ryots.

Question 3.
Why did the British decide to clear the forests and to remove the Paharis? Give any two reasons.

1. The British wanted to extend the settled agriculture so that the sources of land revenue may be enlarged.
2. They associated forests with the wilderness. They considered the forest people as savage, unruly and primitive. They found these people difficult to govern. Therefore, they cleared the forests to tame the forest people and make them orderly and civilised.

Question 4.
Why did the Zamindars default on the payment of revenues under the British government? Give two reasons.
Or
Explain two reasons for the failure of the permanent settlement of the land revenues introduced by the British in Bengal. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))
Or
Discuss the impact of Permanent Settlement on the Zamindars and their position.
Or
Why did the Zamindars fail to pay the revenue demand in the early decades after the permanent setlement? Explain any two reasons briefly.
Or
Explain any three reasons for the default of payments by the Zamindars. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (D))
Or
After introducing the permanent settlement in Bengal the Zamindars regularly failed to pay the land revenue demand. Examine the causes of it. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (O.D))
The British introduced the system of Permanent Settlement in Bengal. They thought that the fixed revenue would imbibe a sense of security among the Zamindars. But contrary to this perception, the Zamindars regularly failed to pay the revenue. This resulted in the accumulation of unpaid balances.

Important Reasons: The Zamindars failed to make regular payments of revenue due to the following reasons:

1. The initial rate of revenue was very high. It was fixed for all time to come. The East India Company had thought that it would never be able to claim a share in the increased income from the land if at any stage, the prices rose and the cultivation expanded. The Company also argued that the burden on the Zamindars would slowly come down with the increase in agricultural production and the prices of agricultural products.

2. The amount of revenue was fixed during the period of economic depression. The ryots found it difficult to pay their dues to the Zamindars. As such the Zamindars were unable to pay the revenue to the East India Company.

3. The revenue was invariable. It had to be paid punctually even if the harvest was not good. There was the enforcement of Sun-Set law. If any Zamindar did not make the payment before the sun-set on a specific day, his estate was auctioned.

4. The Permanent Settlement had reduced the power of the Zamindars to collect rent from the ryot.

Question 5.
What was the policy of Paharias towards plains people and why?
Or
Why did the Paharias invade plains where settled agriculturists lived and how was peace purchased by the Zamindars? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (O.D.))
Or
Why did Paharias regularly raid the plains where settled agriculturist and Tracy lived? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))

1. They often attacked the plains where settled agriculturists lived.
2. These attacks were a way of asserting power over settled groups.
3. Zaminddrs, lived in plains, regularly paid tribute to Paharia Chiefs to keep themselves safe and secure.
4. Traders also gave a small amount of money to Paharias for getting permission for using the passes controlled by them. After getting the toll, these traders were protected by Paharia chiefs and were ensured that no one could plunder their goods.

Question 6.
Explain the impact of refusal of moneylenders to extend loans to Ryots around 1865, under the colonial rule in India. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (O.D.))
As a boom in cotton market lasted for long, India cotton merchants began to visualise the capturing of the world market in raw cotton by permanently displacing the United States of America (U.S.A.). But this condition changed in 1865. American Civil War came to an end and America again began to produce cotton. As a result, Indian export of cotton to British steadily declined.

Under these circumstances, moneylenders and export merchants of Maharashtra were no longer keen on providing long-term loans. The refusal of moneylenders to extend loans enraged the ryots. What infuriated them was not that they had got deeper and deeper into debt, or that were utterly dependent on the moneylender for survival, but that moneylenders were not sensitive to their plight. The moneylenders were violating the customary norms of the countryside.

Question 7.
Who were the hill folk? Why were they so apprehensive of I Buchanans visit to Rajmahal hills in the 19th century? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
The Paharis were known as the hill folk. The lived in the vicinity of the Rajmahal hills. They earned their livelihood from the forest produce and also practised shifting cultivation. Buchanan reached the Rajmahal Hills in the early 19th century. He found these hills as impenetrable.

They posed a great risk and danger to the travellers like him. Buchanan also found the hilly people as hostile, apprehensive and not willing to talk to any traveller. In fact, all the Paharis looked at him with suspicion and distrust. When he arrived at a village with his army of people, he was immediately perceived as an agent of the Sarkar, i.e., the British Govt.

Question 8.
What was the Fifth Report? What was its objective? On what grounds has it been criticised?
Or
Describe the fifth report produced by the select committee on English East India Company in 1813 in the British Parliament. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (D))
Or
Why did the Fifth Report become the basis of intense debate in England? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Or
“The arguments and evidence offered by the Fifth-Report cannot be accepted uncritically.”
(C.B.S.E. 2015 (D))
Or
Examine the main aspects of the fifth report which was submitted to the British Parliament in 1813 (C.B.S.E. 2017 (O.D.))
Or
Critically examine ‘The Fifth Report of the late Eighteenth Century. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D))
The Fifth Report was submitted to the British Parliament in 1813. It was called the Fifth Report as it was the fifth in a series of reports about the working of the East India Company. The core issue of the Fifth Report was the administration and activities of the East India Company. This report had 1002 pages out of which 800 pages were in the form of appendices which included the petitions of Zamindars and ryots, reports of Collectors, statistical tables on revenue returns and the official notes on the revenue and judicial administration of Bengal and Madras.

Objectives of the Report: Many groups of people in Britain were not happy with the working of East India Company in India. They opposed the monopoly enjoyed by the East India Company over trade with India and China. Many of the British traders wanted a share in Company’s trade in India. They emphasised that the Indian market should be opened for British manufacturers. Many political groups even argued that the conquest of Bengal benefitted only the East India Company and not the British nation as a whole.

They highlighted the misrule and maladministration by East India Company. As a result, the British Parliament passed several Acts in the late 18th century to regulate and control the rule of East India Company in India. It even asked the Company to submit regular reports on its administrative activities in India. The Fifth Report was such a report. It was produced by a select committee. It was concerned with the nature of the Company’s rule in India. It contained invaluable evidence against the rule of East India Company in India. It brings out the pitiable condition in rural Bengal in the late 18th century.

Basis of Criticism: The Fifth Report has been carefully examined by the critics. They find the following limitations in it:

1. It has many unconvincing arguments and evidence.
2. Its purpose was only to criticise the maladministration of the East India Company.
3. It exaggerated the collapse of traditional Zamindari power.
4. It stated in hyperbolic words that the Zamindars were losing their land. The land of most of the farmers was auctioned.
5. The Company did not collect revenue with punctuality.

### Colonialism and the Countryside Important Extra Questions Source-Based

Question 1.
A Ryot Petitions

This is an example of a petition from a ryot of the village of Mirajgaon, Taluka Karjat, to the Collector, Ahmednagar, Deccan Riots Commission:

The sowkars (chukars) have to late begin to oppress us. As we cannot earn enough to defray our household expense, we are actually forced to beg to them to provide us with money, clothes and grain, which we obtain from them not without great difficulty, nor without their compelling us to enter into hard conditions in the bond. Moreover, the necessary clothes and grain are not sold to us at cash rates. The prices asked from us are generally twenty-five or fifty per cent more than demand from customers making ready money payments The produce of our fields is also taken by the sowars who at the time of removing it assures us that it will be credited to our account, but they do not actually make any mention of it in the accounts. They also refuse to pass us any receipts for the produce so removed by them.
(i) What are the four grievances of the peasants?
(i) The farmers had the following complaints:
(a) The moneylenders were torturing them. To run their homes whatever they got from the moneylenders, they had to write bonds specifying strict conditions.
(b) They had to pay 25% to 50% more price as compared to the price on cash payment.
(c) The production of their fields was also taken by the moneylenders and their money was not deposited in their account.
(d) The moneylenders got their crops without issuing any receipts.

(ii) State one norm that regulated the relationship between the moneylender and the ryot?
The loan determined the relation between ryot and the moneylenders.

(iii) What was the ‘Limitation Law’? How was it manipulated by the moneylender?
The Limitation Law was passed in 1859. According to it, the signed loan papers between ryot and the moneylenders were valid for only three years so that the interest may not accumulate. But moneylenders got a new loan paper from ryot after every three years. In it, the interest was included in the principal amount. Interest was again charged on this amount.

Question 2.
From the Fifth Report

Referring to the condition of zamindars and the auction of lands, the Fifth Report stated:

The revenue was not realised with punctuality, and lands to a considerable extent were periodically exposed to sale by auction. In the native year 1203, corresponding with 1796-97, the land advertised for sale comprehended a Jumma or assessment of sicca rupees 28,70,061 the extent of land actually sold bore a Jumma or assessment of 14,18,756, and the amount of purchase money sicca rupees 17,90,416. In 1204, corresponding with 1797-98, the land advertised was for sicca rupees 26,66,191, the quantity sold was for sicca rupees 22,74,076, and the purchase money sicca rupees 21,47,580. Among the defaulters were some of the oldest families of the country.

Such were the rajahs of Nuddea, Rajeshaye, Bishenpore (all districts of Bengal), … and others, the dismemberment of whose estates at the end of each succeeding year, threatened them with poverty and ruin, and in some instances presented difficulties to the revenue officers, in their efforts to preserve undiminished the amount of public assessment.
(i) What was the Fifth Report?
The Fifth Report was presented in the British Parliament in 1813. It was called so because it was a fifth in the series of reports submitted about the working and administration of East India Company in India.

(ii) What did it say about the auction of land?
It stated that the revenue was not collected in time. So the lands were auctioned from time to time.

(iii) According to the Report, what was the condition of the Zamindars?
(a) The condition of zamindars was deteriorating. Their lands were being auctioned.
(b) They faced poverty and collapse of the zamindari system.
(c) They were sometimes unable to pay the revenue.

(iv) Give one point in criticism of this Report.
(a) It criticised the maladministration of the East India Company.
(b) It exaggerated the collapse of traditional zamindari system.

Question 3.
Deeds of Hire

When debts mounted the peasant was unable to pay back the loan to the moneylender. He had no option but to give over all his possessions -land, carts, and animals – to the moneylender. But without animals, he could not continue to cultivate. So he took to land on rent and animals on hire. He now had to pay for the animals which had originally belonged to him. He had to sign a deed of hire stating very clearly that these animals and carts did not belong to him. In cases of conflict, these deeds could be enforced through the court.

The following is the text of a deed that a peasant signed in November 1873, from the records of the Deccan Riots Commission:

I have sold to you, on account of the debt due to you, my two carriages having iron axles, with their appurtenances and four bullocks … I have taken from you on hire under (this) deed the very same two carriages and four bullocks. I shall pay every month the hire thereof at Rupees four a month, and obtain a receipt in your own handwriting. In the absence of a receipt, I shall not contend that the hire had been paid.
(i) Why was the farmer compelled to sell everything?
The peasant had taken a lot of debts. When the debts mounted, he failed to pay the loan. So he sold all his land, carts and animals to a moneylender.

(ii) Why had he to hire land and animals? What was the irony in this regard?
The farmer was unable to cultivate without animals. So he took to land on rent and animals on hire. The irony lies in the fact that he paid for the animals which were actually his own. He had signed a deed that the animals and carts did not belong to him.

(iii) Who had signed the given document? From where has it been taken?
It has been taken from the records of the Deccan Riots Commission. It was signed by a peasant in November 1873.

(iv) What kind of relationship between the moneylender and farmer does this document indicate?
It is an indication of the exploitation of peasants by the moneylenders.

Question 4.
On Clearance and Settled Cultivation

Passing through one village in the lower Rajmahal hills, Buchanan wrote: The view of the country is exceedingly fine, the cultivation, especially the narrow valleys of rice winding in all directions, the cleared lands with scattered trees, and the rocky hills are in perfection; all that is wanted is some appearance of progress in the area and a vastly extended and improved cultivation, of which the country is highly susceptible. Plantations of Asan and Palas, for Tessar (Tassar silkworms) and Lac, should occupy the place of woods to as great an extent as the demand will admit; the remainder might be all cleared, and the greater part cultivated, while what is not fit for the purpose, might rear Palmira (palmyra) and Mowa (mahua).
(i) The view of which country has been described by Buchanan?
Here, Buchanan has described the landscape of a village in the lower Rajmahal hills.

(ii) Give any four features of the view of the country described by him.
(a) The view of the village is very fine.
(b) It had the narrow valleys of rice winding in all directions.
(c) It had the cleared lands with scattered trees.
(d) It had rocky hills which seemed distinctive because of perfection.
(e) It had improved cultivation. It also depicted the progress.

(iii) In the gardens of this region, which things except the wood could be grown? Where could the Plamira and Mahua trees be grown?
In place of woods, the gardens of tassar silkworms and lac can be developed.

(iv) When Buchanan wrote about the view of a country, which feature did it have?
When Buchanan wrote about a landscape, he did not merely describe what he saw and what the landscape was like. He also described how their landscape could be made more productive for the cultivation of crops.

Question 5.
The Jotedars of Dinajpur

Buchanan described the ways in which the Jotedars of Dinajpur in North Bengal resisted being disciplined by the zamindar and undermined his power:

Landlords do not like this class of men, but it is evident that they are absolutely necessary, unless the landlords themselves would advance money to their necessitous tenantry …

The Jotedars who cultivate large portions of lands are very refractory and know that the zamindars have no power over them. They pay only a few rupees on account of their revenue and then fall in balance almost every kist (instalment), they hold more lands than they are entitled to by their potash (deeds of contract). Should the zamindar’s officers, in consequence, summon them to the cutcherry, and detain them for one or two hours with a view to reprimand them, they immediately go and complain at the Fouzdarry Thanna (police station) for imprisonment and at the pontiff s (a judicial officer at the lower court) cutcherry for being dishonoured and whilst the causes continue unsettled, they instigate the petty ryots not to pay their revenue consequently
(i) Who were the Jotedars?
The Jotedars were the rich peasants of the north Bengal. They lent money to the needy peasants. They controlled vast areas of land. Sometimes they controlled even several thousand acres of land.

(ii) Describe the ways in which the tears resisted the authority of the zamindars.
(a) They resisted all the efforts of
zamindars to increase the JAMA of the village.
(b) They prevented zamindari officials from executing their duties.
(c) They deliberately delayed payments of revenue to the zamindars.

(iii) Why were they more powerful than the zamindars?
The tears were more powerful and effective than the zamindars on account of the following:
(a) They held more lands than they were entitled to by the deeds of contract.
(b) As they lived in the villages, they exercised direct control over a large number of poor villagers.
(c) They controlled local trade and also lent money to the needy.
(d) They often purchased the estates of the zamindars when they were auctioned for non-payment of revenue.

(iv) By which names were they called?
They were called by the names of holders, ganders or manuals.

## Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Class 12 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 1

Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 Geography Chapter 1 Important Extra Questions Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition

### Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is the total population of India according to census 2011 ?
121.02 crores (16.7% of total population of the world).

Question 2.
Where does India rank in the world as regards population and area ?
Population—2nd place
Area—Seventh place.

Question 3.
When was the first complete census held in India ?
In 1881.

Question 4.
What is the average density of population in India ?
382 persons per sq. km.

Question 5.
Which state has the highest density of population in India ? Also mention density.(C.B.S.E. 2009)
Bihar—1102 persons per sq. km.

Question 6.
What is the average annual rate of growth of population in India ?
Ans:
1.76 percent.

Question 7.
What is the average birth rate and death rate in India ?
Birth rate 21 per thousand, death rate 7.9 per thousand.

Question 8.
Name the state of India with the highest literacy rate as per 2011 census. (C.B.S.E. 2016)
Kerala.

Question 9.
What is the total number of villages in India ?
6,40,867 (2011 data)

Question 10.
Which state has the highest population in India ?

Question 11.
Which state has lowest population in India ? (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Or
Name the state of India having the least share of population according to the Census 2011. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Sikkim—6.07 lakhs.

Question 12.
State three clusters of high density of population.
Northern plain, East-coastal plain and Deltas.

Question 13.
Name two types of population growth.
(i) Negative growth rate. When the population decreases.
(ii) Positive growth rate. When the population increases.

Question 14.
Which state has the highest percentage of rural population ?

Question 15.
What do you mean by urbanisation ?
The process of society, transformation from a rural to urban population is known as urbanisation.

Question 16.
Which is the most urbanised state of India ?
Goa (49.77%).

Question 17.
What is the total number of males and females in India ?
Males—62 crores
Females—59 crores.

Question 18.
What is the average sex ratio in India ?
940 females per 1000 males.

Question 19.
Which state has the highest sex’ ratio in India ?
Kerala—1084 females per 1000 males.

Question 20.
Which state has the lowest sex ratio in India ?
Haryana-877.

Question 21.
What does the proportion of literate population of a country indicate? (Sample Paper 2018-19)
It indicates socio-economic development.

Question 22.
Which language is spoken by most of people in India ?
Hindi (33.73 crores).

### Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
India is a land of villages. Give two points to support it.
(i) About 68.84 per cent of people live in villages.
(ii) There are 6.40 lakh villages in India.

Question 2.
In Delhi, in 2011, the total population was 1,67,53,235 and the total area was 1483 sq. kms. Calculate density of population.
Density of population
$$=\frac{\text { Total Population }}{\text { Total area }}=\frac{1,67,53,235}{1483}$$
= 11297 persons per sq. km.

Question 3.
Compare the population and density of population of India and China.
China has a total population of 134 crores while the total population of India is 121.02 crores. The density of population in China is 144 persons per sq. km. while India has a density of population of 382 persons per sq. km. Thus China has more population, while India has more density of population.

Question 4.
‘The distribution of population is highly uneven in India.’ Give three examples.
India has an uneven distribution of population:
(i) Plains have more population than mountains, deserts and forested lands have less population.
(ii) Large states have greater population.
(iii) River basins and coastal plains have dense population.

Question 5.
State the areas of low density of population. Give reasons.
Areas with density of below 200 persons per sq. km are sparsely populated. These are :

• Major parts of Rajasthan
• Chhattisgarh
• Western Odisha
• Eastern Karnataka
• Central parts of Andhra Pradesh.

Thus this extensive tract of low density extend from the Aravallis in the west to Odisha in the east.

Reasons for low density :

• Hilly and dissected topography.
• Shallow and poor soils.
• Low rainfall.
• Forested land.
• Desert area.
• Availability of water is low.

Question 6.
What are pull factors ?
When people, migrate in search of better economic opportunities, jobs, employment and better living conditions, These are called pull factors. Millions of people were attracted by the big cities like Mumbai, Kolkata and Delhi.

Question 7.
What are push factors ?
The factors compelling people to leave the place of residence are called push factors. This is due to poverty, umemployment, high pressure of population and economic depression. Migration to big urban cities take place due to marriage, social insecurity, better social, cultural and health facilities.

Question 8.
What do you mean by population* composition ? State its main attributes.
Population composition refers to the physical, socio-cultural and economic attributes of the population. These include age, sex, place of residence, language, religion, marital status, ethnicity, literacy, education and occupation.

Question 9.
The primitive communities societies lived in complete harmony with their natural environment and as such the humans were naturalised. Support the statement. (CBSE 2018)
(i) The primitive society live in complete harmony with their natural environment.
(ii) It is realized that in all such cases nature is a powerful force worshipped, severed and conserved.
(iii) There is direct dependence of human beings on nature for resources which sustain them.

Question 10.
Which five states of India have more than half the urban population of India ? What is the position of Uttar Pradesh
The five states—Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh have 51% of the total urban population of India. Uttar Pradesh has the highest urban population of India, but only 31% of the total population lives in urban towns. This is due to rural background.

Question 11.
State four reasons for declining sex ratio.
(i) More males are born than females.
(ii) Females die at infancy and during the reproductive period.
(iii) General neglect of females is largely responsible for high female sex mortality at childhood.
(iv) Pre-birth sex determination leads to female foeticide.

Question 12.
Distinguish between rural population and urban population.
Or
Explain any three characteristics each of rural and urban composition of population in India. (Outside Delhi 2019)

 Urban Population Rural Population 1. Manufacturing and trade are the main occupations of urban people. 1. Agriculture is the main occupation of rural people. 2. The urban population is provided with all the basic facilities of life. 2. The rural population is not provided with modern facilities. 3. The density of population is high in urban areas. 3. The density of population is low in rural areas.

Question 13.
Explain three differences between a main worker and a marginal worker.

 Main Worker Marginal Worker 1. An individual is a main worker if he is engaged in any economically gainful work for a period of 183 days in a year. 2.  The high percentage of main workers rep­resents a developed economy. 3. On an average, two persons are dependent on a main worker. Main workers are mostly found in urban areas. 1. An individual who works a lesser number of days (less than 183 days) in a year is called a marginal worker. 2. The high percentage of marginal workers represents a developing economy. 3. Marginal workers are mostly found in rural areas because the agricultural activities are seasonal.

Question 14.
Distinguish between Birth-rate and Growth-rate.

 Birth-rate Growth-rate 1. The number of live births per thousand persons during a certain period of time is called the birth rate. 2. It is calculated for every 1000 persons for a year. 3. A high birth-rate shows an increasing population. 1. It is the difference between the birth rate and death rate per 1000 persons. 2. The growth-rate of population is expressed as percentage during a certain period of time. 3. When birth-rate is more than death-rate, it shows a positive growth rate.

Question 15.
Distinguish between Arithmetic density and Physiological density of population.

 Arithmetic density Physiological density 1. This is measured to express the number of people per unit area. 2. The arithmetic density of India $$\frac{12102 \text { lakh persons }}{32.8 \text { lakh } \mathrm{km}^{2}}=382$$ 3. It explains the variation in distribution of population. 1. It is measured to express the ratio of total population to cultivated area. 2. The physiological density of India $$\frac{12102 \text { lakh persons }}{15.6 \text { lakh } \mathrm{km}^{2}}=780$$ 3. It shows the number of persons dependent on cultivated land.

Question 16.
State the place of India in the world in terms of population size and density.
Or
Compare India’s population size with some big countries of the world.
Ans.
India has a total population of 1210 million persons (in 2011). India is one of the most populous countries of the world. India ranks second in world population next to China. India has 16.7% of the world population, but it has only 2.4% of the worlds land. India’s population is more than the total population of North America, South America and Australia put together. This shows that India has a large population

Question 17.
(a) Name the four most populous states of the country.
(b) Name four large states of India (As regards to area). Compare their population size and area.
(a) The four most populous states of India are (according to 2011 Census):

 S. No. State Population Rank 1. Uttar Pradesh 19,95,81,477 1st 2. Maharashtra 11,23,72,972 2nd 3. Bihar 10,38,04.637 3rd 4. West Bengal 9,13,47,736 4th

(b) Four large states of India (As regards area)

 S. No. Name of State Area  (kms) Rank in area Population Rank in Population 1. Rajasthan 3,42,239 First 6,86,21,012 Eighth 2. Madhya Pradesh 3,08,245 Second 7,25,97,565 Seventh 3. Maharashtra 3.07.713 Third 11,23,72,972 Second 4. Uttar Pradesh 2,94,000 Fourth 19,95,81.477 First

Comparisons
(1) These four large states together account for about 1/3 of the total population of India.
(2) More than l/4th of total population of India lives in Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra.
(3) Uttar Pradesh has more people than the two largest states of India i.e., Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.

Question 18.
Explain the causes of concentration of dense population in the Sutlej-Ganga plains.
Sutlej-Ganga plains is the most densely populated area in India. This includes the states of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi (NCR), Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal. The density of population of these states is above national average density.

 State Density of population State              ’ Density of population Punjab 550 Uttar Pradesh 828 Haryana 573 Khar 1102 Delhi (NCR) 11297 West Bengal 1029

This is the largest compact belt of high density of population. West Bengal has the highest density of population in India.

Reasons:
(1) Favourable climate
(2) Fertile river valleys and delta favouring agriculture.
(3) 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.
(4) Irrigation facilities.
(5) Rural economy.
(6) Urban and Industrial development in Delhi and Kolkata.
(7) A network of developed means of transportation.

Question 19.
Highlight the significance of Socio-economic factors affecting the distribution of population.
Socio-economic factors have helped to increase the economic development of an area.
(i) Technology has been the key to Development.
(ii) Technical know how has increased the supporting capacity of different areas.
(iii) Primary activities are being replaced by secondary and tertiary activities. These support a high density of population.
(iv) Industrialisation such as around Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata have high density of population.
(v) Urbanisation has increased the concentration of people.
(vi) Areas having the strategy of Green revolution such as Punjab has high density of population.

Question 20.
State the four phases into which Indian demographic history is divided.
The process of change in a society, population is called the demographic Transition. It consists of four stages in India:

• Period of Stagnant growth rate—Before 1921 (High death and birth rates)
• Period of Steady growth rate—1921 to 1951 (High birth rate low declining death rate)
• Period of rapid growth rate —1951 tol981 (Death rate declining faster than birth rate)
• Period of declining growth rate—(after 1981) (Low birth rate and low death rate)

Question 21
‘The huge size of population dependent on a narrow resource base creates many problems.’ Discuss.
India has a huge population (1210 million). 16.7 percent of the world population lives in only 2.4 percent of the world land. This huge population has created many social, political and economic problems. Large size of population means heavy pressure on natural and man-made resources. Two major problems are poverty and environmental degradation. Ethnic diversity, rural character and uneven distribution are also showing the socio-economic development. Indian Agriculture cannot absorb the fast growing population.

Question 22.
State the four phases into which Indian demographic history is divided.
The Indian demographic history can be divided into the following four phases :—
1. Before 1921 Period. During this period, the increase in population was sporadic, irregular and slow. After 1921, it has increased steadily. Hence the year 1921 is called the demographic divide in the population study of India.

2. During 1921-51 Period. The population increased steadily with the development in medical facilities which reduced deaths caused by epidemics like plague, cholera and malaria. Deaths due to famines declined and sanitation and medical facilities improved. Consequently, crude death rate declined, but crude birth rate remained high. It is called mortality induced growth.

3. During 1951-81 Period. Average growth rate was about 2.2 per cent per annum during this period. The living conditions of the people improved enormously. Death rates however declined faster than the birth rates. This situation resulted in high natural increase. Thus it was fertility-induced growth.

4. After 1981 Period. The rate of growth started declining gradually. During this period, birth rate declined rapidly, from 34 per thousand in 1981 to 26 per thousand in 1999. The difference between birth and death rates narrowed to 17. This declining trend is a positive indicator of the official efforts of birth control and people’s own inclination to opt for smaller families.

Question 23.
What is meant by the term ‘index of population concentration’ ? What are its implications ?
Index of population concentration is the proportion of India’s population living in a state of Indian union. For example, the index of concentration for Uttar Pradesh is
$$\frac{1995 \text { Lakh }}{12102 \text { Lakh }}=\frac{1995}{12102} \times 100=16.48 \%$$
It means 16.48% population of India lives in Uttar Pradesh Thus, it is a ratio between the population of state and total population of the country.

Question 24.
The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high and steadily increasing overtime. Substantiate the statement. (CBSE 2018)
Growth of population is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points. The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high and steady.

• It is a period of steady growth of population rate.
• There was an overall improvement in health and sanitation.
• It brought down the Mortality rate.
• The crude death rate remainded high.

• It is a period of population explosion in India.
• There was a rapid fall in Mortality rate.
• There was a high fertility rate of population.
• There was improvement in living conditions.
• Migration from neighbouring countries particularly Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, etc. had contributed to high growth rate in India.

Question 25.
What factors are responsible for the high rate of population growth in India ?
Between the years 1921-1950, India’s population was stable or had a meagre growth. There has been a rapid growth of population since 1951. The population increased from 361 million in 1951 to 439 million in 1961, 547 million in 1971 and 683 million in 1981 and 844 million in 1991, 1027 million in 2001 and 1210 million in 2011. The main causes for this rapid growth of population have been as under :

(i) Fall in Death-rate. Due to improved medical facilities and control over floods and epidemics, there has been a considerable fall in death-rate. It has declined from 47 in year 1921 to 7 per thousand in 2001.
(ii) Increase in life expectancy. The expectation of life has increased from 23 years to 65 years in 2001.
(iii) Fall in infant mortality rate. The death rate among children below one year of age has dropped from 250 to 125 per thousand.

Question 26.
What are the basic components ‘ um of change in population or growth of population ?
Ans.
Population never remains stable. It changes with time. The change in population depends on these components:
(i) Birth-rate
(ii) Death-rate
(iii) Migration.
A high birth-rate results in an increase in population, while a high death-rate shows a declining population. The difference between birth-rate and death- rate is called natural growth. When birth-rate is more than death-rate, it is called positive natural growth. Population declines due to out-migration or emigration of people to foreign countries. Population increases due to in-migration or immigration of people from foreign countries.

Question 27.
Why are the years 1921 and 1951 most significant in the history of population growth in India ?
The population of India is increasing at a rapid rate during this century. Between 1901 and 1981, it has increased almost three times. The population growth has been fluctuating during this period.

From the table given below, it is clear—
(i) Till year 1921, the population of India remained more or less stable. During the years 1901-1921 there was an increase in population by only 13 million (at the rate of 3% per decade). This was due to a large death toll because of great influenza (1911-21), First World War (1914), epidemics (1918) and droughts (1920). After 1921, the population began to rise at a slow but definite rate. Thus, the year 1921, is known as a great divide in our demographic history.

(ii) Till 1951, there has been a steady growth of population. After 1951, the population rose at a rapid rate. Thus, the first stage of population growth was over by the year 1951. Between 1951-81, a period of 30 years, our population has been doubled almost at a growth rate of 2.42 per annum.

Question 28.
What do you mean by Census of population ? After how many years, it is held in India ?
Census of Population.
Population data are mostly collected through censuses in all countries of the world. In the case of India, the first census was held in 1872, although the first complete census was taken in 1881 only. Since then, censuses have been held regularly with a gap of 10 years. A census of population involves a complicated process of collecting, compiling and publishing complete demographic data pertaining to all persons living in the country at the time of the censuses. Many improvements have been made to make Indian census as one of the best in the world.

Question 29.
How is arithmetic density not a sensitive measure of density of population ? Which method suits agricultural areas ?
A ratio of population is a better measure of variation in the distribution of population. One such measure is the density of population expressed as number of people per unit area, for example, a square kilometre or a hectare. However, it is a crude measure, and is referred to as arithmetic density. It is a crude method. It is not a sensitive measure of densities.

It is crude because the entire area of a country or a state is taken into consideration while calculating the density. In fact, the population lives only in the selected areas which are productive, rich in natural resources and accessible to the humans. The hilly and the rugged terrain, swampy, marshy and forested tracts as well as the areas covered by water bodies are just not suited for human habitation. These are called negative areas. These areas should not be considered for population.

Since arithmetic density is not a very sensitive index of population crowding, densities are sometimes calculated for the rural population or agricultural population. In calculating the density, cultivated area is considered. A ratio of population to cultivated area is described in France as physiological density. This measure of density gives us an idea as to how many people are dependent on each hectare of cultivated land. It is a highly meaningful index, particularly for countries whose economies are largely dependent on agriculture.

Question 30.
Which are the major demographic attributes of human population ?
The major attributes of population are :
(a) Sex Ratio. A population is comprised by males and females ; who are of different age groups.

(b) Rural and urban population. They may be residing in villages, small and medium towns or large cities.

(c) Working and non-working population. A substantive proportion of population may consist of non-workers who are either too young to work or do not work because they are ill or too old to accept any work.

(d) Others. Age, place of residence, language, religion, marital status, ethnicity, education and occupation. These characteristics of population composition may be described as demographic attributes.

Question 31.
Which state of India is most rural in character ?
Or
In which part of the country is proportion of rural population higher than national average ?
The 2011 Census shows that 72.3 percent population is rural. About 741 million people live in villages. Some states are mostly rural. In Himachal Pradesh, about 90 percent people live in villages. Arunachal Pradesh is most rural with 94.50 percent rural population. All the Northern and North-Eastern states have higher proportion of rural population than national average.

Question 31.
Name the Million Towns of India

Question 32.
State the distributional pattern of sex ratio in the country.
(i) Sex ratio is the number of females per thousand males.
(ii) Sex ratio of India in 2011 is 940 while it was 972 in 1991.
(iii) Sex ratio is high in rural areas.
(iv) Sex ratio is lower in Union Territories.
(v) Kerala has the highest sex ratio of 1084.
(vi) 17 States and 2 Union Territories have sex ratio higher than national average.
(vii) Sex Ratio declines from South to North and from East to West.

Question 33.
“The sex ratio has been generally declining ever since 1901.” Critically examine the statement and give reasons for the declining trend.
The sex ratio of India according to 2011 census is 940 per thousand males. There is a general declining trend in sex ratio. The ratio in 1901 was 972. It was declined to 940 in 2011. This decline has been due to social evils in our society.

Reasons of declining sex ratio :

• In our society, female child is neglected. Male population dominates in our society
• There is high death-rate among females
• Death-rate is particularly high among married women
• Women labour migrates to some mining and industrial centres. It also results in declining sex ratio.

Question 34.
Describe the growth of urban population in India.
With rapid increase in population, the urban population has also rapidly increased. During the last 100 years of demographic history, it has rapidly increased. The total population has increased four times but the urban population has increased eight times. During the first four decades of this century, the urban growth has been very slow. But during the last two decades it has increased rapidly. The urban population in 1901 was 257 lakhs, it has increased to 3330 lakhs in 2011.

Question 35.
Which states of India have a high sex ratio and which states of India have a low sex ratio ?
The highest sex ratio (1084 females per 1000 males) is found in Kerala whereas the national average is 940 females per 1000 males.
Area of High Sex Ratio. The following states of India have a sex ratio higher than the national average.

Odisha (978), Andhra Pradesh (992), Tamil Nadu (995), Karnataka (968), Himachal Pradesh (974), Meghalaya (986), Goa (968), Kerala (1084), Puducherry (1038), Chhattisgarh (991), Manipur (987), Uttarakhand (963), Tripura (961), Jharkhand (947).

Areas of Low Sex Ratio. The following states of India have a sex ratio lower than national average.
Sikkim (889), Nagaland (931), Haryana (877), Punjab (893), Uttar Pradesh (898), Bihar (916), Arunachal (920),Assam (954), Madhya Pradesh (930), Maharashtra (925), Gujarat (918), West Bengal (947) and Rajasthan (926).

Question 36.
What do you understand by term sex ratio ?
The sex composition of population is often expressed as a ratio which is known as the sex ratio. It is computed as number of females per thousand males. Thus, a sex ratio of 1000 implies complete parity between the two sexes. Ratios above 1000 indicates excess of females over males; those below 1000 indicate a deficit of females. The overall sex ratio of 933 for Indian population suggests a general deficit of females. Kerala state has a sex ratio of 1058 where females outnumber males.

Question 37.
Describe the salient features of occupational structure of population of India.
The occupation of population is often classified into primary, secondary and tertiary activities. The 2001 census of India published its data dividing the workers into four main categories.

India-occupational structure (2001) %

 Occupations Persons Males Females 1. Cultivators 31.71 31.34 32.50 2. Agricultural Labourers 26.69 20.82 39.43 3. Household Industries 4.07 3.02 6.37 4. Other workers 37.58 44.72 21.70

(1) More than half of the main workers are engaged in agricultural activities (31.71 + 26.69 = 58.40%)
(2) Workers engaged in Non-Agricultural activities are 41.65%.
(3) More females are engaged in Primary Sector.
(4) The number of workers in the tertiary sector are more in towns and cities.

Question 38.
Name the 18 major languages which have been specified in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution.
The following 18 major languages have been specified in the eighth schedule of the Indian Constitution:

• Assamese
• Bengali
• Gujarati
• Hindi
• Kashmiri
• Malyalam
• Marathi
• Oriya
• Punjabi
• Sanskrit
• Tamil
• Telugu
• Urdu
• Sindhi
• Nepali
• Konkani
• Manipuri.

Question 39.
Name the four language families to which Indian languages belong to.
The languages spoken by the people of India have been divided into the following four language families:

• Dravidian Family — (Dravida)
• Sino-Tibetan Family — (Kirata)
• Indo-European Family — (Arya)

Question 40.
Which language family is predominant in India ?
Most of the population of India speaks the languages of Aryan Family. About 73% of the total population of India speak Aryan Languages. Hindi is the main language of this family and is spoken by the majority of people in India.

Question 41.
Why do the people of India display high degree of diversity in their language and dialects ?
Or
“India is a land of linguistic diversity.” Support the statement. (Outside Delhi 2019)
India is a vast country of severe contrasts. The languages and dialects show a great diversity. According to 1961 census, there are about 187 languages spoken in India. It is but natural when we look the huge size of population of India. The population of India has been derived from a number of racial groups.

The people in India has been in a long process during which different racial groups entered India. Each stock has its own spoken languages. This led to the development of different languages in different regions. Each region has tried to maintain its own language. Each linguistic group has tried to maintain its individual identity.

Language is a good indicator of ethnic diversity as well as unity. In 1961 Census, 1652 languages were enlisted on mother tongues in India. Hindi is the mother tongue of 337.27 million persons (40.42% of total).

Question 42.
‘The decades 1921-1951 are referred to as the period of steady l growth of population, whereas the decades of 1951-81 are referred to as the period of population explosion in India Explain giving reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Growth the populations is the change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points. The decadal and annual growth rates of population in India are both very high.

• It is a period of steady growth of population rate.
• There was an overall improvement in health and sanitation.
• It brought down the Mortality rate.
• The crude death rate remained high.

• It is a period of population explosion in India.
• There was a rapid fall in Mortality rate.
• There was a high fertility rate of population.
• There was improvement in living conditions,
• Migration from neighbouring countries particularly Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, etc., had contributed to high growth rate of India.
• Economy rose and development acitivites.

Question 43.
“Apart from birth and death, migration is another way by which the population size changes.” Justify the statement. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Migration is one of the major factors that affects the population change. Rural urban migration is important factor contributing to the population growth of cities. Population declines due to out-migration or immigration of people to foreign countries. Population increases due to in-migration or immigration of people from foreign countries.

Internal migration does not make any change but international migration makes the differences in the size of population. Marriage is a social factor which change the size of population if women married to foreigner population decreased and population of her husband country increased. Facilities of education, health, etc. inspire people to migrate. Due to employment facilities people migrate from their birth place.

### Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe briefly the factors responsible for the variations in ; density of population in India. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Or
An uneven distribution of population suggests a close relationship between socio-population and physical and economic factors”. Support the statement with suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Density of population means the average number of people living in a sq. km. area. It is called arithmetic density. It is calculated as under :
Density ol population $$=\frac{\text { Total population }}{\text { Total area }}$$
Density of population of India in 2011
$$=\frac{1210 \text { crore persons }}{32.8 \text { lakh sq. } \mathrm{km} . \text { area }}=382$$ persons per sq. km.
With this average density of 382 persons per sq. km, India is considered to be one of the densely populated countries of the world.

Distribution Of Population

The population in India is not evenly distributed among different states. Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu are the most populous states of India while Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Tripura are sparsely populated states. The factors affecting the distribution of population can be grouped into three classes:

• Physical factors
• Socio-economic factors
• Demographic factors

The following factors determine the density of population:

(i) Relief of the Land. Plain areas attract more population than mountains and plateaus. It is so because in plains, it is easy to conduct business, industry and farming. Against this, in the mountainous areas like Himachal Pradesh and Meghalaya the density is low. It is so because in hilly areas facilities like flat land, transport, irrigation, etc. are not available for the conduct of trade, industry and farming. A high density of population is found in the fertile plains of the Ganga and Sutlej.

(ii) Climate. The extremely cold climate of Ladakh and northern Himachal Pradesh, extremely hot climate of Thar Desert in Rajasthan and wet climate of Meghalaya discourage human settlement.

(iii) Rainfall. Areas with regular and moderate rainfall are densely populated. For instance, in West Bengal, density of population is 1029 per sq. km. due to the adequate rainfall which is beneficial for farming.

(iv) Irrigational Facilities. If the rainfall is scanty in an area but irrigational facilities are available, agriculture becomes possible which in turn supports large population. It is for this reason that we find high density in the coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu where water is available for irrigation.

(v) Soil. Deep, fertile soils are suitable for agriculture. River valleys, deltas and lowlands are the most productive areas. River valleys are densely populated areas. There is sparse population in region of poor soils.

(vi) Minerals. The presence of mineral deposits supports a high population density. New towns have sprung up in Damodar valley due to presence of minerals. Coal, water power and petroleum help in the location of industries. These industrial areas support a large population.

(vii) Rivers and water supply. Rivers are the main source of water supply. Most of the towns are located along the banks of rivers. The ancient civilisation grew up in the river valleys. Deserts are sparsely populated due to shortage of water.

(viii) Agriculture. Productive areas can generally support dense population. In West Bengal, three crops a year are obtained in rice-cultivating areas. Therefore, West Bengal has high density of population in agricultural areas. Areas adopting modern high yielding crops have high density of population like Punjab.

(ix) Means of transportation. Means of transportation affect industries, agriculture and trade of region. Areas with developed and means of transportation attract population. Inaccessible areas like mountains are sparsely populated.

(x) Demographic factors. Fertility, mortality, migration and urbanisation also affect the distribution of population.

Question 2.
“The spatial distribution of population in India is highly uneven.” Discuss with the help of suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2017 Set-I)
Or
Describe the spatial patterns of density of population in India.
The distribution of population in India is very unequal. According to 2001 census, the total population of India is 121.02 crores and the density of population is 324 persons per sq. kilometre. The density of population varies according to relief, climate and the agricultural productivity of the land. The density of population depends on the amount of rainfall. The areas of sufficient rainfall can support a large number of people.

Keeping in view, the national average density (382 persons per sq km), three types of population density areas are recognized: —
1. Densely populated areas: These areas have a density of more than 400 persons per sq kilometre. The high density areas make a girdle round the Deccan plateau. Right from Sutlej-Beas plain to Brahamputra valley, the density of population is very high. Three clusters of high density are found :

(а) West Coastal Plain. Kerala has 859 persons per sq. kilometre density of population.
(b) The East Coastal Plain. Tamil Nadu has a density of 555 persons per sq. kilometre. Mahanadi, Godawari and Krishna deltas are clusters of high density.
(c) The Northern Plain. It includes West Bengal (1029), Bihar (1102), Uttar Pradesh (828), Punjab (550), Haryana (573).

Factors favouring high density :

• Sufficient rainfall.
• Fertile river valleys and deltas.
• 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.
• Irrigation facilities.
• Healthy climate.
• Rich in mineral and power resources.
• Rural economy.
• Urban and Industrial development in Kolkata and Delhi.

2. Moderately populated areas. These include the areas with a density between 250 to 500 persons per sq. kilometre. These areas are surrounded by Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Maharashtra (365), Andhra Pradesh (308), Karnataka (319), Gujarat (308), Odisha (269), Goa (399), Assam (397) have a moderate density.

Factors for moderate density:

• Agriculture is not developed due to thin and rocky soils, undulating topography.
• Rainfall is uncertain.
• Means of transporation are not developed.
• Some areas have high density of population due to irrigation and Green Revolution, lava soils, mineral resources and Industrial development.

3. Sparsely populated areas. These areas have a density less than 250 persons per sq. kilometre. The mountainous, arid and forest areas are not attractive to human habitation. An extensive tract of low density extends from the Aravallis to Odisha.

(a) North Eastern India. This region includes Meghalaya (132), Manipur (122), Nagaland (119), Sikkim (86) and Arunachal Pradesh (17).

(b) Rajasthan Desert. Rajasthan has a density of 128 persons per sq. kilometre.

(c) Western Himalayas. It includes Jammu and Kashmir (124), Himachal Pradesh (123).

Factors for low density:

• The hilly nature of the land.
• Dense forests.
• Low rainfall.
• Poor economic development.
• Absence of minerals.
• Lack of irrigation and agriculture.
• Cold climate.

Ranking of States and Union Territories by Population : 2011

 Rank in 2011 Indian States/Union Territories Population 2011 Percent to total population of INDIA Density of Population 1 2 1,21,01,93,422 3 100.00 4 382 5 INDIA 1,21,01,93,422 100.00 382 1. Uttar Pradesh 19,95,81,477 16.49 828 z. Maharashtra 11,23,72,9/2 9.29 365 3. Bihar 10,38,04,637 8.58 1,102 4. West Bengal 9,13,47,736 7.55 1,029 5. Andhra Pradesh 4,93,86,799 4 00 308 6. Madhya Pradesh 7,25,97,565 6.00 236 7. Tamil Nadu 7,21,38,958 5.96 555 8. Rajasthan 6,86,21,012 5.67 201 9. Karnataka 6,11,30,704 5.05 319 10. Gujarat 6,03,83,628 4.99 308 11. Odisha 4,19,47,358 3.47 269 12. Kerala 3,33,87,677 2.76 859 13. Jharkhand 3,29,66,238 2.72 414 14. Assam 3,11,69,272 2.58 397 15. Punjab 2,77,04,236 2.29 550 16. Chhattisgarh 2,55,40,196 2.11 189 17. Haryana 2,53,53,081 2.09 573 18. NCT of Delhi* 1,67,53,235 1.38 11,297 19. Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh* 1,25,48,926 1.04 124 20. Uttarakhand 1,01,16,752 0.84 189 21. Himachal Pradesh 68,56,509 0.57 123 22. Tripura 36,71,032 0.30 350 23. Meghalaya 29,64,007 0.24 132 24. Manipur 27,21,756 0.22 122 25. Nagaland 19,80,602 0.16 119 26. Goa 14,57,723 0.12 394 27. Arunachal Pradesh 13,82,611 0.11 17 28. Puducherry* 12,44,464 0.10 2,598 29. Mizoram 10,91,014 0.09 52 30. Chandigarh* 10,54,686 0.09 9,252 31. Sikkim 6,07,688 0.05 86 32. Andaman & Nicobar Islands* 3,79,944 0.03 46 33. Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu* 585,764 0.05 970 34. Lakshadweep* 64,429 0.01 2,013 35. Telangana *Union Territories 3,52,86,757 3.00 307

# Note: The erstwhile state of Jammu & Kashmir reorganised into two Union Territories – Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh. As per Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (Merger of Union territories) Act, 2019, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu have been merged.

Question 3.
Describe the geographical distribution of different language families in India.
The people of India display a high degree of diversity in their languages. The languages spoken by the people can be classified into four language families.

1. Austric Family. The Austric languages are spoken by 6.2 million people in India. These include languages spoken by tribal people.

• Munda language is spoken by tribal groups of Santhals, Mayurbhanj, Ranchi, Betul and Baudh Khondmahals (Jharkhand).
• The Mon Khmer Khasi language is spoken in Khasi and Jaintia hills of Meghalaya.
• Nicobari language is spoken in Nicobar Island.

2. Sino-Tibetan Family. These languages are spoken by tribal groups of Himalayan Region.

• Tibeto-Himalayan group includes Tibetan, Balthi, Ladakhi, Lahauli and Bhutia : Lahauli, Kanauri and Lepcha. Ladakhi has the largest number of speakers.
• North-Assam group includes Aka, Drafla, Abor, Miri and Mishmi Mishing mostly spoken in Arunachal Pradesh.
• The Assam-Burmese group includes Bodo, Naga, Kochin and Kukichin.

3. Dravidian Family. These languages are spoken in Deccan plateau region. It includes Tamil (Tamil Nadu), Malayalam (Kerala), Kannada (Karnataka) and Telugu (Andhra Pradesh). There is less diversity in this group of languages. It also includes Kin, Parji, Khond, Tulu, Kurgi, etc.

4. Aryan Family. It has two main branches :
(i) Dardic
(ii) Aryan

The majority of people speak these languages. Hindi is the principal language spoken by the majority of people. Hindi is the main language in Northern plains. Urdu, Sindhi, Marathi, Konkani, Oriya, Bangla, Punjabi, Rajasthani, Marwari are other important languages in different regions. Hindi occupies the fourth place in the World. Urdu is very akin to Hindi and is widely spoken in this belt.

Question 4.
Discuss the religious composition of Indian population and its spatial distribution.
Religious Composition : Important aspect of India’s population is the multiplicity of religious faiths. It is commonly known that the religion of the land is Hinduism. India witnessed successive penetration by other religions (Christianity, Judaism, Zorastrianism, Islam) and sections of Indian population embraced these faiths from time to time.

(1) The earliest to appear was Christianity. Historical records show that the Syrian Christians appeared on the west coast of India in the very first century of the Christian era.

(2) The Arab traders brought the message of Islam to the people of India living on the west coast much before the Muslim conquest of India.

(3) Buddhism which was once upon a time a major religion of the land is today confined to a few pockets only.
It is thus obvious that the religious composition of population has been changing with conversions from one faith to another, due to migration and partition of the country.

Different Religions. The religious groups of India include Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists and Jains, although other religious faiths such as Judaism and Zorastrianism are also represented. Several tribal communities adhere to animism and totemism. Hindus account for 82 per cent of the total population. They are distributed in all parts of India. However, in some districts they are less numerous than the Muslims, Christians, Sikhs or Buddhists.

The Muslims are the largest minority group and account for 12.12 per cent of the total population. The proportion of Christians is 2.34 per cent while Sikhs account for 1.93 per cent of the total population. Buddhists and Jains account for 0.76 and 0.39 per cent of the total population, respectively. It may be noted that while Hindus are found everywhere, other religious groups have their concentration in a few pockets only.

(1) Hindus : Hindus remain the most numerous groups everywhere.

(a) In many parts of the country such as a few districts of Orissa and Madhya Pradesh the proportion of Hindus population goes up to 95 per cent or even above. It is lowest (5 %) in Mizoram.

(b) In the sub-Himalayan districts of Uttar Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh the proportion of Hindu population is high above 95 per cent.

(c) The Hindu percentage remains well above 90 per cent in eastern Madhya Pradesh, eastern Gujarat, southern Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and coastal Andhra Pradesh.

(d) There are, however, certain districts on the west coast where the Hindu percentages fall below 70 per cent and even below 50 per cent. Hindus are in minority in Punjab, Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya, Nagaland and North East Tribal areas.

(2) Muslims : According to the 1991 Census, Muslim population numbered 101.5 million which accounted for 12.12 per cent of the country’s total population. The major areas of Muslims concentration are situated in the Kashmir Valley, parts of the upper Ganga plain (Uttar Pradesh) and a number of districts in West Bengal where the Muslim proportion ranges between 20 and 40 per cent. In Murshidabad (West Bengal), the Muslim proportion goes as high as 61.40 per cent. In the upper Ganga Valley, Muslims are fairly predominant in several districts.

(3) Christians : Of the 19.64 million Christians of India, about 29 per cent live in the state of Kerala alone. Other areas of Christian concentration are in Goa and Tamil Nadu.

About 30 per cent of population of Goa consists of Christians. Several Tribal districts of Odisha and Bihar have significant proportion of Christian population. Likewise, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Manipur have very high proportion of Christians. In Nagaland for example, their share in the total population is as high as 87.47 percent.

Mizoram with 85.73 per cent of its population consisting of Christians follows closely. Percentages remain very high in the districts of Meghalaya and some districts of Manipur (between 50 and 98 per cent). Several districts of Uttar Pradesh and Punjab have small Christian population.

(4) Sikhs : The 1991 Census returns show that there are 16.25 million Sikhs in the country. While there is no part in India where the Sikhs are not found, their major concentration is seen in the states of Punjab and neighbouring districts of Haryana. This is obvious because Sikhism arose from the soil of Punjab.

Minor pockets of Sikh concentration are found in the Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh, Ganganagar, Alwar and Bharatpur districts of Rajasthan. Sikhs account for 4.84 per cent of the total population of the Union Territory of Delhi. In the urban areas of other states, Sikhs live in small numbers.

(5) Buddhists, Jains and Parsis : India has about 6.38 million Buddhists, 3.55 million, Jains and about 72,000 Parsis. Of the total Buddhists of India, 79 per cent live in Maharashtra alone. These are Neo-Buddhists who embraced this religion after large scale conversion under the influence of the movement launched by Baba Saheb Ambedkar. The main pockets of traditional Buddhism, however, lie in Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura.

Of the total population of India, 28.80 per cent live in Maharashtra, 16.78 per cent in Rajasthan and 14.65 per cent in Gujarat. These three states account for 60.23 per cent of the Jain population of the country. An interesting feature of the distribution of Jains is that their majority live in the urban areas. The Parsis are the smallest religious group. They are most concentrated in Western parts of India in Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Question 5.
Discuss the trend of urbanisation in India with special reference to the post independence period.
Urbanisation in India : According to census, the population is classified into two groups; rural and urban. People living in towns are included
in urban population. A town is an area which has a municipal committee, corporation etc. ; it has a population more than 5000 and 75% people are engaged in occupations other than agriculture.

India is primarily an agricultural country. Most of people live in villages. Villages have been the basis of Indian culture. India has a large urban population. According to census of 2011, the total urban population in India was 39 crores. It is almost equal to the urban population of U.S.A. (25,9 crore) India ranks the largest urbanised country in the world. But the degree of urbanisation in India is low as compared to other countries of the world.

 Country Urban population % U.S.A. 82.6 Brazil 84.9 Egypt 43.7 Pakistan 36.7 India 31.7

Growth of urban population :

With the rapid increase in population, the urban population has also rapidly increased. During the last 110 years (1901-2011), the total population of India increased three times, but the urban population has increased eleven times during the same period.

Rural and Urban Population : 1901-2011

 Census year Population (million) Percentage of total population Rural Urban Rural Urban 1901 213 26 89.2 10.8 1911 226 26 89.7 10.3 1921 223 28 88.8 11.2 1931 246 33 88.0 12.0 1941 275 44 86.1 13.9 1951 299 62 82.7 17.3 1961 360 79 82.0 18.0 1971 439 109 80.1 19.9 1981 524 159 76.7 23.3 1991 629 218 74.3 25.7 2001 741 285 72.2 27.8 2011 833 377 68.8 31.7

The rate of growth of urbanisation has been slow during the period 1901.-61. But during the period of 20 years (1961-81) there has been a rapid growth of urbanisation in India. The urban population increased from 7.8 crores to 15.6.

The percentage of urban population increased from 17.9% to 23.3%. In 2001 the urban population has increased to 28.5 crores (27.8% of the total population). The growth of towns has helped rapid growth of urbanisation. Many industrial towns have been established. The Indian towns have been classified into 6 groups.

 Class Population Class I Class II More than 1 Lakh 50000 – 99999 Class III 20000 – 49999 Class IV 10000-19999 Class V 5000 – 9999 Class VI Less than 5000

After independence, the number of big towns is increasing while the number of small towns is decreasing. In 1991, there were 299 class I towns out of 4689 towns. In 1981, there were 218 class I towns, but in 1901 there were only 24 class I towns. The number of million towns in India is 35.

These towns have a population of 10 crores which is about 1.3rd of total urban population of India. Kolkata, Mumbai, ‘Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Pune, Kanpur, Nagpur, Jaipur, Lucknow are million towns in India.

### Population: Distribution, Density, Growth and Composition Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
‘Dense population is found in states in Ganga and Sutlej plain.’ Explain.
West Bengal (1029 persons per sq. km) and Bihar (1102 persons) are the two states with dense population in Northern plains, Uttar Pradesh (20 crores population) is the state with highest population of India with density of population of 828 persons per sq. km. Punjab has density of population of 550 persons per sq. km. while Haryana has a density of population of 573 persons per sq. km. All the states he in Ganga Sutlej Basin.

Question 2.
Identify the challenges of the adolescent population before the society. Enlist a few measures to overcome these problems. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
The share of adolescents is about 20.9% of the population. The adolescent population though regarded as the youthful population, having high potential is quite vulnerable if not quided properly. The National youth policy looks into the overall development of our large youth population. It stresses on an all round improvement of the youth and adolescent enabling them to shoulder responsibility towards constructive development of the country.

• It reinforces the qualities of patriotism and responsible citizenship.
• Special emphasis was given in empowering women and girl child to bring parity in the male and the female status.
• Efforts were made to look into health. Sports and recreation creativity and awareness about new innovations in the spheres of science and technologies.

Map Skills

Question 1.
Show the following on the outline map of India and label these.
(1) Most populated state.
(2) Least populated state.
(3) State with highest density of population.
(4) State with lowest density of population.
(5) State with highest growth rate of population.
(6) State with lowest growth rate of population.
(7) State with highest percentage of rural population.
(8) Most urbanised state.
(9) State with highest sex ratio.
(10) State with lowest sex ratio.

## Kings and Chronicles Class 12 Important Extra Questions History Chapter 9

Here we are providing Class 12 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 9 Kings and Chronicles: The Mughal Courts. Class 12 History Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 History Chapter 9 Important Extra Questions Kings and Chronicles: The Mughal Courts

### Kings and Chronicles Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Who was the first ruler of the Mughal Empire?
Babur was the first Mughal King.

Question 2.
How did Babur relate to Ghenghiz Khan?
Babur was related to Ghenghiz Khan from his mother’s side.

Question 3.
Name few of the successors of Babur.
Humayun, Akbar, Jehangir, Shahjehan, Aurangzeb etc.

Question 4.
Who gave a defeat to Humayun?
Sher Shah Suri defeat Humayun.

Question 5.
Who is considered as the greatest Mughal Empire?
Akbar is considered as the greatest Mughal Empire.

Question 6.
Who was the last powerful Mughal Emperor?
Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal Emperor.

Question 7.
Name few of the Chronicles prepared during the Mughal Empire?
Baburnama, Akbarnama, Shahjahannama, Alamgirnama etc.

Question 8.
In which language most of the Chronicles were written in the Mughal period?
In Persian language.

Question 9.
What was the .centre of manuscript production during the Mughal empire?
Kitabkhana was the centre of manuscript production during the Mughal Empire.

Question 10.
What was the Nastaliq?
It was a style of calligraphy, a fluid style with long horizontal strokes.

Question 11.
What was Sheria?
Sheria was an Islamic law.

Question 12.
In how many books, the Akbarnama is divided?
Akbarnama is divided into three books and the third book is Akbarnama.

Question 13.
Who was Humayun? How was he forced to run away from India?
Humayun was the son and successor of Babur. He expanded the frontiers of his empire. However, he was defeated by the Afghan leader Sher Shah Suri and was forced to run away from India.

Question 14.
What happened to Humayun when he ran away from India?
Humayun had to take refuge in the court of the Safavid ruler of Iran when he was drove into exile. In 1555 C.E., he defeated the Surs but died an year later.

Question 15.
How did the Mughal dynasty came to an end in India?
With the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 C.E., the power of the empire diminished. Many regional powers emerged in place of large Mughal empire. Yet symbolically, the prestige of Mughal rulers remained there. In 1857 C.E., the last scion of this dynasty, Bahadur Shah Zafar was overthrown by the British. In this way, the Mughal dynasty came to an end in India.

Question 16.
Who were the authors of the Mughal chronicles? On which four points did they concentrate?
The authors of the Mughal chronicles were the court historiAnswer:All the chronicles emphasised the following points:

1. Events associated with the ruler
2. Family of the ruler
3. The royal court

Question 17.
Who founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal and when? Tell any one work done by it.
The Asiatic Society of Bengal was founded by Sir William Jones in 1784 C.E. This society published the edited versions of Akbarnama and Badshahnama in the nineteenth century.

Question 18.
Explain any two works done by Akbar to enhance the idea of Sulh-i-Kul.

1. Akbar gave positions and awards to Turanis, Afghans, Rajputs and Deccanis purely on the basis of their service and loyalty to the king.
2. He abolished the tax on pilgrimage in 1563 C.E. and Jizya in 1564 C.E. as both were based on religious discrimination.

Question 19.
What was Jizya? Who abolished it? By whom was it again imposed?
Jizya was a tax imposed on non-Muslim subjects. It was abolished by Akbar in 1564 C.E. and was again imposed by Aurangzeb.

Question 20.
Which was the favourite symbol to represent the idea of Justice of Mughal monarchy? What does it mean?
The favourite symbol to represent the idea of justice of Mughal monarchy was the motif of the lion and the lamb (or cow) peacefully nestling next to each other. It was meant to signify that both the weak and the strong could exist in harmony.

Question 21.
How Mughal rulers kept control over court society?
Social control in court was exercised by forms of address, courtesies and speech which were acceptable in court. Even a small mistake of etiquette was noticed and punished right on the spot.

Question 22.
Which were the highest forms of salutation to the ruler by the Mughal courtiers?

1. Sijda or complete prostration.
2. Chahar Taslim.
3. Zaminbos, i.e., kissing the ground.

Question 23.
Which Mughal emperor began the practice of Jharokha Darshan? What was his objective behind this?
Jharokha Darshan was introduced by Akbar. According to this, emperor appeared on a small balcony, facing the east, giving a view to crowds of people standing below. Its objective was to broadening the acceptance of the imperial authority as part of popular faith.

Question 24.
What were Zat and Sawar ranks? What was the main difference between them?
Zat and Sawar were the ranks or mansabs of Mughal officials based on numerical destinations. As Zat was an indicator of position in the imperial hierarchy and salary of the official but Sawar indicated towards the number of horsemen which he was required to maintain in his service.

Question 25.
Why Mughal emperor wanted to keep control over Kabul and Kandhar?
All conquerers who wanted to conquer the Indian sub-continent had to cross Hindukush to have an access to north India. That is why there was a constant policy of Mughals and that was to ward off this potential danger by controlling strategic outposts, i.e., Kabul and Kandhar.

Question 26.
“Jesuits were greatly respected during Akbar’s time”. Give three reasons in favour of this statement.

1. At public assemblies, the Jesuits were given places in close proximity to Akbar’s throne.
2. Jesuits accompanied Akbar on his campaigns and tutored his children. ‘
3. Jesuits were often companions of the leisure hours of the Emperor.

Question 27.
What was the ‘philosophy of light’ created by Akbar and Abul Fazl? Why was this used?
According to philosophy of light created by Akbar and Abul Fazl, a divinely inspired individual has top most sovereignty over his people and full control over his enemies. This philosophy was used to shape the image of the king and ideology of the state.

### Kings and Chronicles Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Why did the Mughal rulers get their dynastic histories written?
The Mughal rulers believed that they are appointed by the ‘God’ himself to rule over a large and heterogeneous populace. Although actual political circumstances circumscribed this grand vision but this vision remained important. One of the methods of transmitting this vision was writing of the dynastic histories. The Mughal rulers gave this work, of writing accounts of their achievements, to their court historiAnswer:These accounts recorded all the events of the emperor’s reign. Except this, these authors also collected a lot of information about other aspects of the sub-continent which helped the rulers to govern their domain.

Question 2.
What is Mughal chronicle? What is their importance for writing of Mughal history?
Or
Describe the characteristic features of the Mughal Chronicles. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (D))
Or
How do you think that the chronicles commissioned by the Mughal Emperors are an important source for studying Mughal history? (C.B.S.E. 2017 (O.D.))
The genre of texts written by modern historians in English is called a chronicle. These chronicles present a continuous chronological record of events and are an indispensable source for any scholar who wanted to write about Mughal history. On one side, these chronicles give us information about institutions of Mughal empire and on the other side, they convey the meaning of those objectives which Mughal rulers wanted to impose on their domain. In this way these chronicles give us a glimpse that how imperial ideologies were created and disseminated.

Question 3.
How were images or pictures incorporated in the Mughal manuscripts? Discuss any two points of its importance.
Or
Assess the importance of the painted images in Mughal manuscripts. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (D))
The painters played a significant role in the production of Mughal manuscripts. They included in the manuscripts many images that described an event in the visual form. The pictures accompanied what was described in words in the manuscript. They served as miniatures. Their importance can be understood from the following points:

• These pictures enhanced the beauty of a book or manuscript.
• They conveyed ideas which were difficult to be expressed in the written medium.
• They had the magical power to make inanimate objects look as if they possessed life.

Question 4.
Write a brief comment on Badshahnama.
Or
Name the author of Badshahnama. Describe its content. (C.B.S.E. 2011 {O.D.))
Or
“lilughal transmitted their grand vision through the writing of dynastic histories.” Explain the statement with reference to Badshahnama. (C.B.S.E. 2019 (O.D.))
Once Emperor Shah Jahan called Abdul Hamid Lahori and requested him to write a history of his reign as was done in Akbarnama. As a result, Badshahnama was written by Abdul Hamid Lahori, a pupil of Abul Fazl. It is the official history of the events which occurred during the reign of Emperor Shah Jahan. It was written in three volumes (daftars). Each volume covered a period of ten years. Later on Sadullah Khan, the Wazir of Shah Jahan, revised the first two. volumes of the Badshahnama. The Asiatic- Society was the first to publish edited versions of Badshahnama in the nineteenth century. A few excerpts of this book have so far been translated into English.

Question 5.
(i) Which changes came in social status of people associated with the composition of Mughal age manuscripts?Answer:
People involved in the actual production of the Mughal age manuscripts got recognition in the form of titles and awards given to them. Some of the calligraphers and painters got higher social status while other partners like paper makers or book binders remained as anonymous artisans.

(ii) What was the relation of calligraphy with manuscripts?
Calligraphy, i.e., art of handwriting was considered as a skill with great importance. It was used and practised by using different styles. Nastaliq was the favourite style of Akbar. It is a fluid style with long horizontal stokes. A piece of trimmed reed with a tip 5-10 mm called qalam, dipped in carbon ink was used to write this style. Generally, a small split was kept in the nib of the qalam so that it could absorb the ink.

Question 6.
Which steps were taken during the colonial age to protect historical manuscripts?
During the colonial period, the British administrators began to studv Indian history so as to get a better understanding ot people and their culture. In 1784, Sir William Jones founded the Asiatic Society of Bengal which took responsibility of editing, printing and translation of many Indian manuscripts.
Edited versions of Akbarnama and Badshahnama were first printed by the Asiatic Society in 19th century. In the early 20th century, Henry Beveridge translated Akbarnama in English. Only few excerpts of Badshahnama have been translated in English till today. •

Question 7.
According to many court chronicles, the power of the Mughal kings came directly from God. There is the narration of a legend. The Mongol Queen named Alanqua was impregnated by a ray of sun¬shine when she was resting in her tent. Her child bore the Divine Light which passed on from generation to generation.

The Mughal king also got light that emanated from God. So he was the source of spiritual guidance for his subjects. He wore the halo which is often seen in the European paintings of Christ and the Virgin Mary. The halo of the Mughal Emperors symbolised the light of God. It left a deep imprint on the minds of those who saw the emperor with halo surrounding their heads.

Question 8.
What did the form of salutation in front of ruler in the Mughal court indicate? While describing briefly about different forms of salutations also tell that what was expected from diplomatic envoys in this regard?
Form of salutation in front of ruler in the Mughal court indicated towards person’s status in the hierarchy. Deeper prostration represented higher status of the person.

• Highest form of submission was sijda or complete prostration.
• Under the reign of Shah Jahan, these forms were replaced by chahar taslim and zaminbos (kissing the ground).

The protocols related to diplomatic envoys in the Mughal court were equally explicit. It was expected from an ambassador presented in front of Mughal ruler that he must adopt any one method out of sanctioned forms of salutation. These included either by bowing deeply, kissing the ground or to follow the Persian custom of clasping one’s hand in front of the chest. The English ambassador of James-I, Thomas Roy simply bowed before emperor Jahangir and further shocked everyone by demanding a chair to sit.

Question 9.
Who was Gulbadan Begum? Make a brief evaluation of Humayunama written by her. ,
Or
Describe how the Humayunama of Gulbadan Begum gives us the glimpses of the Mughal Imperial household. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (O.D.))
Gulbadan was the daughter of Babur, sister of Humayun and aunt of Akbar. She was a fluent writer in Turkish and Persian. When Abul Fazl was writing his Akbarnama about the history of the reign of Akbar, she was requested by Akbar to write her memories of earlier times under Babur and Humayun. Akbar felt that her memories could be useful for Abul Fazl.

Gulbadan Begum wrote an interesting book entitled ‘Humayunama!. It gives us a glimpse into the domestic world of the Mughals. It is not merely an enlogy of the Mughal emperors. On the contrary, it brings out the conflicts and tensions that existed among the princes and the kings. It also shows the important role played by elderly women who mediated to resolve some of the conflicts.

Question 10.
“Akbar tried to tie his empire in one thread.” How?
Or
“Akbar was a national ruler.” Prove it.
Akbar was the first Muslim ruler who gave preference to national interests instead of developing any religion or sect. He conquered whole of north India and tied it in one thread. He implemented same legal and administrative system in all of his provinces. First time in medieval period, Hindu masses were given same religious freedom like Muslims.

He even removed the religious tax imposed on Hindus called Jizya. Akbar not only married a Rajput princesses but also permitted them to worship their deities according to Hindu traditions. Din-i-Ilahi was a symbol of religious tolerance of Akbar. He began this religion to establish unity among Hindus and Muslims. Just because of these measures, Akbar was succeeded in founding a national empire in the country.

Question 11.
What are the distinctive features of Mughal nobility? State any five features.
Or
“One important pillar of the Mughal I administration was the nobility.” Justify. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (D)))
Or
“The nobility was recruited consciously by the Mughal rulers from ethnic and religious groups.” Justify. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (D))
Or
Explain why the nobility was recruited from different races and religious groups by the Mughal rulers in India. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
A corps of officers was one of the most important pillars of the Mughal state. The historians referred to all these officials collectively as the nobility. The main characteristics of these officers were as under:

1. They were recruited from different castes and religious groups.
2. A special care was taken to ensure that no group should grow so strong and wide as to be a threat to the State.
3. The mansab or the status of each officer was determined.
4. The officers participated in the military operations along with their soldiers. They used to perform administrative jobs.
5. As the officers held a high position in the society, they were quite rich and powerful and enjoyed ample prestige in the society.

Question 12.
What is meant by Zat and Sawar ranks in Mansabdari system?
Zat was numerical value which determined the rank and salary in Mughal Empire. Certain points were there in Zat ranking which are given below:

1. Nobles with a Zat of 5,000 were ranked higher than those of 1,000.
2. There were 29 mansabdars with a rank of 5,000 Zat in the reign of Akbar.
3. The number of mansabdars had increased to 79 in Aurangzeb’s reign.
4. More number of mansabdars meant more burden of expenditure on State exchequer.
Sawar was a rank of officer which indicated the number of horsemen h: was required to maintain m service. •

Question 13.
Discuss the merits and demerits of Mansabdari system.
Merits:
1. Jagirdari system came to an end with the advent of this custom. Now every mansabdar was dependent upon emperor for his salary. Except this, mansabdars were under complete control of the emperor. They could be called at any time with their cavalry and horsemen. It reduced the chances of revolts against the emperor.

2. The post of mansabdar was given according to the ability of the person. In case of inability of handling the post, mansabdar was generally relieved from his post. In this way, able and successful persons were appointed on higher posts.

3. Government’s expenses of giving jagirs was reduced to a great extent.

4. According to the Zabti system, whole of property of mansabdar was confiscated in case of his death. It increased the income of the government.

Demerits:
1. One of the major demerits of this system was that mansabdar always tried to cheat the government. They used to keep less number of horsemen than the prescribed number but used to take salary of all the horsemen. Government tried to remove this shortcoming but with little success.

(ii) Mansabdars were given very high salaries which was a sort of pressure on the Govt, treasury.

Question 14.
Give main features of religious policy of Akbar.
Akbar had great interest in religion right from the beginning. Initially, he was an orthodox Muslim but gradually became liberal in his ideas. He abolished the tax on pilgrimage, i.e., Jizya. He built ibadatkhana at Fatehpur Sikri where people of different religions and sects discussed religious matters. From these discussions, he drew some conclusions and started a new religion called Din-i- Ilahi. Akbar compiled essence of all the religions in this religion. Any one was free to adopt this religion. Even Brahmin Birbal became one of its members.

Except this, Akbar established marital relations with many Rajput princesses. All of his Hindu wives were free to practice their customs according to Hinduism. Every one was free to adopt any religion. Employment was open to all the religious communities. People of all the religious groups were free to practice their customs. In this way, an atmosphere of religious tolerance came into being within the reign of this Muslim ruler.

Question 15.
Write the main effects of religious policy of Akbar.
Following were the main effects of religious policy of Akbar:

1. Vast Mughal Empire: Akbar won the hearts of Rajputs only because of his Hindu policy. He was able to suppress his enemies with the cooperation of Rajputs. Many loyal Rajput chiefs won many battles for the kingdom. It led to the great expansion of Mughal empire.

2. Strong Mughal Empire: Before Akbar, Hindus were enemies of empire and were causing huge losses to the state. But liberal policy of Akbar brought Hindus to Mughal court. As a result, Mughal empire became very strong.

3. Encouragement to the sense of Nation Building: As a result of this policy of Akbar, lakhs of Hindus came in favour of Mughal empire and began working for the progress of the empire. That is why Akbar was able to succeed in his objective of nation building.

4. Progress in Art and Literature: As a result of this policy, art and literature made a huge progress. Mughal art was mixed into Hindu art and mixture of Sanskrit and Persian gave birth to a new type of literature and language.

Question 16.
‘Akbar was a Liberal ruler. Prove it.
It would be clarified from the following points that Akbar was very liberal and tolerable in his ideas:

1. Establishing marital relations: Akbar established marital relations with the daughters of Rajput kings. In 1562 C.E., he was married to the daughter of Rajput king of Amer, Bharmal. Akbar appointed son and grandson of Bharmal into imperial service. In this way religious tolerance policy of Akbar began with his marriage.

2. Appointment of Hindus on higher posts: Akbar appointed many Hindus into imperial services. He never cared about the individual’s religion while appointing him on any post. Many Hindus like Raja Todar Mai, Man Singh, Birbal, etc., were appointed on higher posts.

3. Religious freedom: Akbar gave complete religious freedom to his subjects. He even introduced a royal farman that no one will be converted forcefully into other religion.

4. Din-i-Ilahi: Akbar collected all the good elements of all religions and sects and introduced a new religion in 1582 C.E. called Din-I-Ilahi.
From all these things it is clear that Akbar was actually a liberal ruler.

Question 17.
What do you know about Din-i-Ilahi? Discuss its major elements.
Din-i-Ilahi was the result of progress of religious sentiments of Akbar. From the discussion of Ibadatkhana he concluded that all the religions are basically one and the same thing. He took motivation from this and founded a new religion, Din-i-Ilahi, in 1582 C.E. He included all the basic concepts and elements of all the religions and sects. Gods, Goddesses, Pirs, etc., had no place in this new religion.

According to this, God is one and Akbar is his top most devotee. Followers of this religion were not allowed to be non-vegetarian. Its followers greeted each other by saying ‘Allah-hu-Akbar’. They were always ready to sacrifice every thing for the emperor. Din-i-Ilahi did not become popular because Akbar hardly took any steps to popularise it among masses. As a result, this religion also came to an end with the death of Akbar.

Question 18.
Analyse how the Mughal emperor’s Court procedures reflected his status and power. (C.B.S.E. Sample Paper 2011)
Or
In what ways have the daily routine and special festivities associated with the Mughal court conveyed a sense of
power of the Mughal emperor? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (D))
Or
“The visible centre of Mughal power was the King’s court.” Justify the statements with suitable arguments. (C.B.S.E. 2019 (D))

1. The royal throne depicted the high status of the emperor.
2. The canopy was the symbol of Mughal monarchy.
3. Each courtier had a definite place to sit. It reflected his position in the Court. When the king was seated on his throne, no courtier could change his seat or go outside without the permission of the Emperor.
4. There were special norms for reception, courtesy and speech to regulate the system and control of the Court.
5. Good conduct and courtesy was expected from diplomatic envoys.
6. The dazzling decoration on special occasions and the abundant expenses enhanced the power, authority and dignity of the king.

Question 19.
Give a brief description of central Administration of Mughals.
Emperor himself was the head of central administration of Mughals. Some of the important ministers of central administration are given below:

1. Mir Bakhshi: Mir Bakhshi was the paymaster general. He used to stand in the open court on the right side of the emperor and present all candidates for appointment or promotion. His office used to prepare orders bearing his seal and signature and of the emperor as well.

2. Diwan-i-Ala and Sadr-us-Sadur: There were two other important ministers as well at the centre. Diwan-i-Ala was the finance minister and Sadr-us-Sadur was minister of grants or Maded-i- maash and incharge of appointing qazis or local judges. All these three ministers sometimes worked as an advisory body but generally were independent from each other.

Question 20.
Throw some light on Mughals’ relations with the Ottoman empire.
Or
Describe briefly the relationship between the Mughals and the Ottomans. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (O.D.))
The main objective of Mughals’ relations with the Ottoman empire was to maintain a free movement for pilgrims and merchants in the territories under control of the Ottoman empire. This was true especially for the Hijaz i.e., that area of Ottoman Arabia where Mecca and Madina, important pilgrim centres were located. Mughal emperors generally combined commerce and religion.

They used to export valuable things to Aden and Mokha, both the ports of Red Sea. They even used to distribute the income from the sale of these goods in charity and keepers of shrines. But when Aurangzeb came to know about the misappropriation of funds sent to Arabia, he stressed on their distribution in India because he believed that, “it was as much a house of God as Mecca.”

Question 21.
How did the religious views of Akbar become mature? What change came in it?
Akbar practised the idea of religious toleration. He exhibited the high respect to the members of the Jesuit Mission. In fact, Akbar had a deep quest for religious knowledge. He held inter-faith debates in the Ibadatkhana at Fatehpur Sikri. He met people belonging to all the religions such as the Hindus, the Muslims, the Jainas, the Parsis and the ChristiAnswer:He was quite mature in his religious views. He got knowledge about the doctrines of all religions and sects. He moved away from the orthodox Islamic ways of understanding. He believed in religious toleration. His views are a lesson to modern society which is torn with religious differences.

Akbar found a great change in his religious perception. He did not believe in orthodox Islamic philosophy. He focussed on divine worship and created a philosophy of light and sun. He used this philosophy to shape the image of the king and ideology of the Mughal state. He was sure that a divinely inspired ruler can have supreme sovereignty over his people and complete control over his enemies.

Question 22.
“Many consider Jalal-ud-din Akbar (1556-1605) as the greatest of all the Mughal emperors.” Support the statement with evidence. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))
Many consider Jalal-ud-din Akbar as the greatest of all the Mughal emperors due to following reasons:

1. Akbar not only expanded his empire but made it strong and prosperous as well.
2. He spread frontiers of his empire till Hindukush mountains.
3. He stopped the expansionist plans of Safavids of Iran and Uzbek’s of Turan (Central Asia).
4. He then arranged Mughal administration in a proper way. Tolerance and liberalism were two main features of his administration.
5. Judicial system adopted by him was an ideal
one.

Question 23.
Describe briefly the expansion and consolidation of Mughal Empire under Jalaluddin Akbar (1356-1605). (C.B.S.E, 2011 (D))
Jalal-ud-din Akbar was the son and successor of Humayun. He is considered as the greatest of all the Mughal emperors because he not only expanded but also consolidated his empire, making the largest, strongest and richest kingdom of his time. He extended frontier of his empire to Hindukush mountains. He also checked the expansionist plans of Uzbeks of Turan and the Safavids of Iran. Mughal administration under Akbar was quite strong. He showed great tolerance in the matters of religion and gave freedom to everyone to practice their respective religions.

Question 24.
Describe briefly how the emperor began his day in the balcony and at Diwan-i-aam. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (GD.))
Jharokha darshan was introduced by Akbar. According to this, emperor used to begin his day at sunrise with few religious prayers. Then he used to appear on a small balcony i.e., the Jharokha facing the east direction. Below, a crowd of people waited for a view of the emperor. It was started with an objective to broadening the acceptance of the imperial authority or part of popular faith. After spending an hour at the Jharokha, the emperor walked to the public hall of audience (diwan-i-aam) to conduct the primary business of his government. State officials presented reports and made requests.

Question 25.
For members of the nobility under the Mughals, imperial service was a way of acquiring power, wealth and highest possible reputation.” Examine the statement. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
For members of the nobility, imperial service was a way of acquiring power, wealth and the highest possible reputation. A person wishing to join the service petitioned through a noble, who presented a tajwiz or gift to the emperor. If the applicant was found suitable then a mansab was granted to him. Mir Bakhshi was the paymaster general. He used to stand in open court on the right side of the emperor and presented all candidates for appointment or promotion.

His office used to prepare orders bearing his seal and signature and of the emperor as well. There were two other important ministers as well at the centre. Diwan- i-Ala was the finance minister and Sadr-us-Sadux was minister of grants or Maded-i-maash and incharge of appointing qazia or local judges. All these three ministers sometimes worked as an advisory body but generally were independent from each other.

### Kings and Chronicles Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Who were the Mughals? Give a brief description of political history of Mughals.
The name Mughal was derived from Mongol. Though today this name is the symbol of grandeur of Mughal empire but Mughals themselves did not selected this name. They called themselves as Timurids because from paternal side they were the descendants of Turkish ruler Timur. First Mughal emperor Babur was related to Mongol ruler Ghenghiz Khan from his mother side. He used to speak Turkish and referred Mongols as barbaric hordes.

The word Mughal was used by the Europeans during 16th century for the Mughal dynasty.
Political History of the Mughals

1. Babur: The Mughal empire was made up of many regional kingdoms. It was the result of conquests
and friendly treaties. Babur was the founder of this empire who was driven away by the warring Uzbeks from his Central Asian homeland, Farghana. First of all, he established himself at Kabul and then moved towards the Indian sub-continent in search of territories and resources to meet the needs of the members of his clan.

2. Humayun: Humayun (1530-40, 1555-56) was the son and successor of Babur who expanded the frontiers of his empire. But he was defeated by Afghan leader Sher Shah Suri and was forced to run away from India. He took refuge in the court of Safavid ruler of Iran. With his help, Humayun defeated Suris in 1555 C.E. But a year later, he died by accidentally falling off the stairs of the liberary.

3. Jalal-ud-din Akbar: Jalal-ud-din Akbar (1556-1605) is considered as the greatest Mughal emperor. He not only expanded his empire but also consolidated it and made it as the strongest and richest empire of his time. He extended frontiers of his empire to the Hindukush mountains. He also checked the expansionist plans of Uzbeks of Turans (Central Asia) and the Safavids of Iran.

4. Successors of Akbar: After Akbar, Jahangir (1605-27), Shah Jahan (1628-58) and Aurangzeb (1658-1707) became rulers of the Mughal empire. All three were able successors who further expanded this empire although with a slow speed. They maintained and consolidated the different instruments of governance.

End of the Mughal Empire: Aurangzeb died in 1707 C.E. after which the central power of Mughal dynasty reduced. That is why instead of controlling such a large empire from capital cities like Delhi, Agra or Lahore, many regional forces emerged. But symbolically, the prestige of Mughal rulers remained intact. The last scion of this dynasty, Bahadur Shah Zafar-II was overthrown by the British in 1857 C.E.

Question 2.
Throw light on the role of painters and images in the Mughal manuscripts. Why and on what grounds, there was a tension?
Or
Describe briefly how the interpretations of the Sharia changed ‘.with time. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (D))
The painters had a significant role in the production of the Mughal manuscripts. They described an event in the visual form. They gave a visual expression to many important events that happened during the reign of various Mughal rulers. In fact, their paintings accompanied what was described in words. They were miniatures on the pages of manuscripts. Significance of the Paintings: The paintings served the following purposes:

• They enhanced the beauty of a book.
• They communicated those ideas which were hard to be conveyed in the written medium.
• They were like a magical art having the power to make inanimate things look life-like.

Tension Regarding Paintings: The paintings portrayed not only the emperors but also their courts and other people. So they were always a source of constant tension between the rulers and the representatives of the orthodox Muslims, i.e., the Ulema. These orthodox Muslims invoked the Islamic prohibition of the portrayal of human beings enshrined in the Quran and the Hadis which described an incident from the life of the Prophet Muhammad.

In Hadis, the Prophet Muhammad had forbidden the depiction of living beings as it would have interfered in the laws of nature and the divine power of creation. It was believed that the power of creation belonged exclusively to God. Akbar ignored and did not recognise the tension on the question of visual representations of living beings in the Mughal Court. According to Abul Fazl, Akbar had stated: “There are many that hate paintings, but such men I dislike. It appears to me that an artist has a unique way of recognising God.”

Changing Environment: With the passage of time, the interpretations of the Sharia also changed. Various social groups interpreted the Islamic tradition in the way it suited them politically. So all the Muslim rulers of Asia asked artists to paint their portraits and scenes of life in their kingdoms. For example, the Safavid kings of Iran patronised the finest artists. So many painters like Bizhad played a great role in spreading the cultural fame of the Safavid Court. Many artists came to India from Iran during the Mughal rule. Similarly the famous artists like Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad came to India along with Emperor Humayun. Many other artists came to India in search of opportunities to win patronage and prestige.

Question 3.
Write an essay on Akbarnama and its author Ahul Fazl.
Or
Discuss Akbarnama as an important .source of the Mughal history. Who wrote the Akbarnama? Describe its content in brief. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (O.D.))
Or
“Mughals transmitted their grand vision through the writing of dynastic histories.” Explain the statement with reference to the Akbarnama. (C.B.S.E. 2019 (O.D.))
Akbarnama is an important illustrated Mughal official history written by Abul Fazl. It has a lot of paintings depicting battles, sieges, hunts, construction of buildings and scenes of courts. It has shaped and articulated the ideas associated with the reign of Akbar.

Abul Fazl began to write Akbarnama in 1589 C.E. He repeatedly revised his draft and made use of all the available sources such as:

1. Actual records of events (waqai).
2. Official documents.
3. Oral testimonies of knowledgeable persons.

Akbarnama was divided into three volumes. The first two volumes were in the form of chronicles. The third volume is the Ain-i-Akbari. The first volume describes the first thirty years of Akbar’s life. The second volume describes the period from 31st year to 46th year of Akbar’s life. Thus, Akbarnama provides a detailed information about the reign of Akbar. It depicts various aspects of Akbar’s empire such as geographic, social, cultural and administrative. Ain- i-Akbari delineates the picture of Mughal society which comprised of the Hindus, the Jainas, the Buddhists and the Muslims. In other words, the Mughals had a composite culture.

Question 4.
Give main features of different capital cities of the Mughals.
Or
“The heart of the Mughal Empire was its capital city.” Explain with ‘.examples. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (D))
Capital city was the heart of the Mughal empire. Mughal courts were assembled here. The Mughals changed their capitals frequently during 16th and 17th centuries. Although Babur captured Agra, capital city of Lodhis but still, within four years of his reign, royal court assembled at different places.

1. Agra and Fatehpur Sikri: Akbar constructed Agra fort in the decade of 1560’s. Red marble was used in its construction. In the decade of 1570’s, he decided to shift his capital to Fatehpur Sikri. Its reason was probably that Sikri was situated on the direct road to Ajmer where there was a tomb of Shaikh Muin-ud-din Chishti. This tomb had become an important pilgrimage centre. The Mughal rulers had very close relations with Sufis of Chishti silsila. Akbar constructed a white marble tomb for Shaikh Salim Chishti near Jumma mosque at Sikri. He also constructed Buland Darwaza. It’s objective was to remind visitors about the Mughal victory over Gujarat.

2. Lahore: In 1585, the capital was shifted to Lahore to increase control over north western frontiers. In this way, Akbar maintained a great check for 13 years on this frontiers.

Shah Jahan adopted sound fiscal policies and accumulated enough wealth for his passion of buildings. The work of construction of building in monarchical cultures was a tangible sign of dynastic power, wealth and prestige. It was also seen as an act of piety in the context of Muslim rulers.

3. Shahjahanabad: In 1648 C.E., Court, military and royal family were migrated to new capital Shahjahanabad from Agra. Shahjahanabad was a new addition to the old residential city of Delhi. The city of Delhi had Red Fort, Jama Masjid, a tree lined esplanade with bazaars, i.e., Chandni Chowk and large mansions of nobles. This new city of Shah Jahan was appropriate to a more formal vision of a grand monarchy.

Question 5.
“The keeping of exact and detailed records was one of the major ’ features of Mughal administration.” Explain the statement with example. (C.B.S.E. 2009, 2016 (O.D.))
Or
“The keeping of exact and detailed records was a major concern of the Mughal administration.” Suport the statement with facts. (C.B.S.E. 2012, 2015 (O.D.))
Yes, it is true that the keeping of exact and detailed records was one of the major features of the Mughal administration.

1. Mir Bakshi used to check the group of Court writers (waqia nawis). These writers used to record all applications and documents presented in the court and all imperial orders.

2.Agents (wakil) of nobles and regional rulers used to record whole of the working of the court under the heading of ‘News from the Date Court’. These records also included the time and dates of meetings of court.

3. The akhbarat had all kinds of information like attendance at the court, distribution of offices and titles, diplomatic missions, received presents and enquiries made by the emperor about the health of any officer.

4. News reports and important documents travelled across the regions under Mughal empire by imp
erial post.

5. The emperor received reports from even distant provincial capitals within a few days. Whole of the empire was connected by surprisingly rapid information loop for public news.

Question 6.
What do you know about religious policy of Akbar and Din-i-Ilahi?
Or
Discuss main features of religious policy of Akbar.
Or
Discuss the changes which came in Akbar’s views about religion from accession to throne till the founding of Din-i-Ilahi.
Akbar was one of the greatest emperors of his times. His religious policy was based on the concepts of liberalness and tolerance. Such a big change in his religious ideas came because of the following reasons:

1. Impact of Clan: Akbar’s father Humayun was not a fundamentalist. His mother Hamidabano Begum belonged to the Shia sect. Akbar was greatly influenced by her liberal and tolerable nature.

2. Impact of teacher and protector: For the first few years as a king, Akbar remained under the protection of Bairam Khan. Akbar was very much influenced by Bairam Khan and his teacher Abdul Latifs liberal ideas.

3. Contacts with Rajputs: Akbar established marital relations with Rajputs. His Hindu queens played a great role in changing his religious ideas.

4. Mutual conflicts among Maulavis: Akbar was fed up with mutual conflicts among Maulavis and Mullas. He went against them and began work in search of religious truth.

5. Impact of Sufi Saints: Sufi saints of that time propagated the liberal religious ideas. It also helped in changing his religious ideas.

6. Demand of Time: Akbar wanted to establish a large empire. That is why he wanted to have cooperation of both Hindus and Muslims.

7. Construction of Ibadatkhana: Akbar established one Ibadatkhana (place of worship) at Fatehpur Sikri where different religious leaders used to express their ideas. From their ideas, Akbar came to know that religious truth does not remain in one particular religion but is equally exists in all the religions.

Just because of all these reasons he began behaving in a liberal way. He removed Jizya and permitted every one to practice their religious customs.

Din-i-Ilahi: Din-i-Ilahi was the result of progress of religious sentiments of Akbar. He founded a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1582 A.D. He included all the basic concepts and elements of all the religions and sects. Gods-Goddesses, Pirs, etc., had no place in it. According to this, God is one and Akbar is his top most devotee. Followers of this religion were not allowed to be non-vegetariAnswer:Its followers used to greet each other by saying ‘Allah-hu-Akbar’. They were always ready to sacrifice every thing for the emperor. Din-i- Ilahi did not become popular because Akbar hardly took any step to popularise it among the masses.

Question 7.
Briefly describe the structure of central administration of Akbar or Mughals.
Or
Explain organisation of the administration and army during the rule of Akbar as given in ‘Ain.’ (C.B.S.E. 2012’ (O.D.))
Akbar himself was an administrator of top quality. He tried to strengthen the central power. Administrative system started by him remained there during whole of Mughal period. In short, following are the main features of central administration of Akbar and Mughals:

1. Emperor: During the reign of Akbar, emperor himself was the central axis of administration. All the powers of administration were in his hands and there was no res-triction on his powers. Even then the emperor hardly acted as an autocratic ruler. Mullas and Maulavis had no impact on him. He considered himself as a representative of God.

2. Council of Ministers: There was an arrangement of council of ministers for giving help to emperor in administrative activities. Powers of the Ministers were not elaborated as in modem times. They worked according to the orders of the emperor. That is why they could have been called as secretaries of emperor. The post of Prime Minister was above all the other ministers. Emperor used to seek his advice on all the serious matters. Every minister was responsible to emperor himself. They could remain in their office until the emperor remained happy with them.

Important minister and their offices are given below:

1. Waqil or Wazir: He acted as Prime Minister and used to give advice to emperor on all the important matters.
2. Mir Bakhshi: His main work was to give salary to military and civilian officials.
3. Sadr-us-Sudur: He Was the minister of grants and incharge of appointing local judges or qazis.
4. Khan-i-Sama: He used to arrange necessary things for emperor and his royal family.
5. Main Qazi: His main work was to give justice. He was the top most judge after the emperor.
6.  Diwan: He used to keep accounts of the empire. His signatures were required to pay money to any one.
7. Other Ministers: Except these ministers, there were different ministers for forests, postal department, department of artillery, etc.

### Kings and Chronicles Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
From which word did the term ‘Mughal’ was derived? Was this word chosen by the Mughals themselves and why?
The term ‘Mughal’ was derived from the word ‘Mongol’. Though this term was associated with the grandeur of the Mughal Empire yet it was not chosen for themselves by the Mughal rulers. From the paternal side, they referred to themselves as Timurids, that is, the descendants of the Turkish ruler Timur. However, from the mother’s side, Babur was related to Genghis Khan, a Mongol. However, Babur himself spoke Turkish and considered Mongols as barbaric hordes.

Question 2.
Why did the Mughals call themselves Timurids?
The Mughals were related to Mongols from the maternal side. However, they did not like Mongols whom they considered barbaric hordes. On the other hand, they were related to the Turkish ruler Timur from the paternal side. So, they called themselves Timurids. Babur himself spoke Turkish.

Question 3.
Why did the Mughal artists start portraying emperors with halo from the seventeenth century onward?
From the seventeenth century onwards, the Mughal artists began to portray emperors with a halo which they had seen in the European paintings of Christ and the Virgin Mary. This light was the symbol of the light of God. It showed that the Mughal kings derived their power directly from God.

Question 4.
How was the ideal of Sulh-i-Kul a unifying force in the Mughal Empire? How was this ideal enforced?
Or
How was the ideal of Sulh-i-Kul implemented through state policies? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (O.D.))
Or
“Abul Fazl has described the ideal of Sulh-i-Kul of Akbar as the corner¬. stone of his enlightened rule.” Justify. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (D))
According to Mughal chronicles, the Mughal Empire comprised of different ethnic and religious communities like the Hindus, the Jainas, the Zoroastrians, and the Muslims. However, the emperor was above all religious and ethnic groups. He stood for peace, unity, and stability. He mediated among all the groups to ensure peace, unity, and justice.

Abul Fazl has stated that the ideal of Sulh-i-Kul stood for absolute peace between all the religious and ethnic groups. It was the cornerstone of enlightened rule. All religions enjoyed full freedom of expression. But no one was allowed to undermine the authority of the state. Besides, the people belonging to different religious and ethnic groups were not allowed to quarrel among themselves.

The nobles of the Mughal Empire implemented the ideal of Sulh-i-Kul. All the officers had the royal instructions to follow the ideal of Sulh-i-Kul in administration.

Question 5.
“Granting of titles to men of merit was an important aspect of Mughal polity.” Justify the statement with suitable evidence. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
Or
“The granting of titles to the men of merit was an important aspect of Mughal policy”. Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2017 (O.D.))
Or
“The granting of titles was an important aspect of Mughal policy”. Justify the Statement. (C.B.S.E. 2019 (O.D.))
Giving titles to able persons was an important aspect of the Mughal polity. The promotion of any person in the court hierarchy was known only by the titles he held. One of the titles of Asaf Khan for one of the topmost minister was originated with Asaf, the legendary minister of the prophet king Sulaiman. Aurangzeb gave the title of Mirza Raja to his topmost nobles Jai Singh and Jaswant Singh. Titles could either be earned or were paid. Mir Khan offered? 1 Lakh to emperor Aurangzeb for the letter Alif means A, to be added to his name to change it to Amir Khan.

Question 6.
Identify the distinctive features of the imperial household of the Mughal Empire. (C.B.S.E. 2015 (O.D.))
Or
“The Mughal imperial household  held vivid dimensions of their domestic life.” Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2019 (O.D.))

1. The term “harem” is frequently used to refer to the domestic world of the Mughals. The Mughal household consisted of the emperor’s wives and concubines, his near and distant relatives, and female servants and slaves.
2. Polygamy was practised widely in the Indian subcontinent, expecially among the ruling groups.
3. A distinction was maintained between wives who came from royal and aristocratic families (begams) and other wives (aghas) who were not so noble by birth.
4. The Begams were married after receiving huge amounts of cash and valuables as dower (mahr), naturally received a higher status and greater attention from their husbands than did aghas.
5. The concubines occupied the lowest position in the hierarchy of females intimately related to royalty. They all received monthly allowances in cash, supplemented with gifts according to their status.

Question 7.
Traditions of titles, gifts and peshkash were deeply associated with Mughal Court. Elucidate by giving examples.
1. The Mughal emperors used to adopt grand titles at the time of coronation or after a victory over
any enemy when these titles were announced by ushers (naqib) then an atmosphere of awe was created in the evidence. Full title of the reigning emperor with royal protocol were carried on the Mughal coins.

2. Giving titles to able persons was an important aspect of the Mughal polity. Promotion of any person in court hierarchy was known only by titles he held. One of the title of Asaf Khan for one of the top most minister was originated with Asaf, the legendary minister of the prophet King Sulaiman. Aurangzeb gave title of Mirza Raja to his top most nobles Jai Singh and Jaswant Singh. Titles could either be earned or were paid. Mir Khan offered? 1 Lakh to emperor Aurangzeb for the letter Alif means A, to be added to his name to change it to Amir Khan.

3. Rewards included the robe of honour, i.e., Khilat. It was a garment once worn by the emperor. It was assumed that it was a symbol of his benediction. Sarapa was another gift (head to foot). This gift had three parts: a tunic, a turban and a sash. Emperor also used to gift jewelled ornaments.

4. Only in exceptional circumstances, the emperor used to give the lotus blossom set with jewels (padma murassa).

5. No courtier ever approached the emperor empty handed. He offered either small amount of money as nazr or a large amount as peshkash.

6. Gifts were regarded as symbols of respect and honour in diplomatic relations. Ambassadors used to do an important work of negotiating treaties between competing political powers. Thomas Roy was very much disappointed with the return of a ring which he presented to Asaf Khan. It was returned because it was worth only? 400.

### Kings and Chronicles Important Extra Questions Source-Based

Read the following passages and answer the questions that follow: (C.B.S.E. 2016 (D))

Question 1.
The Accessible Emperor

In the account of his experiences, Monserrate, who was a member of the first Jesuit mission, says:

It is hard to exaggerate how accessible he (Akbar) makes himself to all who wish audience of him. For he creates an opportunity almost every day for any of the common people or of the nobles to see him and to converse with him; and he endeavours to show himself pleasant-spoken and affable rather than severe towards all who come to speak with him. It is very remarkable how great an effect this courtesy and affability has in attaching him to the minds of his subjects.
(i) Who were Jesuit? What was the role of Jesuit Mission in the 16th century India?
The Jesuits were the religious preachers. They came from Europe to visit the Mughal court. In the 16th century India, the Jesuit Mission was a part of the process of trade and empire-building.

Question 2.
Nobles at Court

The Jesuit priest Father Antonio Monserrate, resident at the court of Akbar, noticed:
In order to prevent the great nobles becoming insolent through the unchallenged enjoyment of power, the King summons them to court and gives them imperious commands, as though they were his slaves. The obedience to these commands ill suits their exalted rank and dignity.
Questions
(i) Who was Father Antonio Monserrate?
Father Antonio Monserrate was a Jesuit priest.
He ws a resident at the court of Akbar.

(ii) According to him, how did the king control his nobles? What was his aim?
The nobles served as officers of the Mughal empire in the provinces. The king kept them under control by doing the following:
(a) He personally reviewed changes in rank, titles and official postings.
(b) He established spiritual relationship with selected nobles. He treated them as if they were his disciples (murid).
(c) He summoned them to his courts and gave them imperious commands. He treated them as if they were slaves. All the nobles obeyed the king though it did not suit their rank and status.

(iii) Give any three characteristics of the Mughal nobility.
(a) The nobles participated in military campaigns with their armies.
(b) They served as officers of the empire in the provinces.
(c) They maintained horsemen.

Question 3.
Darbar-i-Akbari

Abu’l Fazl gives a vivid account of Akbar’s darbar:
Whenever His Majesty (Akbar) holds court (darbar) a large drum is beaten, the sounds of which are accompanied by Divine praise. In this manner, people of all classes receive notice. His Majesty’s sons and grand children, the grandees of the Court, and all other men who have admittance, attend to make the kornish, and remain standing in their proper places. Learned men of renown and skilful mechanics pay their respects; and the officers of justice present their reports. His Majesty, with his usual insights, gives orders, and settles everything in a satisfactory manner. During the whole time, skilful gladiators and wrestlers from all countries hold themselves in readiness and singers, male and female, are in waiting. Clever jugglers and funny tumblers also are anxious to exhibit their dexterity and agility.
(i) How were the people informed about the royal court?
The people were informed about the sitting of the court (darbar) by beating a large drum and singing Divine praise.

(ii) Explain any four political activities of the Mughal court.
(a) The sons and grandchildren of the king attended the court. Besides all those attended the court who were allowed admission.
(b) They bowed before the king and stood in their proper places.
(c) The officers of justice presented their reports.
(d) The king only gave orders and settled everything in a satisfactory manner.

(iii) What was the arrangement for the entertainment of the darbaris?
The gladiators, the wrestlers, the singers, the jugglers and the tumblers entertained those who attended the court.

(iv) How was the status of a Darbari determined in the court?
In the court, status of a darbari was determined by proximity of his seat to the king.

Question 4.
In Praise of Taswir

Abu’l Fazl held the art of painting in high esteem:
Drawing the likeness of anything is called a taser. His Majesty from his earliest youth has shown a great predilection for this art, and gives it every encouragement, as he looks upon it as a means both of study and amusement. A very large number of painters have been set to work. Each week, several supervisors and clerks of the imperial workshop submit before the emperor the work done by each artist, and His Majesty gives a reward and increases the monthly salaries of the artists according to the excellence displayed … Most excellence displayed… Most excellent painters are now to be found, and masterpieces, worthy of a Bihzad, may be placed at the side of the wonderful works of the European painters who have attained worldwide fame.

The minuteness in detail, the general finish, and the boldness of execution now observed in pictures are incomparable; even inanimate objects look as if they have life. More than a hundred painters have become famous masters of art. This is especially true of Hindu artists. Their pictures surpass our conception of things. Few, indeed, in the whole world are found equal to them.
(i) How has Abu’l Fazl described the art of painting? According to him, what is taser (picture)?
According to Abu’l Fazl, painting is a magical art. It means drawing the likeness of anything.

(ii) How did Emperor Akbar encourage painting?
Emperor Akbar encouraged painting as he looked upon it as a means of both study and amusement. He engaged many painters. He also personally checked their work. He gave a reward and an increase in monthly salary to the excellent painters.

(iii) Give any two features of pictures made by the Hindu painters?
(a) The Hindu artists displayed minuteness, finish and boldness in their paintings.
(b) They made inanimate things look as if they had life in them.

## Human Settlements Class 12 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 10

Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 10 Human Settlements. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Important Extra Questions Human Settlements

### Human Settlements Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Give three examples of settlements.
A village, a town and a city.

Question 2.
Name two main types of settlements.
Rural and Urban.

Question 3.
Upto which population, is a settlement called rural ?
Upto 5000 persons.

Question 4.
What is the main occupation of people in rural settlements ?
Agriculture.

Question 5.
Where is linear pattern of settlement found ?

Question 6.
What should be the density of population in urban settlements ?
400 persons per sq km.

Question 7.
Give an example of an administrative town.
New Delhi.

Question 8.
How many million towns are there in the world ?
438.

Question 9.
What is the average total population of a mega city ?
100 lakh.

Question 10.
Which is the largest populated town of the world ?
Tokyo.

Question 11.
Where is a sub-urban area ?
An area around an urban town.

Question 12.
What are wet settlements ?
Water based settlements around rivers, lakes, springs, etc.

Question 13.
Where are dry point settlements ?
Settlements on river terraces and levees are called dry point settlements.

Question 14.
Where are linear pattern of villages found? (C.B.S.E. 2017)
(ii) along a railway line
(iii) along a river
(iv) along a canal
(v) along a levee.

Question 15.
Along which water bodies, circular pattern on of villages develop.
Or
Which form of rural settlement pattern develops along roads railway lines, rivers and canals in the world? (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
(i) Around Lakes
(ii) Around Tanks.

Question 16.
Where do T-shaped settlements develop ?

Question 17.
Which town was the first urban settlement to reach a population of one million?
London in 1810.

Question 18.
How much population of world lives in urban areas ?
52.6 percent.

Question 19.
Where is the population of an urban area in India ?
5000 persons.

Question 20.
Name any four places of religious pilgrimage.
Jerusalem, Macca, Puri and Varanasi.

Question 21.
Where is Addis Ababa located ? When was it established ?
Capital of Ethiopia. It was established in 1878.

Question 22.
Where is Canberra located ?
Canberra is the capital of Australia established in 1912.

### Human Settlements Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is the basic difference between towns and villages ?
On the basis of population size, a village is different from a town. But the basic difference between towns and villages is that in towns the main occupation of the people is related to secondary and tertiary sectors, while in villages, most of the people are engaged in primary occupations.

Question 2.
What are suburbs ? Why do people shift to suburbs ?
Smaller towns around the congested towns are called suburbs. People move away from the congested area to cleaner areas outside the city in search of a better quality of living.

Question 3.
Describe the building materials used for dwellings in different areas.
(i) In Loess areas of China, cave dwellings were important.
(ii) In Africa, Savanna mud bricks were used as building material.
(iii) In polar regions, Eskimos used ice blocks to construct Igloos.

Question 4.
What are canal colonies ? Give one example.
Planned settlements constructed by government by providing shelter water and infrastructure are called canal colonies built along the banks of canals. In India Indira Gandhi Canal Command area has such colonies.

Question 5.
What factors influence the pattern of Rural settlements ?

• The way houses are sited in relation to each other.
• The site of the villages.
• The surrounding topography.
• The terrain.
• Shape and size of a village.

Question 6.
State the types of villages on the basis of shapes.
Or
Which are the two major types of settlements according to their shape found in the world? (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)

• Linear
• Rectangular
• Circular
• Star-like
• T-shaped
• Double villages
• Cross-shaped villages.

Question 7.
Name the different functions of towns.
The earliest towns were centres of administration, trade, industry, defence and religious importance. Now towns perform multiple functions as recreational, residential, transport, mining, manufacturing and information technologies.

Question 8.
According to Census of India 1991, what is the definition of an urban settlement ?
A town should satisfy the given ahead criteria :

• It should have a municipal or corporation or cantonment board or a notified town area committee.
• A minimum population of 5000 persons.
• 75% people engaged in Non-agricultural activities.
• A density of at least 400 persons per sq. km.

Question 9.
Distinguish between compact (Nucleated) settlements and dispersed settlements.
Or
Explain any three points of distinction between ‘Hamleted rural settlements’ and ‘Dispersed rural settlement of India. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)
Settlements may be classified by their shape, pattern types :

1. Compact Settlements (Nucleated settlements). In these settlements, houses are built in close vicinity to each other. Initially, it may begin as a small hamlet at the intersection of two footpaths or near a water body. As new households are added, the hamlet expands in size.

Such settlements are commonly seen in river valleys and fertile plains. The houses are closely spaced and streets are narrow. Socially, the people are closely knit and share common occupations.

2. Dispersed Settlements (Scattered settlements). In these, houses are spaced apart. These are generally, found over hills, plateaus and highlands. They consist of one or two dwelling units knitted together in a common bond by a cultural feature such as a church, a mosque or a temple.

In Africa, scattered settlements of this kind are common. In India such settlements are found in hilly terrain such as northern Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and northern West Bengal. Isolated hamlets are found in mountainous regions of China.

Question 10.
What are ‘wet point’ settlements? State their three advantages.
Generally rural settlements are located near water bodies, such as rivers, lake and springs. These are called wet points settlements. Despite some disadvantages, people settle around islands and swampy areas.

• They meet the need of water of the people.
• Water for drinking, cooking and washing is obtained.
• Rivers and lakes irrigated farms.
• Fishing is practised in water bodies.
•  Rivers and lakes can be used for water transportation.

Question 11.
What is the difference between cities of developed countries and developing countries ?
Towns and cities of developed and developing countries reflect marked differences in planning and development. While most cities in developed countries are planned, most urban settlements of developing countries have grown haphazardly with irregular shapes. For example, Chandigarh and Canberra are planned cities, while smallest town in India have grown haphazardly from walled cities to large towns.

Question 12.
Study the given diagram carefully and answer the questions that follow: (Delhi 2019)

(i) Identify and name the pattern of rural settlement shown in the diagram.
Circular pattern.

(ii) Explain any two characteristics of this type of pattern of rural settlement.
Circular pattern develop around lakes, tanks and sometimes the village is planned in such a way that the central part remains open and is used for keeping the animals to protect from wild animals.
Or
Study the given diagram carefully and answer the questions that follow. (Delhi 2019)

(i) Identify and name the pattern of rural settlement shown in the diagram.
Star like pattern.

(ii) Explain any two characteristics of this type of rural settlement.
Where several roads converge, star shaped settlements develop by the houses built along the roads.

Question 13.
‘Rural settlements are a great challenge for planners.’ Discuss highlighting the problems of rural settlement.
Or
Explain the nature of rural settlements. Describe any four problems related to rural settlements of the world. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Rural settlements in the developing countries are large in number and poorly equipped with infrastructure. They represent a great challenge and opportunity for planners.

• Supply of water to rural settlements in developing countries is not adequate
• People in villages, particularly in mountainous and arid areas have to walk long distances to fetch drinking water.
• Water borne diseases tend to be a common problem
• Diseases like cholera and jaundice are common
• The countries of South Asia face conditions of drought and flood very often
• Crop cultivation sequences, in the absence of irrigation, also suffer.

Question 14.
What is a healthy city ?
WHO suggests that among other things a healthy city must have :
(i) A clean and safe environment.
(ii) Meets the basic needs of all its inhabitants.
(iii) Involves the community in local government.
(iv) Provides easily accessible health services.

Question 15.
Distinguish between Administrative ’ towns and Cultural towns.
1. Administrative Towns. Headquarters of the administrative departments of central government such as New Delhi, Canberra, Moscow, Beijing, Addis Ababa, Washington D.C., Paris and London are National Capitals. Jaipur, Bhopal, Patna and Bengaluru in India are examples of administrative headquarters of states.

2. Cultural Towns. Cultural towns are either religious, educational or recreational towns. Jerusalem, Mecca, Ayodhya, Hardwar, Madurai and Varanasi have religious importance, hence, they are called religious
towns. Some places are known for educational institutions e.g. Varanasi.

Question 16.
Distinguish between squatter settlements and slums.
Squatter settlement is a residential area built on vacant land in an urban locality by the very poor. These suffer from pollution such as Jhuggi-jhopri in India. Slums are residential areas in which satisfactory family life is impossible. It has bad housing, and inadequate light, air and toilet facilities. Dharavi (Mumbai) in India is Asia’s largest slum.

Question 17.
Study the table given below and answer the questions that follow: (C.B.S.E. 2016) Continent-wise distribution of million cities

 Continent Early 1950 Mid 1970s Mid 2000 Europe 23 30 58 Asia 32 69 206 North and Cental America 16 36 79 South America 8 17 43 Africa 3 8 46 Australia 2 2 6 World Total 2 2 6

(10.1) Name the two continents which have shown the highest growth rate of million cities from 1950 to 2000.
Asia, Africa.

(10.2) What could have been the reason for such a growth in million cities?
Migration of population from rural areas to urban towns.

(10.3) Give the meaning of a million city.
Million city means a town with a population of one million.

### Human Settlements Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe the factors on which the location of rural settlements depend.
Or
Explain factors which affect the location of rural settlements in the world. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Rural settlements Sitting factors of rural settlements
(i) Water Supply. Usually settlements are located near rivers, lakes and springs w’here water can be easily obtained. Sometimes the need for water drives people to settle in otherwise disadvantaged sites such as islands surrounded by swamps or low lying river banks.

Most water based on “wet point’, settlements have many advantages such as drinking water, cooking, washing- rivers and lakes can be used to irrigate farm land-water contains fish which can be caught for diet and navigable rivers and lakes can be used for transportation.

(ii) Land. Farmers choose to settle near fertile lands suitable for agricultures. In Europe, villages grew up near rolling country avoiding swampy, low lying land while people in South East Asia chose to live near low lying river valleys and coastal plains suited for wet rice cultivation.

(iii) Up Land. Up land which is not prone to flooding was chosen to prevent damage to houses and loss of life. Thus in low lying river basins people chose to settle on terraces and levees which are “dry points”. In tropical countries people build their houses on stills near marshy lands to protect themselves from flood insects and animal pests.

(iv) Shelter. The availability of building materials: woods, stone near settlements is another advantage. Most early villages were built in forest clearings where wood was plentiful. In loess areas of China cave dwellings were important and African Savanna’s building materials were mud bricks and the Eskimos, in polar regions, use ice blocks to construct igloos.

(v) Defence. During the times of political instability, war, hostility of neighbouring groups villages were built on defensive hills and islands. In Nigeria, upstanding inselbergs formed good defensive sites. In India most of the forts are located on higher grounds or hills.

(vi) Planned Settlements. Sites that are not spontaneously chosen by villagers themselves planned settlements are constructed by governments by providing water, food and shelter in uninhabited areas.

Question 2.
What is Settlement Pattern ? Describe the different Rural Settlement y patterns on the basis of a number of criteria. (C.B.S.E. 2011, 2014)
Rural Settlement Patterns. Patterns of Rural Settlements can be defined as the relationship between one house or building to another. The site of the village, the surrounding topography and terrain influence the shape and size of a village. Rural settlements may be broadly classified into :

(i) On the basis of setting. The main types are plain villages, plateau villages, coastal villages, forest villages and desert villages.

(ii) On the basis of functions. There may be farming villages, fishermen’s villages, Lumber-jack villages, Pastoral villages, etc.

(iii) On the basis of forms or shapes of the settlements. There may be a number of geometrical forms and shapes such as linear, rectangular, circular, star-like, T-shaped village, double village cross-shaped village.

(a) Linear patterns. In such settlements, houses are located along a road, railway line, river, canal edge of a valley or along a levee.

(b) Rectangular patterns. Such patterns of rural settlements are found in the plain areas or wide inter
montane valleys. The roads are rectangular and cut each other at right angles. (C.B.S.E. Delhi 2017)

(c) Circular pattern. Circular villages develop around lakes, tanks and sometimes the village is planned in such a way that the central part remains open and is used for keeping the animals to protect them from wild animals.

(d) Star-like pattern. Where several roads converge, star-shaped settlements develop by the houses built along the roads.

(e) T-shaped, Y-shaped, Cross-shaped or cruciform settlements. T-shaped settlements develop at tri-junctions of the roads (T) while Y-shaped settlements emerge at the places where two roads converge on the third one and houses are built along these roads. Cruciform settlements develop on the crossroads and houses extend in all the four directions.

(f) Double village. These settlements extend on both sides of a river, where there is a bridge or a ferry.

Question 3.
Give a functional classification MIJ of towns. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Functions and development of a town depends upon its size and site. Towns are classified according to their dominant function. Some towns are commercially important, while in other towns, administration, defence or culture are dominant.

1. Administrative Towns. Public Administration is the major function of such towns. These include capitals of countries and states. These towns have offices, govt, buildings, courts and head offices of many organisations. London, Delhi, Islamabad, Chandigarh are some examples.

2. Defensive Towns. These are towns noted for armies, air force, naval force for the defence of the country. Such towns have barracks and training facilities for armed forces. Jalandhar, Jodhpur and Jammu are some examples of such towns.

3. Cultural Towns. Towns based on the major function of education, religion, culture and art are classified as cultural towns such as :

(a) Educational centres. Most of the educational centres develop on the outskirts of the towns. Such towns have a complex of university, colleges, libraries, hostels, playgrounds and shopping centres. Shanti Niketan, Oxford, Aligarh are educational towns.

(b) Entertainment centres. These towns provide the facilities of entertainment or recreation like theatres, film-making, cultural functions. Hollywood, Stratford are such towns.

(c) Religious centres. Some towns develop as seats of religious leaders of different religions, such as Rome, Lhasa, Varanasi, Amritsar.

4. Collection Towns. In collection centres, raw materials are collected before sending these to factories.
(a) Mining towns. Such towns are based on minerals or fuels like gold, copper, iron, coal and oil, such as Raniganj, Kolar Kalgoorlie,

(b) Fishing ports. Such coastal towns have the facilities of landing, storing, packing and exporting the fish. Halifax, Cochi, Calicut are good examples.

(c) Lumbering towns. Lumbering towns are collecting centres for logs. They have saw mills, pulp plants and paper mills, such as Kathgodam, Nepanagar.

5. Production Centres. Production centres are based on manufacturing activity. These towns have warehouses, godowns, banks and transport networks. Steel centres such as Birmingham, Jamshed Pur are known as ‘Black country’ due to furnaces, but Tokyo, Manchester are neat and clean due to textiles.

6. Distribution Centres. Commercial towns distributing manufactured goods are known as Distribution Centres.
(a) Market towns. These towns consist of banks, stock exchanges, shops, stores and commercial organisations, such as Meerut, Hapur, Moga
.
(b) Port towns. Sea-ports are important for port facilities, docks, warehouses and functions of import, export and international trade such as Tokyo, Mumbai, London, etc.

(c) Financial towns. Such towns have facilities of trade, finance and consist of stock markets, auction rooms, banks, travel agencies. Frankfurt (Germany), Zurich (Switzerland) are good examples.

7. Resorts. Some resort towns develop due to facilities for tourists along sea coast, on the mountains or by the side of an attractive scenery and health giving waters. Srinagar, Shimla, Darjeeling are good examples of such tourist resorts.

Question 4.
Describe the different types of towns on the basis of size of population.
Types of Urban Settlements. Depending on the size, services available and functions rendered, urban centres are designated as town, city, million city, conurbation, megalopolis.

(i) Town. The concept of ‘town’ can best be understood with reference to‘ village.’ Population size is not the only criterion. Functional contrasts between towns and villages may not always be clear-cut, but specific functions such as manufacturing, retail and wholesale trade and professional services exist in towns.

(ii) City. A city may be regarded as a leading town, which has outstripped its local or regional rivals. In the words of Lewis Mumford, “the city is in fact the physical form of the highest and most complex types of associative life. ” Cities are much larger than towns and have a greater number of economic functions. They tend to have transport terminal, major financial institutions and regional administrative offices.

(iii) Million City. When the population crosses the one million mark it is designated as a million city.

(iv) Conurbation. The term conurbation was coined by Patrick Geddes in 1915 and applied to a large area of urban development that resulted from the merging of originally separate towns or cities. Greater London, Manchester, Chicago and Tokyo are examples.

(v) Megalopolis. This Greek word meaning “great city”, was popularised by Jean Gottman (1957) and signifies ‘super-metropolitan’region extending, as union of conurbations. The urban landscape stretching from Boston in north to south of Washington in USA is the best known example of a megalopolis.

(vi) Million Cities. The number of million cities in the world has been increasing as never before. The earliest of these was probably in China. London reached that figure in 1800, followed by Paris in 1850, New York in 1860 and by 1950 there were around 80 such cities. The rate of increase in the number of mega cities has been three fold in every three decades around 160 in 1975 to around 438 in 2005.

The Continent-wise Distribution of Million Cities

 Continent Early 1956 Mid 1970 Mid 2000 Europe 23 30 58 Asia (India) 32 69 206 (43) N. & C. America 16 36 79 South America 8 17 43 Africa 3 8 46 Australia 2 2 – 06 World Total 84 162 438

(vii) Mega Cities. A mega city or megalopolis is a general term for cities together with their sub-urbs with a population in excess of 10 million people. New York was the first to attain the status of a mega city by 1950
with a total population of about 12.5 million. The number of mega cities is now 25. The number of mega cities has increased in developing countries during the last 50 years vis-a-vis the developed countries.

Mega Cities of the World (According to 2012 data)

 S. No. Name of the City Country Population 1. Tokyo Japan 37,126,000 2. Jakarta Indonesia 26.063,000 3. Seoul South Korea 22,547,000 4. Delhi NCR India 22,242,000 5. Manila Philippines 21.951,000 6. Shanghai China ‘ 20,860,000 7. New York USA 20,464,000 8. Sao Paulo Brazil 20,186,000 9. Mexico City Mexico 19,463.000 10. Cairo Egypt 17,816,000 11. Beijing China 17,311,000 12. Osaka – Kyoto Japan 17,011,000 13. Mumbai India 16,910,000 14. Guangzhou China 16,827,000 15. Moscow Russia 15,512,000 16. Dhaka Bangladesh 15,414,000 17. Los Angels USA 14,900,000 18. Kolkata India 14,374,000 19. Karachi Pakistan 14,198,000 20. Buenos Aires Argentina 13,639,000 21. Istanbul Turkey 13,576,000 22. Rio-de-Janeiro Brazil 12,043.000 23. Shenzhen China 11,885,000 24. Lagos Nigeria 11,547,000 25. Paris France 10,755,000 26. Nagoya Japan 10,027,000

### Human Settlements Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Describe the priorities which have been outlined by the United Nations development programme as part of its urban strategy. (Outside Delhi 2019)
United Nations development programme as part of its urban strategy have been outlined following priorities.

• For the urban population increasing shelter.
• UNDP has outlined provisions of the basic urban services for example education facilities.
Primary health care facilities, sanitation and clean water facilities.
• For the basic services UNDP improve women’s access.
• UNDP has outlined priorities for upgrading energy use and also for the alternative transportation.
• To provide clean and safe environment and reduction of air pollution, etc.

## International Trade Class 12 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 9

Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 9 International Trade. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 Geography Chapter 9 Important Extra Questions International Trade

Question 1.
To which category of activities does trade belong ?
Tertiary.

Question 2.
International and national.

Question 3.
What was the initial form of trade ?
Barter system.

Question 4.
What does word ‘Salary’ mean ?
It comes from the Latin word Solarium meaning payment by salt which was rare and expensive.

Question 5.
What was the length of Silk Route ?
It was 6000 km long form Rome to China.

Question 6.
When was slave trade abolished in USA ?
In 1808.

Question 7.
Name three products which are exported from tropical regions.
Bananas, Rubber and Cocoa.

Question 8.
Name three aspects of international trade.
Volume, sectoral composition and direction of trade.

Question 9.
What is positive balance of trade ? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
If the value of exports is more than that of imports.

Question 10.
What is negative balance of trade ?
If the value of imports is more than that of exports.

Question 11.
Expand MFN.
Most Favoured Nation.

Question 12.
When was WTO formed ?
On 1st January, 1995.

Question 13.
Expand WTO.

Question 14.
What do you mean by GATT ?
General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs.

Question 15.
Expand OPEC.
Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries.

Question 16.
Mention any two problems of barter system. (Delhi 2019)
(i) Double coincidence of wants.
(ii) Lack of information.

Question 1.
What do you mean by trade ?
The term trade simply means the voluntary exchange of goods and services. Trade is one of the most important human (economic) activities. It refers to the movement of goods and services from areas of surplus to areas of deficit. In simple words, it is exchange of products or marketing between nations and regions. For both the parties, trade is mutually beneficial.

Question 2.
What is barter system ? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
The initial form of trade in primitive societies was the barter system. In this, direct exchange of goods takes place. Two parties sell and purchase their products by exchanging these.

Question 3.
Where is barter system practised in India ?
Every January, after the harvest season, Jon Beel Mela takes place in Jagirod, 35 km away from Guwahati. It is, the only fair in India where barter system is alive among tribes and communities.

Question 4.
Describe the different forms of art and craft developed in certain countries.
(i) China produces the finest porcelains and brocades.
(ii) Iran is famous for carpets.
(iii) North Africa is famous for leather work.
(iv) Indonesian batik cloth is valuable.

Question 5.
Name the major items of merchandise which are traded over the world.
The major items of merchandise traded over the world include the following :

• machinary and equipment
• fuel, minerals
• office and telecom equipment
• chemicals and automobiles
• iron and steel
• clothing and utensils.

Question 6.
What are Oil ports ? Give examples.
Oil Ports. These ports deal in the processing and shipping of oil. Some of these are tanker ports and some are refinery ports. Maracaibo in Venezuela, Esskhira in Tunisia, Tripoli in Lebanon are tanker ports. Abadan on the Gulf of Persia is a refinery port.

Question 7.
What are Naval ports ? What [Mill are their functions ? Give two examples from India. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Naval Ports. These are the ports which have only strategic importance. These ports serve the warships and have repair workshops for them. Kochi and Karwar are the examples of such ports in India.

Question 8.
What are Entrepot ports ? Give one example.
Entrepot Ports. These are collection centers where the goods are brought from different countries for export. Singapore is an entrepot for Asia. Rotterdam for Europe, and Copenhagen for the Baltic region.

Question 9.
Distinguish between International and National Trade.
Trade may be classified into two levels : international and national. International trade is the exchange of goods and services among countries across national boundaries. Countries need to trade to obtain commodities they cannot produce themselves or they can purchase elsewhere at a lower cost. When trade occurs between different states of a country, it is called national trade.

Question 10.
What do you know about the Silk Route?
The Silk Route is an early example of long distance trade connecting Rome to China— along 6000 km route, and the trade transported Chinese silk, Roman wool and precious metals and many other high value commodities from intermediate points in India, Persia and Central Asia.

Question 11.
(i) Bilateral trade. Bilateral trade is done by two countries with each other. They enter into an agreement to trade specified commodities against them. A country may import raw materials against export of manufactured goods.
(ii) Multi-lateral trade. Multilateral trade is conducted with many trading countries. The same country can trade with a number of countries. Some countries are granted the status of most favoured nation.

Question 12.
What is free trade ? What are its effects ? (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Or
Mention any two ill effects of free trade and economic globalization. (Delhi 2019)
The act of opening up economies for trading is known as free trade or trade liberalisation. This is done by bringing down trade barriers like tariffs. It allows goods and services from anywhere to compete with domestic products.

Effects. It adversely affects the economies of developing countries. They impose unfavourable conditions. Free trade should not let rich countries enter the markets. They should allow the developed countries to keep their own markets protected from foreign products. Free trade does not make the lives of ordinary people more prosperous. It is actually widening the gap between the rich and the poor by making rich countries richer.

Question 13.
How will increasing international trade affect global environment ?
Global trade affects many aspects of life :
(i) It can impact everything from the environment to health and well being of the people around the world.

(ii) As countries compete to trade more, production and the use of natural resources spiral up, resources get used up faster than they can be replenished.

(iii) The marine life is also depleting fast, forests are being cut down and river basins sold off to private drinking water companies.

(iv) Multinational Corporations trading in oil, gas mining, pharmaceuticals and agri-business keep expanding their operations at all costs creating more pollutions

(v) Their mode of work does not follow the norms of sustainable development. If organisations are geared only towards profit making, and environmental and health concerns are not addressed, then it could lead to serious implications in the future.

Question 14.
International trade is beneficial to [ both exporting and importing countries.Discuss.
The exchange of surplus goods between different countries is called international trade. The countries with surplus production export the particular goods. These countries benefit by earning foreign exchange. Some densely populated countries have to import goods to meet the demand.

These countries depend on the import of raw materials for their economic and industrial development. The economy of Sri Lanka depends upon export of tea. The industrial development of Japan depends upon the import of raw materials.

Question 15.
‘International trade is known as the barometer of economic development of a country.’Why ?
Or
“In modern times international trade is the basis of the world economy.” Support the statment with examples. (C.B.S.E.Outside Delhi 2017)
International trade is the index of economic development of a country. International trade has increased manifold during the last forty years. This increase has been due to developed technology and the rapid means of transportation.

Now-a-days, the developed countries are major trading countries. On the other hand, developing countries have a low level of trade. The industrialized countries import raw materials and- export manufactured goods to earn foreign exchange. It helps to raise the standard of living of people of these countries. Thus the per capita trade represents the economic development of a country. But in countries of large population, the per capita trade is low despite the fact that the total amount of trade is high.

Question 16.
Why are the ports called ‘gateway^ of international trade’ ?
Port. A port is a place on the coast which provides facilities such as docking, loading and unloading and storage facilities of cargo. A port handles the import and export trade of a country. A port is connected with its hinterland by rail-road transport. These land routes are used to transport the goods to a port from where these goods are exported through ocean routes.

Similarly, imports are sent to the hinterland of a port. In fact, a port acts as a point of entry for the goods received from foreign countries and a point of exit for the goods produced in its hinterland. Therefore, a port is called a gateway of international trade. For example, Kolkata is a commercial gateway for its hinterland comprising states of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam.

Question 17.
Name the geographical conditions necessary for the development of an ideal port.
A port handles the import-export trade of a country. It acts as a commercial gateway for its hinterland. The following conditions favour the development of an ideal port:

• Presence of protected Harbour.
• A deep water natural harbour is required.
• Sufficient space is required for docking facilities.
• The hinterland should be well connected with the port by rail-road routes.
• A rich hinterland is required.
• Favourable climate so that the port remains open throughout the year.
• Fuel facilities should be available.

Question 18.
What is the role of ‘World Trade Organisations’ as an international organisation ? Why has the World Trade Organisation been criticised by some countries? Explain the role of World Trade Organisation. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Role of WTO :

• It formulates the global rules of trade between countries.
• It resolves disputes between its member nations.
• It covers trade in services particularly banking and communication facilities.

Criticism :

• Some countries criticise WTO due to effects of free trade.
• It widens the gap between the rich and poor nations.
• WTO focuses on the commercial interests.
• It ignores the issues of environmental pollution, health, right of workers and child labour

Question 19.

 Barter Trade Monetary Trade 1. It is the earliest form of local trade. 2. Barter system means the exchange of goods without the use of money. 3. It is limited in nature and has the difficulty of rate of exchange of goods. 1. It is modern system of international trade. 2. Monetary  system means the exchange of goods where one item is exchanged for the other. 3. It is used for trade of a number of commodities from different countries.

Question 20.

 National Trade International Trade 1. National trade means the wholesale trade on a large scale within the boundaries of a country’. 2. Tt is also known as internal trade. 3. National  trade depends upon the extent of a country. 1. International trade means exchange of goods, services, capital across the national boundaries. 2. It is also known as foreign trade. 3. Internationa trade depends upon the surplus production and purchasing power

Question 21.
Or
What is meant by balance of trade?

 Favourable balance Unfavourable balance 1. When there is an excess of exports, it is called a favourable balance of trade. 2. In 1976-77 in India, the imports were of value = 5073 crore rupees while exports were of value = 5142 crore rupees. Balance of trade was + 69 crore rupees. 3. It helps to strengthen the economy of a country. 1. When there is an excess of imports, it is called an unfavourable balance of trade. 2. In India, in 1982-83. imports were of value = 14047 crore rupees. exports were of value = 8637 crore rupees. Balance of trade was 5410 crore rupees. 3. It creates problems for the economy of a country.

Question 1.
Explain any five bases of international trade. (Sample Paper 2017-18)
Or
“The difference in national resources is the basis of international trade.” Analyse the statement. (Outside Delhi 2019)
International trade means exchange of surplus goods among different nations. It depends upon some geographical and economic factors. These factors are known as the basis of international trade.

1. Difference in Natural Resources. The world’s Natural resources are unevenly distributed because of differences in their physical make up i.e. geology, relief soil and climate.

(a) Geological structure determines the mineral resource base and topographical differences ensure diversity of crops and animals raised. Lowlands have greater agricultural potential. Mountains attract tourists and promote tourism.

(b) Mineral resources are unevenly distributed the world over. The availability of mineral resources provides the basis for industrial development.

(c) Climate influences the type of flora and fauna that can survive in a given region. It also ensures diversity in the range of various products e.g. wool production can take place in cold regions, bananas, rubber and cocoa can grow in tropical regions.

2. Population factors. Size, distribution and diversity between people affect the type anf volume of goods traded.

(a) Cultural factors : Distinctive forms of art and craft develop in certain culture which are prized the world over e.g.: China produces the finest porcelains and brocades. Carpes of Iran are famous while North African leather work and Indonesian batik cloth are prizes handicrafts.

(b) Size of population: Densely populated countries have large volume of internal trade but little external trade because most of the agricultural and industrial production is consumed in the local markets. Standard of living of the population determines the demand for better quality imported products because with low standard of living only a few people can afford to buy imported costly goods.

3. Stage of economic development. At different stages of economic development of countries, the nature of items traded undergoes changes. In agricultural economics, agro products are exchanged for manufactured goods whereas industrialised nations export machinery and finished products and import foodgrains and other raw materials.

4. Extent of foreign Investment. Foreign investment can boost up trade in developing countries which lack in capital required for the development of mining, oil drilling, heavy engineering, lumbering and plantation agriculture. By developing such capital intensive industries in developing countries, the industrial nations ensure import of food stuffs and minerals and a market for finished products. This entire cycle steps up the volume of trade between nations.

5. Transport. In olden times lack of adequate and efficient means of transport restricted trade to local areas. Only high valued items e.g. gems to silk spices were traded over large distances. With expansions of rail, ocean and air transport, better means of refrigeration and preservation, the trade has experienced spatial expansion.

Question 2.
Classify ports on different basis. Describe each type giving examples.
Or
Mention any two features of ‘Commercial Ports’. (Delhi 2019)
Types of Ports. Ports are the gateways of international trade. Generally, ports are classified according to the types of traffic which they handle.

Types of port according to cargo handled :

• Industrial Ports. These ports specialise in bulk cargo-like grain, sugar, ore, oil, chemicals and similar materials.
• Commercial Ports. These ports handle general cargo-packaged products and manufactured good. These ports also handle passenger traffic.
• Comprehensive Ports. Such ports handle bulk and general cargo in large volumes. Most of the world’s great ports are classified as comprehensive ports.

Types of port on the basis of location :
(i) Inland Ports. These ports are located away from the sea coast. They are linked to the sea through a river or a canal. Such ports are accessible to flat bottom ships or barges. For example, Manchester is linked with a canal; Memphis is located on the river Mississippi; Rhine has several ports like Mannheim and Duisburg; and Kolkata is located on the river Hoogli, a branch of the river Ganga.

(ii) Out Ports. These are deep water ports built away from the actual ports. These serve the parent ports by receiving those ships which are unable to approach them due to their large size. Classic combination, for example, is Athens and its out port Piraeus in Greece.

Types of port on the basis of specialised functions :
(i) Oil Ports. These ports deal in the processing and shipping of oil. Some of these are tanker ports and some are refinery ports. Maracaibo in Venezuela, Esskhira in Tunisia, Tripoli in Lebanon are tanker ports. Abadan on the Gulf of Persia is a refinery port.

(ii) Ports of Call. These are the ports which orginally developed as calling points on main sea routes where ships used to anchor for refuelling, watering and taking food items. Later on, they developed into commercial ports. Aden, Honolulu and Singapore are good examples.

(iii) Packet Station. These are also known as ferry ports. These packet stations are exclusively concerned with the transportation of passengers and mail across water bodies covering short distances. These stations occur in pairs located in such a way that they face each other across the water body, e.g. Dover in England, and Calais in France across the English Channel.

(iv) Entrepot Ports. These are collection centres where the goods are brought from different countries for export. Singapore is an entrepot for Asia. Rotterdam for Europe, and Copenhagen for the Baltic region.

(v) Naval Ports. These are ports which have only strategic importance. These ports serve warships and have repair workshops for them. Kochi and Karwar are examples of such ports in India.

Question 3.
Describe the different regional trading blocks.
Or
Give information on the growing importance of the Regional Trade Blocks in International Trade with special reference to the European Union (EU) and the Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC). (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Regional Trading Blocks. Most governments, have reduced tarrifs and quotas on import. Many countries have simple bilateral agreements with trading partners.

GATT. Since World War II, the primary vehicle for serving this purpose on the global level has been the General Agreement on Trade and Tarrifs (GATT). Through series of negotiations, it has systematically lowered tarrif rates worldwide. This has contributed to global economic boom in the post World War II period. Most countries of the world are now its members.

WTO. In 1995, the GATT metamorphosed into World Trade Organization (WTO), a permanent rather than adhoc organization in Geneva that also settles trade disputes. The WTO regulates trade in services too, but has yet to include important non-tarrif barriers, such as export restraints, inspection requirements, health and safety standards, and import licensing which inhibit imports.

1. European Union (E.U.) Originally it was founded in 1957 by six members—Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg. It was called the European Economic Community (EEC). Later it expanded to include most of Western Europe. The EEC changed into the European Union in 1995. It has harmonized several production and trade regulations.

A common currency, the euro; launched in early 1999, is effectively binding diverse countries into a single economy. With 400 million people, the EU is the largest single market in the world. Within Europe, the Mediterranean and East European states may be benefited more than their northern counterparts because labour moves north and capital flows south.

2. European Free Trade Association (EFTA). In 1960, seven countries i.e. United Kingdom, Austria, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Portugal and Switzerland joined together to form EFTA with the objective of bringing cooperation in the field of trade. They abolished the tarrif between different members countries.

In December, 1972, United Kingdom and Denmark abandoned their membership and joined EEC while Iceland joined this Association and Finland accepted its co-membership. Now again there are seven members.

3. NAFTA. Compared to the EU, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is considerably more modest. NAFTA’s origin lay in the 1988 U.S.—Canada Free Trade Agreement, which gradually eliminated trade restrictions between the world’s two largest trading partners. In 1994, NAFTA was expanded to include Mexico. NAFTA has now been extended to include Latin American countries too. It has thus created a free trade zone extening from Alaska to Tirra del Fuego.

4. Organisation of Petroleum Export Countries (OPEC). The 13 member countries of OPEC are Algeria, Ecuador, Gabon, Indonesia, Iran, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Venezuela. This organisation was formed by the petroleum producing countries in 1960 to decide policies regarding petroleum crude oil prices.

5. ASEAN. The Association of South East Asian Nations was formed in 1967. Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Singapore, growing countries of this region, are its members. Tariff between ASEAN and the rest of the world is growing faster than within the region. ASEAN also helps its members by presenting a joint negotiating stance when dealing with Japan, EU and Australia and New Zealand. India has now become an associate member.

6. SAARC. The South Asian Countries (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives) have formed South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. One of its objectives is to trade among the member nations. The progress on the trade front has been slow due to Indo-Pak relations.

7. CIS. This block is called Commonwealth of Independent States. Its headquarters are Minskat (Belarus). Twelve countries are its members namely Armenia, Azerbaiyan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The items of trade are crude oil, natural gas, gold, cotton, fibre, aluminium. They cooperate on matters of economics, defence and foreign policy.

8. LAIA. It is called Latin American Integration Association. Its headquarters is in Montevideo (Uruguay). Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia, Ecudor, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela are its members

### International Trade Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Analyse three important aspects of international trade. (CB.S.E. 2009)
The nature of international trade has changed significantly in the modern times.

• Due to industrial revolution, the important export trade of raw materials, minerals and foodgrains has increased.
• Raw materials are imported from tropical region.
• Manufactured goods and machinery is exported from countries of temperate latitudes.

Question 2.
‘Globalisation along with free trade can adversely affect the economies of the developing countries.’ Support the statement with examples. (C.B.S.E. 2009, 2011)
Or
Mention any two ill effects of free trade and economic globalisation. (Delhi 2019)
Free trade. The act of opening up economies for trading is known as free trade. This is done by bringing down trade barriers like tarriffs. It allows goods and services from everywhere to complete with domestic products and services.

Globalisation, It means to adjust economy of country according to world economy. For this the import duty has been reduced or abolished.

Effects. Globalisation and free trade can adversely effect the economies of developing countries.

• It does not give equal playing field by imposing conditions which are unfavourable.
• Fast means of transport systems help the goods of developed countries to reach market faster than developing countries.
• The developed countries can keep their own markets protected from foreign products of developing countries.
• Dumped goods of cheaper prices can harm the domestic producers.

## Peasants, Zamindars and the State Class 12 Important Extra Questions History Chapter 8

Here we are providing Class 12 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 8 Peasants, Zamindars and the State: Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire. Class 12 History Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 History Chapter 8 Important Extra Questions Peasants, Zamindars and the State: Agrarian Society and the Mughal Empire

### Peasants, Zamindars and the State Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Who was Abul Fazl?
Abul Fazl was the court historian of Akbar.

Question 2.
Who wrote Ain-i-Akbari?
Abul Fazl wrote Ain-i-Akbari.

Question 3.
Which different names were used for peasants during the Mughal Empire?
Raiyat, Kisan, Asami etc.

Question 4.
What are Rabi and Kharif crops?
Autumn crops are Kharif crops and Spring crops are Rabi crops.

Question 5.
What was Jins-i-Kamil?
Jins-i-Kamil means the perfect crops.

Question 6.
Who headed the Panchayat in the Mughal Empire?

Question 7.
Give one important function of Panchayats during the Mughal Empire.
To ensure that caste boundaries among the various communities living in the village were upheld.

Question 8
What was begar?
Unpaid labour was done by the peasants.

Question 9.
Name few artisans lived in the villages.
Potters, Blacksmiths, Carpenters, Barbers, Goldsmiths etc.

Question 10.
What work did women do in the fields during the Mughal Empire?
Sowing, weeding, threshing and winnowing the harvest.

Question 11.
Who was called Jangli in the Mughal Empire?
Forest dwellers were called Jangli in the Mughal Empire. ,

Question 12.
What Oshkosh was expected from the forest people?
They were expected to supply elephants to the empire.

Question 13.
What was Pargana?
Pargana was an administrative subdivision of a Mughal province.

Question 14.
On the basis of which relations, the rural society of 16th and 17th century was organised?
Rural society of 16th and 17th century was made up of small peasants and rich landlords. Both of these were involved in agricultural production and had their right over the share of the produce. As a result, the relationship of cooperation, conflict and competition was created among them. These relationships were the base of organising rural society.

Question 15.
Discuss the four factors that helped in the continuous development of agriculture in India of the Mughal period.
Or
Mention the factors that accounted for the constant expansion of agriculture during the 16th and 17th centuries. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))
These factors were :

1. Excess of land
2. Availability of workers
3. Dynamism of farmers
4. Development of artificial means of irrigation.

Question 16.
With which community the social existence of peasant was associated during the 16th and 17th centuries? Which were three other constituents of this community?
Social existence of peasant, during the 16th and 17th centuries, was associated with the collective village community. Its three other constituents were—the cultivators, the’ Panchayat and the village headman.

Question 17.
Which people were included in the village Panchayat of the Mughal period? With which name was the head of Panchayat known?
The village, Panchayat during the Mughal period was an assembly of elders of the village. They were generally important persons of village who had’ hereditary rights over their property.

Question 18.
What does Jins-i-Kamil mean? Why did the Mughal rule encourage it?
Literally, Jins-i-Kamil means perfect crops. Such crops included cotton and sugarcane besides oil-seeds and lentils. The Mughal state encouraged -all the peasants to grow and cultivate only those crops which brought in more revenue.

Question 19.
Deserting village was considered as an aggressive method in case of no justice given by Panchayat. Why?
In case of conflict between lower caste peasants and state officials or local zamindars, compromises were used. In cases where reconciliation failed, peasants took a more drastic form of resistance and that was deserting the village.

Question 20.
Which type of region was Jungle (forest) from the point of view of Mughal empire?
For the Mughal state, the forest or Jungle was a subversive place, a place of refuge or shelter for trouble makers. Once Babur said that “Jungles were those defences behind which the people of the pargana became stubbornly rebellious and; paid no taxes.”

Question 21.
What were the four means by which the people belonging to weaker sections of society could attain the status of zamindars?
These means were as follows :

1. By settlements On new lands
2. By transferring of the land ownership
3. By the royal orders

Question 22.
Name those four large territorial empires in Asia which had managed to consolidate power and resources during the 16th and 17th centuries.

1. The Mughal empire in India
2. Ming empire in China
3. Safavid empire of Iran
4. Ottoman empire in Turkey.

Question 23.
Abul Fazl, the writer of Ain-i-Akbari, had a high degree of caution in writing his book. Give two arguments.

1. He revised the manuscript five times.
2. He verified the oral testimonies and verified as well as cross-checked them from various facts and sources. He left no stone unturned to check the authenticity of the oral testimonies.

Question 24.
Discuss any two limitations of Ain-i- Akbari.
These limitations are as follows :

1. There were errors in total. They might be due to slips of arithmetic or transcription.
2. There was no uniform collection of data from all the provinces.

Question 25.
Why were women considered an important resource in agrarian society? Mention two reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))

1. Women worked shoulder to shoulder with men in the fields.
2. Men tilled and ploughed the fields and on the other hand, women sowed, weeded, threshed and winnowed the harvest.

Question 26.
Mention two factors for enjoying social and economic privileges by the Zamindars in the Mughal India. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))

1. Caste was one of the factors that accounted for the elevated status of Zamindars.
2. Zamindars performed certain services (Khidmat) for the State.
Banjar Land: It was also a type of land which was uncultivated for five years and more.

Question 27.
Mention two main purposes of Ain-i- Akbari. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (O.D.))

1. The main purpose of Ain-i-Akbari was to record information about the people and society during the Mughal regime.
2. Another purpose of Ain-i-Akbari was to give detailed accounts of the organisation of the court, administration and army.

Question 28.
Who headed the Panchayats during the seventeenth century? How was he chosen? (C.B.S.E. 2008 (O.D.))
The panchayats during the seventeenth century were headed by a head man known as muquaddam or Mandal. Some sources suggest that the headman was chosen through the consensus of the village elders and that this choice had to be ratified by the zamindars.

Question 29.
Mention the major crop of Western India during the 17th century. How did it come to India? (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
Maize (Makka) was the major crop of Western India during the 17th century. During the 17th century, several new crops from different parts of the world reached the Indian sub-continent via Africa and Spain.

Question 30.
Why were the forest dwellers termed Jungli? Give any two reasons? (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))

1. This word was used for the people whose livelihood came from forest products. Forests were the means of their livelihood.
2. These people moved from one place to another.

Question 31.
What does the third part of the Ain, ‘Mulk Abadi’ deal with? (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
Mulk Abadi gives detailed information about fiscal aspects and revenue rates of centre and states. Twelve provinces are also mentioned in it. It shows a very detailed and interesting picture of the agrarian society of north India.

Question 32.
How were the village artisans compensated by the villagers for their services? Write about anyone. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))
Answer: Village artisans were compensated by the villagers by giving them one part of their products or were given one piece of wasteland kept with them.

Question 33.
How did the Zamindars derive their power during the Mughal period? Mention any two ways. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))

1. Caste was one factor which accounted for the higher status of Zamindars. Another factor was that they performed certain services for the state.
2. The Zamindars held extensive personal lands termed milkiyat meaning property.

Question 34.
Mention any two steps taken by the Mughals to create the revenue as an administrative apparatus. (C.B.S.E. 2013 (O.D.))

1. This apparatus included the office of the diwan who was responsible for supervising the fiscal system of the empire.
2. Revenue officials and record keepers penetrated the agricultural domain and became a decisive agent in shaping agrarian relations.

Question 35.
Mention two factors that brought stability in the silver currency during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (C.B.S.E.2013 (O.D.))
An expanding trade of Asia with other regions brought in huge amounts of silver bullion into Asia to pay for goods procured from India. A large part of that bullion gravitated towards India. As a result, this period saw great stability in the silver currency.

Question 36.
Explain the sources of revenue of village Panchayats during the Mughal rule in India. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
During the Mughal rule in India, the Panchayati derived its funds from contributions made by individuals to’ a common financial base, levying fines, agricultural taxes et

### Peasants, Zamindars and the State Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Give a brief description of the agrarian life of India during the 16th-17th centuries. Which changes came with the entrance of outside agencies into the agrarian world?
Around 85% of people of India, during 16-17th centuries, lived in villages. Both peasants and the rich zamindars were engaged in agricultural production and both were claimants of their share in the produce. That is why it created relationships of cooperation, conflict and competition among them. Rural society was made up of the sum of these agrarian relationships.

The entrance of Outside Agencies:

• At the same time outside agencies entered the rural world. One of the most important was the Mughal Empire which derived most of its income from agricultural production. Revenue accessors, revenue collectors and record keepers wanted to keep complete control over rural society. They wanted to ensure that cultivation must take place so that they could get a share of the state from the produce.
• As many crops were grown for sale, that is why urban trade, money and markets were linked with villages.

Question 2.
What were the two categories of peasants in the 17th century (the Mughal period)? Discuss.
According to the Indo-Persian sources of the Mughal period, raiyat or Nazarian were the terms used to denote a peasant. Besides terms like Kisan or Asami were also used. The sources of the 17th century refer to two kinds of farmers. They were Khud-Kashta and Pahi-Kashta. The Khud-Kashta lived in the village where they cultivated their own lands themselves. On the other hand, the Pahi-Kashta were not the residents of the village. They belonged to some other village but cultivated lands in some other village. They performed their work on a contractual basis. There were two reasons for it which are given below :

1. Out of Choice: The people accepted to be Pahi-Kashta when they found the terms of revenue favourable to them.
2. Out of Compulsion: The people became Pahi-Kashta when a famine or economic distress compelled them to find any work anywhere so that they may survive.

Question 3.
How was land an indicator of the prosperity of any peasant? Give examples.
Or
Describe the condition of an average peasant of North India during the seventeenth century. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
An average peasant of northern India had not more than a pair of oxen and two ploughs. Most of the peasants even possessed less than that. Those farmers in Gujarat were considered as prosperous who possessed 6 acres of land. On the other hand, the upper limit of land of an average peasant in Bengal was 5 acres. Peasant with 10 acres of land was considered rich. Agriculture was based on the concept of individual ownership. Land of peasants was also sold and bought like the land of other property owners.

Question 4.
Give a brief description of the technology used in agriculture during the Mughal period.
Or
Explain the technology used by the peasants for the cultivation during the Mughal period. (C.B.S.E. 2016 (D)) Or
Explain the method of irrigation and technology used during that period. (C.B.S.E. 2019 (D))
There was a constant expansion of agriculture during the Mughal Period. It depended mainly on the monsoons. But artificial systems of irrigation were also devised. There are many instances to prove it such as follows :

• The state undertook the digging of new canals (Nahar or Nala).
• The state also undertook the repair of old canals like the Shah-Nahar in Punjab.
• The farmers used those technologies which harnessed animal power.
• There was the use of a wooden plough which was light. It had an iron tip or coulter.
• There was also the use of a drill. It was pulled by a pair of giant oxen used to plant seeds.
• A narrow iron blade with a small wooden handle was also used to hoe and weed.

Question 5.
While explaining seasonal cycles of agriculture during the 16th-17th centuries, clarify that different types of crops were grown.
Seasonal Cycles: Agriculture was organised mainly during two seasonal cycles—first was Kharif (autumn) and second was Rabi (spring). Minimum two crops were grown at most of the places except most arid or inhospitable land. At some places, even three crops were grown where rainfall or other means of irrigation were easily available.

Different Types of Crops: There is a mention of word Jins-i-Kamil in historical sources available to us which means perfect crops. Mughal state also used to encourage farmers to grow those crops with which the state could earn more revenue. Cotton and sugarcane were such crops.

Cotton was mainly grown on large pieces of land spread over central India and the Deccan plateau. Bengal was known for its sugar made from sugarcane. Different types of oil seeds (like mustard) and lentils were also included in cash crops. This shows that subsistence and commercial production were closely related with an average peasant’s holding.

Question 6.
Into how many groups were the peasants divided in the Mughal period on account of caste or such other discriminations?
During the Mughal period, the cultivators or the peasants were divided into many heterogeneous groups because of inequalities and distinctions based on caste. A majority of those who tilled the land worked as menials or agricultural labourers (majors). A few people belonging to particular castes were given only menial tasks. Thus, they were destined to be poor. Such people comprised a large section of the village population. They had the least resources and were relegated to poverty. They owed their deplorable condition to the caste hierarchy.

Similarly in the Muslim communities, a few people performed menial jobs such as scavenging. They lived outside the boundaries of the village. In other words, there was a direct co-relation between caste, poverty and social status among the lower sections of the society.

Question 7.
Describe any three strengths and two limitations of the Ain-i-Akbari as an important document in the study of the Mughal Period.
The Strongest Aspects :

1. Ain-i-Akbari depicts enchanting glimpses of the organisation and structure of the Mughal empire.
2. It incorporates detailed information about the people of India and the Mughal empire.
3. The statistical data about agriculture is quite significant.
4. The information is invaluable to understand the history of the Mughals and the contribution of historians.

Weak Points or Limitations :

• There are many errors in additions.
• The data of all the provinces have not been accumulated uniformly.

Question 8.
How were the village Panchayats organised during the Mughal period? What was the position of head of the Panchayat?
Or
Explain the composition of the village Panchayat. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))
Or
How were the Panchayats formed during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? (C.B.S.E. 2011 (D))
Organisation: Village Panchayat was the assembly of elders of the village. Generally, these elders were those important persons of village who had hereditary rights over their property. Panchayat was generally a heterogeneous body in mixed caste village. It was that oligarchy in which all the castes and communities of the village were given representation. The decision of the Panchayat was binding on all the members of the village.

Status of Headman: Headman of Panchayat was known as Muqaddam or Mandal. Some sources suggest that headman was elected by the mutual consent of village elders. This choice had to be approved by the zamindar. Headman could remain in his office until he enjoyed the confidence of village elders or else he could be dismissed by them. His main function was to supervise the preparation of village accounts and was assisted by Patwari of the village.

Question 9.
What was the common financial pool of Panchayat during 16th-17th centuries? What was its importance?
Or
How did village Panchayat use the funds available to it? (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))
Expenditure of Panchayat was run from that financial pool or treasury which was contributed by every individual. It was known as the common financial pool of Panchayat.
Importance:

1. This pool was used for the cost of entertaining revenue officials who tired to visit the village from time to time.
2. This pool was used to pay salary to muqaddam and chowkidar.
3. This pool was also used to meet expenses for the community welfare activities like a flood or any other natural calamity.
4. Often these funds were used for community works like construction of a bund or digging a canal which peasants were unable to afford on their own.

Question 10.
How did the Panchayat ensure that caste-system should not be violated?
During the Mughal period, the village Panchayat was an assembly of elders. But in mixed- caste villages, it was usually a heterogeneous body where the decisions of the Panchayats were binding on all the members.

Each Panchayat had a headman who was known as Muqaddam or Mandal. He held his office till he enjoyed the confidence of the village elders. The main function of the Panchayat was to uphold and ensure that all the people lived within caste boundaries. In many parts of eastern India, all the marriages were held in the presence of the Mandal. In other words, the Panchayats played a significant role in the prevention of caste-based offences. It could even expel anyone from the community and impose fines.

Question 11.
What were caste or Jati-Panchayats and what were their functions?
Or
How did Jati-Panchayats yield considerable power in several societies during aMughal period? Clarify. (C.B.S.E. 2016 (D))
Except for the village Panchayats, there were caste Panchayats in villages. These Panchayats were very powerful in society. Caste Panchayats in Rajasthan used to solve civil disputes among people of different castes :

1. They resolved disputes related to claims of land.
2. They ensured whether marriages are taking place according to caste restrictions or not.
3. They also determined who had ritual precedence in village functions.

Actually, in most of the cases, except criminal cases, the State used to respect the decisions taken by Jati Panchayats.

Question 12.
How Panchayats (during Mughal period) used to solve complaints of weaker sections against superior or upper castes?
Archival records of western India, especially Rajasthan and Maharashtra, include few petitions presented to Panchayat complaining about collecting taxes forcefully or the demand of begar, i.e., unpaid labour. These petitions were generally submitted by most weaker sections of rural communities.

These petitions were made collectively by a community or caste group against the morally illegitimate demands of elite groups. One of these demands was excessive- tax. They considered the right of minimum basic means of life as their traditional rights. They wanted that Gram Panchayat should listen to this and ensure that the state must give them justice.

In case of demand of excessive taxes, different classes were advised to do compromise. When reconciliation was not possible, peasants took more drastic forms of resistance like deserting the village. As uncultivated land was easily available and there was a competition over labour resources, it was an effective weapon in the hands of the cultivators.

Question 13.
How external forces were entering into forests during 16th-17th centuries? What was the importance of hunt expeditions in the Mughal political ideology?
External forces used to enter the forest in a number of ways. For example, elephants were required by the State for its army. That is why elephants were included in the Oshkosh levied from the forest people. Hunting expeditions were a medium of providing justice by the State, for both poor and rich.

According to court historians, kings used to travel across the extensive territories of its empire. In this way, he was able to personally attend to the grievances of people of different regions. Court artists painted many pictures depicting hunting by the emperors. The painters used to insert a small scene anywhere in the picture which acted as a symbol of a harmonious reign.

Question 14.
How did the expansion of commercial agriculture affect the life of forest dwellers?
Or
Describe the life led by the forest dwellers during the Mughal era in the l6th -17th centuries. (C.B.S.E. 2014 (D))
The forest dwellers earned their livelihood from hunting and shifting agriculture. But all these activities were seasonal. For example, the Bhils collected forest produce in the spring, fished in the summer, cultivated land in the monsoon and hunted during autumn and winter. They had to observe perpetual mobility.

However, the spread of commercial agriculture immensely affected the life of forest-dwellers. They exported forest products like honey, gum and wax. It encouraged an overseas export from India in the seventeenth century. They even captured and sold elephants. The Lohan is of Punjab were engaged in overland trade between India and Afghanistan.

The commercial agriculture also brought a considerable change in the social life of the forest- dwellers. Many tribal chiefs had become zamindars. A few of them even had become kings. It was the royal monopoly of the Ahom kings to capture wild animals.

Question 15.
Why were the chiefs of forest dwellers, during the Mughal period, required to build up an army? How did they get military services?
Like the ‘big men’ of the village community, tribes also had their chieftains. Social factors led to changes in their lives. Some of the tribal chiefs had become Zamindars and some of them became kings. As a result, they were required to build up an army. So they recruited people of their lineage groups into their army.

They also demanded that their fraternity must provide military service. The tribal military of Sind region had 6 thousand cavalries and 7 thousand infantry. The Ahom kings, in Assam, had their own packs. Packs were those people who were given land if they render military service to the king. Ahom kings also declared their royal monopoly on capturing of wild elephants.

Question 16.
What were the sources of power and high social position of Zamindars in the Mughal India?
The Zamindars were the proprietors of land in the Mughal India. They enjoyed many social and economic privileges because of their high status in rural society. They owed their superior position to two factors. First of all, they had an upper caste. Secondly, they performed certain services (Khidmat) for the state.

Ownership of Land: The Zamindars had abundant personal land as their property (Milkiyat). They cultivated their land for private use but they took the help of hired or servile labour in this regard. The Zamindars were also free to sell, bequeath or mortgage their land.

Collection of Land Revenue: The Zamindars were very powerful because they were entitled to collect revenue on behalf of the State. They were financially compensated for this service by the state.

Control over Military Resources: The Zamindars had great power because they exercised control over military resources. Most of the Zamindars had fortresses and also an armed contingent which comprised of cavalry, artillery and infantry.

Question 17.
What was the main feature of the relationship between Zamindars and peasants during a Mughal period? Which two arguments clarify this aspect?
There is no denying the fact that the Zamindars were an exploitative class but their relationship with peasants was based on the elements of reciprocity, paternalism and patronage. Following arguments clarify this aspect :

1. The First one is that Bhakti saints openly criticised caste-based and other forms of oppression. But they hardly portray Zamindars as oppressors or exploiters of peasantry class. Generally, revenue officials became victims of their anger.

2. A number of agrarian uprisings took place in the 17th century and peasantry often supported the Zamindars in their struggle against the State.

Question 18.
How was the Feudal class organised during the reign of Akbar?
Feudal class during Akbar’s reign belonged mainly to Turks, Uzbeks, Mongols, inhabitants of Persia, Arabia and Afghanistan. Very few Indian Muslims and Hindus were there in it. Around 70% higher officials of Akbar were foreigners. Most of them came over there in search of employment. Few officials were settled over here from one-two generations and they also established their relations with the royal family.

Akbar provided the facility of higher posts to Hindus as well. Even then very few Hindus were there in military and administration. Often powerful Rajputs were appointed on these posts. Only 21 Hindus were there in upper ruling class during Akbar’s reign out of which 17 were Rajputs. Indian Muslims had no important place in the ruling class because it was dependent upon personal traits and maturity of the person. There was hardly any consideration of caste, race or religion while giving the post to any official.

Question 19.
What was Zat ranking in Mansabdari System?
Zat was a numerical value which determined the rank and salary in the Mughal Empire. Certain aspects were there in Zat ranking which is given below :

• Nobles with a Zat of 5,000 were ranked higher than those of 1,000.
• There were 29 mansabdars with a rank of 5,000 Zat in the reign of Akbar.
• The number of mansabdars was increased to 79 by Aurangzeb’s reign.
• More number of mansabdars meant more burden of expenditure on State exchequer.

Question 20.
Describe the results of India’s overseas trade under the Mughals. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (O.D.))
During the Mughal period, there was a great expansion of land and overseas trade. In response to the many items that were exported from India, Asia had an inflow of a large quantity of silver. A large part of silver reached India which was a creditable thing for India because it had no natural reserve of silver. As a result, the main currency in India was made of silver between the 16th and 18th centuries. There was economic stability in the country as the currency of silver was available in abundance.

Question 21.
Assess the role played by women in the Mughal imperial household. (C.B.S.E. 2008)
In the Mughal families, the king had wives, deputy wives, maid-servants and slaves.
1. Except wives, the Mughal families had many women, slaves. They also performed minor jobs besides jobs requiring tact, wisdom and intelligence. There were also slave Khwajasars. They were agents of women who had an interest in trade. They also served as servants and bodyguards both inside and outside the family.

2. After Noor Jahan, Mughal queens and princesses started having control on financial matters. Jahan Ara and Roshan Ara, the daughters of Shah Jahan, got a high salary just like high mansabdars. Besides Jahan Ara got revenue from the city of Surat. This port city was an important centre of trade.

3. As the women had control over important financial resources, the important women of the Mughal family got constructed buildings and gardens. Jahan Ara took part in the architectural projects in the new capital of Shah Jahan at Shahjahanabad (Delhi). It also had a double-story caravan Sarai which had a vast compound and a beautiful garden.

4. The design of Chandini Chowk, the main attraction of Shahjahanabad was prepared by Jahan Ara.

5. We get a glimpse of the family life of the Mughals from Humayunama which was written by Gulbadan. Gulbadan Begum was the daughter of Babur and the sister of Humayun. She could even write serials in Turkish and Arabic.

Question 22.
Explain the role of village artisans in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (O.D.))
A large number of sculptors lived in the villages in the 16th and 17th centuries. From the Marathi documents and the British surveys, it is clear that in many villages, the sculptors amounted to 25% of the total population of the village.

Sometimes it was difficult to distinguish between the sculptors and the farmers. It was so because there were many groups which performed both the functions. The farmers also did many other jobs like designing of cloth, pottery and repair and the making of agricultural instruments. Besides potters, iron-smiths, weavers and barbers also rendered their service to the village.

They got either a piece of land or a part of the crop for the service rendered by them. In the 18th century, the zamindars, the iron-smiths, the weavers and the gold-smiths of Bengal used to get a daily allowance for food in respect of their services. It was called the Jajmani System.

Question 23.
Why did Abul Fazl describe the land Revenue as ‘remuneration of sovereignty’? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2009 (D))
Abul Fazl described the land revenue as remuneration of sovereignty because only by giving land revenue to the government, they were actually provided security by the government. They were free to work in their fields according to their wish. They were even free from the fear of any external aggression or internal revolt because then it was the duty of the government to provide them with every type of security.

If any land-related problem would have come in front, then they were allowed to approach the concerned officials. This land revenue was the main source of State’s income with which army and security of the peasants could be maintained.

Question 24.
Describe three factors that accounted for the constant expansion of agriculture during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (C.B.S.E. 2012 (O.D.))
1. Abundance of land, availability of labourers and mobility of peasants were major causes of the continuous expansion of agriculture because* primary objective of agriculture was to feed the people.

2. Like modern days, the monsoon was considered as the backbone of India agriculture during the Mughal period. But the crops for which additional water was required, artificial means of irrigation were developed.

3. State’s help was also available for the development of means of irrigation. For example, State in north India undertook digging of new canals and also repaired a few old canals. Shah canal of Punjab during the reign of Shah Jahan is an example of such repair.

### Peasants, Zamindars and the State Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe the Land Revenue System of the Mughal empire during the reign of Akbar.
Akbar  was a great and able ruler. He laid special emphasis on the land revenue system. For this purpose, he followed the policy initiated by Sher Shah Suri. But this policy had certain defects in it. That is why Akbar began works from the start. Main features of his land revenue system are given below:

1. Following policy initiated by Sher Shah: In the beginning, Akbar followed the policy of land revenue initiated by Sher Shah. During the reign of Sher Shah, the average value was determined by measuring agricultural land. It was determined on the average production of produce. Later on, Akbar felt that it needed a lot of time to fix the market price. It was also a cause of worry for the peasants. Hence, Akbar again started the policy of yearly assumption.

2. Determination of Tax: Akbar followed the following policies for fixing land revenue :
(a) Zabti System: This policy was the creation of Raja Todar Mai. Under this system of revenue, the tax was fixed by measuring the land. This system was implemented in Gujarat, Lahore, Malwa, Allahabad, etc.
(b) Ten Years System: This system was a developed form of Zabti system. According to this, an average of the last ten years of production of crops and their value was taken out. One-third of that average produce was taken as revenue. This revenue could have been taken in the form of cash or produce.
(c) Batai or Galla Bakshi System: In this system, the whole of the total produce was divided in definite proportion among peasant and the State. Honest officials were required for the success of this system.
(d) Nasik or Kanqoot System: Record of agricultural tax was kept in this system.

3. Measurement of Land: During the reign of Akbar, the land was measured with a proper method. With this, state and the peasant came to know about how much peasants will have to pay and how much revenue will be collected for the state.

4. Keeping in mind the fertility of the soil: Fertility of the soil was always kept in mind while determining land revenue. That land was called as ‘Polaj’ which was cultivated every year and that land was called as Tarauti’ which was not cultivated every year. All in all, a tax was fixed on the basis of fertility and the produce.

5. Facilities to Peasants: Special facilities were also given to peasants in case of famine or drought. They were given certain facilities in paying taxes in case of natural calamity. They were also given loans for tools, implements and animals.

Actually, land revenue system of Akbar was prepared while keeping in mind the interests of the people.

Question 2.
While explaining the contribution of women in labour based agrarian society, clarify that what was their position in society? Also, give a proper example.
Or
Discuss the role of women in the agrarian society in Mughal India. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (D))
Or
Examine the status and role played by the women in the agrarian society during the Mughal period. (C.B.S.E. 2016 (O.D.))
Men and women both performed certain specific roles in the production process. Women had to work shoulder to shoulder with men in the fields. Men used to till and plough the land whereas women sowed, weeded, threshed and winnowed the harvest. With the development of small rural units and individual agriculture of peasants, labour and resources of the entire household became the basis of production. Naturally, gendered segregation was not possible between home (for women) and the world (for men).

Artisanal works like sifting and kneading clay for pottery, spinning yarn and embroidery were some of the works which depended upon female labour. The more commercialised the product, the greater the demand on women’s labour to produce it. Actually peasant, artisan women not only worked in the fields but also went to houses of their employers and even to markets if required. Females were seen as an important source in agrarian society because they were child-bearers in a society which was dependent on labour.

Status of women in society: The position of the women in society was of mixed nature.
1. There was a high mortality rate among women. That is why married women were less in number. It helped in the emergence of social customs in artisan and peasant society which were different from the customs of elite groups. In many rural communities, the male had to pay bride price instead of dowry to the bride’s family. Remarriage was legally sanctioned for both divorced and widowed women.

2. According to popular traditions, the male was head of the family. In this way, females remained under the control of males and the family. If any female was coming under the scanner of misconduct then she was strictly punished by society.

3. Amongst the landed gentry, women had the right to inherit property. We have found certain examples from Punjab which show that women (including widows) actively participated in the rural land market as sellers of property inherited by them. They were free to sell or mortgage their land.

Question 3.
What aspects of the Mughal period are highlighted by Abul Fazl’s ‘Ain-i-Akbari’?
‘Ain-i-Akbari’ was written by Abul Fazl in the year 1598 C.E. It was a part of the project of the writing of history under the orders of Akbar. That is why it is also known as Akbar-Nama. It is a compendium of imperial regulations and a gazette of the Mughal Empire.

This book gives detailed information about various facts of life during the Mughal period :

1. It is a comprehensive analysis of the court, administration and army.
2. It depicts the literary, cultural and religious traditions of the people.
3. It gives a physical layout of the provinces of Akbar’s empire.
4. It enumerates the sources of revenue.
5. It tells us about various customs and practices of the Mughal period.
6. It also gives a short biographical sketch of imperial officials such as mansabdars.

In fact, the real purpose of the book was to facilitate Emperor Akbar in the governance of its empire. It was not a reproduction of official papers but an authentic attempt to present quantitative data at one place. It was an extraordinary document of its times and provides a fascinating peep into the glimpses of the structure and organisation of the Mughal Empire.

Question 4.
Make a critical evaluation of the- significance and limitations of Ain-i-Akbari.
Or
Explain why Ain-i-Akbari remains an extraordinary document of its times even today. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (D))
Or
“In spite of the limitations, the Ain-i-Akbari remained an extraordinary document of its time.” Explain the statement. (C.B.S.E. 2016 (D))
Or
Examine the strengths and weaknesses of Ain-i-Akbari. (C.B.S.E. 2016 (O.D.))
Penned by Abul Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari was written to facilitate Akbar in the governance of his empire. It was written in 1598 C.E. Abul Fazl was so cautious about this book that he revised it five times. He tried his best to leave no scope for any transcriptional error. It is an authentic mine of information about the Mughal Empire.

Abul Fazl did not believe oral testimonies. He verified and cross-checked them before their inclusion in the book. He wanted to make his book factual rather than informative. In the quantitative sections, he presented all the numerical data in words so as to minimise the chances of any subsequent trans¬criptional errors. In other words, the Ain is a record of information about the people and society during the Mughal regime.

In spite of the best efforts of Abul Fazl, the book is not without problems or limitations. There are many limitations which can be studied as follows:
1. There are many errors in total. It has been considered that these might be simple arithmetic errors of transcription by Abul Fazl’s assistants. Even then these errors were very simple which hardly reduces the authenticity of data at a wider level.

2. Another limitation of Ain is the skewed nature of the quantitative data. Uniform data was not collected from all provinces. Wide information was collected about the caste of zamindars from many provinces but these information are not available for Bengal and Orissa.

3. Fiscal data from the provinces is quite remarkable but equally important information like prices and wages from these areas are not as well documented.

Conclusion: Ain remained an extraordinary document of its times even after certain limitations. Abul Fazl achieved a major breakthrough in the tradition of medieval chroniclers who wrote mostly about wars, conquests, political machinations and dynastic turmoil. It was one of the greatest achievements of Abul Fazl.

Question 5.
How was agriculture organised around two major seasonal cycles’s during the 16th and 17th centuries? Was it only for subsistence or otherwise? Explain. (C.B.S.E. 2011 (O.D.))
Or
Explain how during 16th and 17th centuries agriculture was organised around two major seasonal cycles by giving examples of different crops. (C.B.S.E. 2008 (D))
Seasonal cycles: During the 16th and 17th centuries, agriculture was organised mainly during two seasonal cycles-Kharif (autumn) and Rabi (spring). Minimum two crops were grown at most of the places except most arid or inhospitable land. Even three crops were also grown where rainfall or other means of irrigation were easily available.

Different types of Crops: There is a mention of word Jins-i-Kamil in historical sources available to us which means perfect crops. Mughal state also used to encourage farmers to grow those crops with which the State could earn more revenue. Cotton and sugarcane were such crops.

Cotton was mainly grown on large pieces of land spread over central India and the Deccan Plateau. Bengal was known for its sugar made from sugarcane. Different types of oilseeds (like mustard) and lentils were also included in cash crops. This shows that subsistence and commercial production were closely related with an average peasant’s holding.

Objectives: Major objective of agriculture during the 16th and 17th centuries was only for subsistence. That is why mainly rice, wheat and barley were grown. But this agriculture was not alone for subsistence. Till then, the nature of agriculture was changed a bit.

• Agriculture was mainly organised for two seasons.
• The commercial production and subsistence were closely related to an average present holding.

### Peasants, Zamindars and the State Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Who were the Khud-Kashta and Pahi- Kashta? Distinguish between the two.
There were two kinds of peasants in the seventeenth century. They were Khud-Kashta and Pahi-Kashta.

Khud-Kashta: They lived in the village. They had their own land in the village. They themselves cultivated their lands.

Pahi-Kashta: They were non-resident cultivators. They lived in some other village and cultivated lands elsewhere. They did their work on a contractual basis. People became Pahi-Kashta out of two reasons which are given below:

1. Out of Choice: The people accepted to be Pahi-Kashta when they found the terms of revenue favourable to them.
2. Out of Compulsion: The people became Pahi-Kashta when a famine or economic distress compelled them to find any work to survive.

Question 2.
“A caste group or a community protesting against the demands of the elite class.” What were these demands?
Members of a caste group or a community protested against demands of elite class which they considered illegitimate from a moral point of view. One of them was the demand for excessive tax which endangered the peasants’ subsistence especially in times of drought or other disasters.

Question 3.
Explain any two reasons for an exalted position of the zamindars in the Mughal society.
The following reasons were responsible for the superior status of zamindars in rural society :

1. They owed their elevated status to their caste.
2. They were the landed proprietors who enjoyed certain social and economic privileges.
3. They performed certain services (Khidmat) for the State.

Question 4.
What was milkiyat?
Milkiyat was extensive personal lands held by the zamindars. It was used for cultivation for the private use of the zamindars. It was often cultivated with the help of servile or hired labour. They were free to sell, mortgage these lands at will.

Question 5.
What were ‘Jama’ and ‘Hasil’?
The arrangements for the collection of land revenue consisted of two stages: first assessment and then actual collection. The Jama was the amount assessed whereas the Hasil was the amount received or collected.

Question 6.
How ‘Ain’ of Abul Fazl was different from the creations of early historians?
Creations of early historians, before Abul Fazl, only mention about wars, conquests, political machinations and dynastic turmoil. They hardly give any information about people and products of the country. If any mention was there, it was from a political point of view.

Question 7.
What is meant by ‘Jangli’ in the context of Mughal period? How forest was seen by the state?
Jangli: The word ‘Jangli’ is used by contemporary texts for forest dwellers but it does not mean that they were uncivilised. Actually, during those days, this word was used for the people whose livelihood came from forest products, hunting and shifting cultivation. These occupations were based on seasons. For example, Bhils used to collect forest products during summer, catch fish during summer, do cultivation during monsoon months and used to go for hunting during autumn and winter. Moving from one place to another was one of the important features of tribes living in forests.

Forests in the eyes of the States: As far as for the State, the forest was a subversive place where troublemakers used to take refuge or shelter. Once Babur said about jungles which provided a good defence “behind which the people of the pagan become stubbornly, rebellious and pay no taxes”.

Question 8.
Describe the functions and authority of the Village Panchayats during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. (C.B.S.E. 2(112 (O.D.))
A major function of Panchayat was to ensure that caste boundaries could be upheld by different communities residing in the village. All the marriages in eastern India took place in the presence of Mandal. The major function of village headman was to keep a watch on the conduct of the members of the village community mainly to prevent any offence against their caste. Panchayats had the right to levy fines and expel anyone from the community.

Question 9.
Describe the main sources of agriculture history of the 16th and 17th centuries.
Or
Explain the various sources to know about the rural society during the Mughal period. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))
Or
Explain how the chronicle Ain-i-Akbari is the major source to understand the agrarian history of 16th and .7th centuries. (C.B.S.E. 2019 (D))
Peasants are the main actors of agrarian history. But peasants did not write about themselves which is why we hardly get information from them about activities of rural society. Our main sources of the agrarian history of 16th and 17th centuries are chronicles, historical texts and documents which were written under the supervision of the Mughal court.

Ain-i-Akbari: Ain-i-Akbari was one of the most important chronicles of its time. It was written by a court historian of Akbar, i.e., Abul Fazl. This chronicle describes very minutely about the arrangements made by the State to ensure cultivation, enable the collection of revenue by the agencies of state and regulate the relations between the State and the Zamindars.

The main objective of Ain or Ain-i-Akbari was to present a vision of Akbar’s empire where a strong ruling class was providing social harmony. According to the author of Ain, any revolt against the State or assertion of autonomous power was predestined to fail. In other words, whatever information we got from Ain about peasants was a point of view of top officials of Mughal court.

Other Sources:
1. Besides Ain, we can also use other sources, which were written at far off places from Mughal kingdom. These include those documents of 17th and 18th centuries found in Gujarat, Maharashtra and Rajasthan which provide detailed revenue records.
2. Except these, many documents of East India Company are also there which throw light on agrarian relations in eastern India. All these sources record instances of conflicts between the Zamindars, peasants and the State. These sources help us in understanding the peasants’ perception and their expectations of fairness from the State.

Question 10.
Discuss mutual relations between rural artisans and peasants during the 16th and 17th centuries. Also, discuss the importance of rural communities.
One of the interesting aspects of the village was the elaborate relationship of exchange between different producers. Early surveys conducted in the village during the early years of British rule and Maratha documents conclude that artisans also lived in great number in villages. Sometimes, around 25% of total household in the villages belonged to artisans.

Sometimes it was very difficult to differentiate between peasants and artisans because they were groups who used to do both kinds of work. Cultivators and their family members were engaged in the production of many things. These included textile printing, dyeing, making and preparing agricultural implements, baking of pottery, etc. It was so because agricultural work was not for the whole of the year and that is why they used to do work of artisans during the free months.

Services and Supply of Service: Potters, carpenters, blacksmiths, barbers and even goldsmiths provided their services to village men. They were compensated by villagers by the number of means. They were either given a share of the produce or a piece of land in the village. This method of compensation was probably decided by the Panchayat. Such lands, in Maharashtra, became the Miras or Watan of the artisans were:

This system also prevailed in another variant in which artisans and individual peasant households entered into a mutually negotiated settlement of remuneration, most of the time goods for services. For example, blacksmiths, carpenters and even goldsmiths were remunerated by the Zamindars of Bengal, for their work by paying them a small daily allowance and diet money. This system was known as the Jajmani system.

Importance of Rural Community: Rural community was of great importance. Some British officials in 19th century saw the Indian villages as ‘a republic’ in which people used to divide their resources and labour with a collective fraternity. But there was no sign of social equality in villages. Individual ownership of land was there. Deep inequalities were there in society on the basis of caste and gender. Few powerful persons decided on matters of the village and exploited the weaker sections. They also had the authority to dispense justice.

More importantly, a cash nexus developed in villages due to trade between towns and villages. In the Mughal regions, revenue was assessed and collected in the form of cash. Artisans producing for the export market were also paid in cash as their wages. In the same way, producers of commercial products, like cotton, indigo, silk, etc., were also paid in cash.

### Peasants, Zamindars and the State Important Extra Questions Source-Based

Question 1.
Peasants on the Move

This was a feature of agrarian society which struck a keen observer like Babur, the first Mughal emperor, forcefully enough for him to write about it in the Baburnama, his memoirs :

In Hindustan hamlets and villages, towns indeed, are depopulated and set up in a moment! If the people of a large town, one inhabited for years even, flee from it, they do it in such a way that not a sign or trace of them remains in a day and a half. On the other hand, if they fix their eyes on a place to settle, they need not dig watercourses because their crops are all rain-grown, and as the population of Hindustan is unlimited it swarms in. They make a tank or a well; they need not build houses or set up walls …. Khas-grass abounds, wood is unlimited, huts are made, and straightaway there is a village or a town!
(i) what is Baburnama? Which feature of the Mughal period is expressed in this excerpt taken from the Baburnama?
Baburnama is a biography of Babur. It is a
memoir about the times of Babur. It expresses a feature of an agrarian society which impressed most a keen observer like Babur.

(ii) What has been said about the Hindustani hamlets and villages in this excerpt?
The hamlets and villages in India were depopulated as well as set up in a moment. The people, living in a village or town for years, ran away in such a way that no sign or trace of them is left behind. On the other hand, if they make up their mind to settle, they set up a village or a town in no time.

(iii) How do the people build a village as city in a moment?
India has a lot of population. In other words, it was unlimited. So the people swarmed in all the villages and towns. They made a tank or a well in no time. They need not build a house or set up walls. They built huts with wood and khas-grass. So a village or a town came up in a moment.

Question 2.
Trade between the Hill Tribes and the Plains, c. 1595

This is how Abu’l Fazl describes the transactions between the hill tribes and the plains in the Suba of Awadh (part of present-day Uttar Pradesh):

From the northern mountains quantities of goods are carried on the backs of men, of stout ponies and of goats, such as gold, copper, lead, musk, tails of the Kutas cow (the yak), honey, chuk (an acid composed of orange juice and lemon boiled together), pomegranate seed, ginger, long pepper, the majority (a plant producing a red dye) -root, borax, zedoary ( a root resembling turmeric), wax, woollen stuff, woodenware, hawks, falcons, black falcons, merlins (a kind of bird), and other articles. In exchange, they carry back white and coloured cloths, amber, salt, asafoetida, ornaments, glass and earthenwares.
(i) About whom and by whom has this excerpt has been written?
This excerpt has been written by Abu’l Fazl. It describes the transactions between the people living in the hills and plains of the Awadh Region which was a part of the present-day Uttar Pradesh.

(ii) Name any four things that were exchanged between the people of plains and hilly areas. How did their transactions take place?
The hill-tribes supplied gold, copper, lead, musk, honey, pomegranate seed, ginger, long pepper, wax and tails of the yak. The people living in the plains sent amber, salt, asafoetida, ornaments, white and coloured cloths, glass and earthenwares to the hilly areas.

These things were sent on the backs of men, stout ponies and goats.

(iii) Who were Merlin and Kehruba?
Merlin was a kind of hawk or falcon. It was a prey bird. But Aruba was a yellow-brown metal used to make ornaments.

Question 3.
“Moistening the Rose Garden of Fortune”

In this extract Abu’l Fazl gives a vivid account of how and from whom he collected his information :

…to Abu’l Fazl son of Mubarak….this sublime mandate was given. “Write with the pen of sincerity and account of the glorious events and of our domination-conquering victories… Assuredly, I spent much labour and research in collecting the records and narratives of His Majesty’s actions and I was a long time interrogating the servants of the State and the old members of the illustrious family. I examined both prudent, truth-speaking old men and active-minded, right-actioned young ones and reduced their statements to writing.

The Royal commands were issued to the provinces, that those who from old service remembered, with certainty or with adminicle of doubt, the events of the past, should copy out the notes and memoranda and transit them to the court. (Then) a second command shone forth from the holy Presence-chamber; to wit- that the materials which had been collected should be….recited in the royal hearing, and whatever might have to be written down afterwards, should be introduced into the noble volume as a supplement, and that such details as on account of the minuteness of the inquiries and the minutiae of affairs, (which) could not them be brought to an end, should be inserted afterwards at my leisure.

Being relieved by this royal order-the interpreter of the Divine ordinance-from the secret anxiety of my heart, I proceeded to reduce into writing the rough draughts (drafts) which were void of the grace of arrangement and style. I obtained the chronicle of events beginning at the Nineteenth Year of the Divine Era, When the Record Office was established by the enlightened intellect of His Majesty, and from its rich pages, I gathered the account of many events.

Great pains too, were taken to procure the originals or copies of most of the orders which had been issued to the provinces from the Accession up to the present day…I also took much trouble to incorporate many of the reports which ministers and high officials had submitted, about the affairs of the empire and the events of foreign countries. And my labour loving soul was satiated by the apparatus of inquiry and research. I also exerted myself energetically to collect the rough notes and memoranda of sagacious and well-informed men. By these means, I constructed a reservoir for irrigating and moistening the rose garden of fortune (the Akbarnama)”.
(i) From whose memoirs have this extract been taken? Who had authorised him to write the history of the Mughal period?
This extract has been taken from the
memoirs of Abu’l Fazl. He was asked by emperor Akbar to write the history of the Mughal period.

(ii) How did the author get authentic information to write his memoirs. List any three methods.
(a) He interrogated the servants of the state.
He also talked to old members of the illustrious family.
(b) He examined the statements of all-wise and trustful old men. Besides the talked to active-minded and right actioned young people.
(c) He also heard the views of old service-men.

(iii) Who does the author call the Rose Garden? What does he mean by moistening and irrigating it?
The author referred to his Akbar Nama as
the Rose Garden. The moistening and irrigation of this garden mean to make the information interesting as well as authentic.

(iv) What did his early drafts lack?
They lacked the grace of arrangement and style.

Question 4.
Irrigating Trees and Fields

This is an excerpt from the Baburnama that described the irrigation devices the emperor observed in northern India :
The greater part of Hindustan country is situated on level land. Many though its towns and cultivated lands are, it nowhere has running waters… For … water is not at all a necessity in cultivating crops and orchards. Autumn crops grow by the downpour of the rains themselves; and strange it is that spring crops grow even when no rains fall. (However) to young trees, water is made to flow by means of buckets or wheels…

In Lahore, Dipalpur (both in present-day Pakistan) and those other parts, people water by means of a wheel. They make two circles of rope long enough to suit the depths of the well, fix strips of wood between them, and on these fasten pitchers. The ropes with the wood and attached pitchers are put over the wheel-well. At one end of the wheel-axle a second wheel is fixed, and close to it another on an upright axle. The last wheel the bullock turns; its teeth catch in the teeth of the second (wheel), and thus the wheel with the pitchers is turned.

A through is set where the water empties from the pitchers and from this the water is conveyed everywhere. In Agra, Chandler, Bayana (all in present-day Uttar Pradesh) and those parts again, people water with a bucket … At the well-edge they set up a fork of wood, having a roller adjusted between the forks, tie a rope to a large bucket, put the rope over a roller and tie its other end to the bullock. One person must drive the bullock, another empty the bucket.
(i) From where has this excerpt been taken? Whom does it talk about?
This excerpt has been taken from Baburnama. It tells us about the irrigation devices that Emperor Babur had seen in India.

(ii) Why was the irrigation not understood during the Mughal Period?
During the Mughal Period, the importance of irrigation was not recognised. Water was not at all a necessity in the cultivation of crops and orchards. Autumn crops grew by the rains that fell. Similarly, the spring crops grew even when no rains fell. The young trees were watered through buckets or wheels.

(iii) Name two cities where people irrigated by means of a wheel?
Lahore and Dipalpur.

(iv) Where was irrigation by buckets prevalent? Wiese help was sought in this task?
Irrigation by buckets was popular in Agra, Chandler and Bayana. Some people even took the help of bullocks.

Question 5.
How Silver came to India?

This excerpt from Giovanni Careri’s account (based on Bernier’s account) gives an idea of the enormous amount of wealth that found its way into the Mughal Empire :

That the reader may form some idea of the Wealth of this (Mughal) Empire, he is to observe that all the Gold and Silver, which circulates throughout the World at last Centres here. It is well known that as much of it comes out of America, after running through several Kingdoms of Europe, goes partly into Turkey (Turkey), for several sorts of commodities; and part into Persia, by the way of Smyrna for Silk. Now the Turks not being able to abstain from Coffee, which comes from Hyman (Oman), and Arabia…. nor Persia, Arabia, and the Turks themselves to go without the commodities of India, send vast quantities of Mony (money) to Moka (Mocha) on the Red Sea, near Babel Mandel; to Bassora (Basra) at the bottom of the Persian Gulgh (Gulf) which is afterwards sent over in ships to Indostan (Hindustan).

Besides the Indian, Dutch, English, and Portuguese Ships, that every Year carry the Commodities of Indostan, to Pegu, Tanasserri (parts of Myanmar), Siam (Thailand), Ceylon (Sri Lanka) the Maldive Islands, Mozambique and other places, must of necessity convey much Gold and Silver thither, form those countries. All that the Dutch fetch from the mines in Japan, sooner or later, goes to Indostan; and the goods carry hence into Europe, whether to France, England or Portugal, are all purchased for ready Mony, which remains there.
(i) Who was Bernier?
Bernier was a French traveller. He was a doctor, historian and political philosopher. He came to the Mughal Empire in search of opportunities.

(ii) How did the gold and silver which circulated throughout the world reached here during the Mughal Rule?
During the Mughal Empire, the gold and silver which circulated throughout the world reached India from America and several countries of Europe. It also came from Turkey and Persia.

(iii) How were the gold and silver brought to India by Dutch, English and Portuguese ships?
Many Dutch, English and Portuguese ships carried the Indian commodities to Pegu, Myanmar, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Mozambique and the Maldive Islands. When these ships returned, they brought abundant gold and silver from these countries.

Question 6.
Classification of Lands under Akbar

The following is a listing of criteria of classification excerpted from the Ain:

Emperor Akbar in his profound sagacity classified the lands and fixed a different revenue to be paid by each. The polar island which is annually cultivated for each crop in succession and is never allowed to lie fallow. Parati island left out of cultivation for a time that it may recover its strength. Chachar island that has lain fallow for three or four years. Banjar is land uncultivated for five years and more. Of the first two kinds of land, there are three classes, good, middling, and bad. They add together the produce of each sort, and the third of this represents the medium produce, one-third part of which is exacted as the Royal dues.
(i) Explain briefly the classification of lands by Akbar.
Akbar divided the land in four classes :
(a) Polar. This land was annually cultivated. It grew crops in succession. It was never left unploughed and uncultivated.
(b) Parati. It sometimes left uncultivated so that it may recover its strength.
(c) Chachar. It is left uncultivated for three or four years.
(d) Banjar. Banjar is the land uncultivated for five years and more.

(ii) How the revenue was fixed for the first two types of lands?
There were three classes of the first two types of land: good, middling and bad. They add together the produce of each sort, and the third of this represents the medium produce. One-third part of which is exacted as the Royal dues.

(iii) Suggest some other way as you feel better. (C.B.S.E. 2010 (D))
Another way of revenue was the contract system. Land could be given to a contractor and the definite revenue could be taken from him. The contractor can either cultivate the land himself or could further collect revenue from others by giving them land on rent.

Question 7.
Cash or Kind

The Ain on land revenue collection:

Let him (the amil-guzar) not make it a practice of taking only in cash but also in kind. The latter is effected in several ways. First, kanker: in the Hindi language kan signifies grain, and kut, estimates If any doubt arises, the crops should be cut and estimated in three lots, the good, the middling and the inferior, and the hesitation removed. Often, too, the land taken by appraisement gives a sufficiently accurate return. Secondly, bata, also called Shaolin, the crops are reaped and stacked and divided by agreement in the presence of the parties.

But in this case, several intelligent inspectors are required; otherwise, the evil-minded and false are given to deception. Thirdly khet-bata, when they divide the fields after they are shown. Fourthly, lang-bata, after cutting the grain, they form it in heaps and divide it among themselves and each takes his share home and turns it to profit.
(i) Explain the term Kanker.
Kanker is a Hindi word made up of two words ‘Kan’ and ‘Kut’. The meaning of Kan is grain and the meaning of Kut is an estimate. So, the meaning of Kankut is an estimate of grain.

(ii) Explain the system of bata or Shaolin system of land revenue collection.
In bata or Shaolin system of land revenue collection, the whole of the total produce was divided in definite proportion among peasant and the state. Honest officials were required for the success of this system.

(iii) Explain the system of lang-bata.
In lang-bata system, after cutting the grain, they form it in heaps and divide it among themselves, and each takes his share home and turns it to profit.

(iv) Which system of land revenue collection, do you think, is better and why? (C.B.S.E. 2010 (O.D.))
The system of Kankut was better for peasants because this system yields best results, other system were defective to a certain extent.

## Transport and Communication Class 12 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 8

Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 8 Transport and Communication. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 Geography Chapter 8 Important Extra Questions Transport and Communication

### Transport and Communication Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
When and where was the first railway line opened ?
First public railway line was opened in 1825 between Stockton and Darlington (England).

Question 2.
What is the length of total motorable roads in world ?
15 million kms.

Question 3.
Which two towns are connected by Transcanadian highway ?
Vancouver (British Columbia) and St. John (New foundland)

Question 4.
Why is West Asia the least developed in rail facilities ? Explain one reason.
West Asia is the least developed in rail facilities because of sparsely populated and Vast deserts.

Question 5.
Which highway connects Darwin and Melbourne ? (C.B.S.E. 2018) !
The Trans-Continental Stuart Highway.

Question 6.
Which towns are connected by a new highway constructed in China and Tibet ?
Chengdu with Lhasa.

Question 7.
Which country has the largest rail network in Africa ?
South Africa has largest rail network in Africa continent.

Question 8.
In which countries, commuter trains are popular ?
In U.K, U.S.A., Japan and India, millions of passengers daily move to and for in the city by commuter trains.

Question 9.
Which country has the highest rail- density ?
Belgium-1 km of railway for every 6.5 sq. km.

Question 10.
Which Tunnel connects London and Paris
Channel Tunnel operated by Euro Tunnel group.

Question 11.
Name a trans-continental railway of South America through which pass does it run.
Trans Andean Railway connecting Valparaiso (Chile) with Buenos Aires (Argentina). It runs across the Andes through the Uspallatta Pass (3900 m length).

Question 12.
What is Blue Train ?
A train from Capetown to Pretoria in South Africa.

Question 13.
From which station runs Orient express to ? (C.B.S.E. 2011)
From Paris to Istanbul.

Question 14.
Name the two terminal ports of Suez canal.
Port Said (North) and Port Suez (South).

Question 15.
Which country of the world has the highest road density? (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017)
Japan has the highest road density.

Question 16.
Name two terminal ports of Panama canal.
Port Colone and Panama.

Question 17.
Name an inland waterway in North America and Germany. (C.B.S.E. 2011, 2014)
St. Lawrence River-great lakes and Rhine waterway.

Question 18.
Name the busiest ocean route of the world. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
North Altantic ocean route.

Question 19.
Which means of transport is highly suitable for transporting heavy and bulky goods, at a very low cost over long distances between continents ?
Waterways.

Question 20.
What term is used for a railway line that runs across a continent and link its two ends ?
Trans continental railway.

Question 21.
Name the famous petroleum pipeline which connects the oil wells of the Gulf of Mexico and the North Eastern States in U.S.A.
Ans.
Big Inch pipeline.

Question 22.
Name the terminal station of Australian Trans-continental railway.
West—Perth
East—Sydney.

Question 23.
Explain the most important feature of the pipe line constructed from Noharkatiya oil field to Barauni ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
This was the first pipe fine constructed by I.O.L in 1956.

Question 24.
Which one of the following water ways has drastically reduced the oceanic distance between India and Europe. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
(i) Rhine Water way
(ii) The Cape of good hope as a route
(iii) Suez Canal
(iv) Panama Canal.
(iii) Suez Canal.
Or
Which Inland waterway of the world is most heavily used. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017)
The Rine Inland waterway of the world in most heavily used.

Question 25.
Name the terminal stations of the longest railway in the world. (C.B.S.E. 2009,11)
Trans-Siberian Railway is the longest railway in the world. It has terminal station of Vladivostock (in the east) and St. Petersburg (in the west).

Question 26.
Which highway connects North America and South America ? (C.B.S.E. 2013
Pan American highway.

Question 27.
Define the term Road density. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Road density in the length of roads per 100 sq. km. of area.

Question 28.
“The Volga is one of the most  developed inland waterways in Russia” Justify.
Volga is 3840 km long river in Russia and provide 11,200 km navigable able route. It joined Moscow and Ukraine through densely populated area.

### Transport and Communication Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Define transport services. Name different methods and goods carried by these.
Transport is a service for the carriage of person and goods from one place to another.
It uses humans, animals and vehicles. Such movements take place over land, water and air.
(i) Land transport includes roads and railways.
(ii) Water transport includes shipping and waterways.
(iii) Air transport includes high valued goods.
(iv) Pipelines carry petroleum, natural gas and liquids.

Question 2.
On what factors does the significance of mode of transport depend ?
The significance of a mode of transport depends upon :
(i) Type of goods and services to be transported.
(ii) Costs of transport.
(iii) The mode which is available.

Question 3.
Distinguish between metalled and unmetalled roads as regards their utility.
Two types of roads are constructed :
Unmetalled roads or surface roads are simple roads. These are not effective and serviceable for all seasons. In rainy season, these become unmotorable.
Metalled roads are laid with bricks and stones. These are solid roads. But during heavy rains and floods these, are damaged. High embankments are constructed to protect these.

Question 4.
What are border roads ? What [ are their functions ?
Roads laid along international borders are called border roads. They play an important role in integrating people in remote areas with the major cities. These provide defence needs. These are used to transport goods to border villages and military camps.

Question 5.
State any two advantages of water transport.
(i) It does not require route construction.
(ii) The oceans are linked with each other.
(iii) These are negotiable with ships of various sizes.
(iv) The energy cost of water transport is low.
(v) It is the cheapest means of transport.

Question 6.
Describe the Great lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway.
The great lakes of North America, Superior, Huron Erie and Ontario are connected by Soo canal and Willand canal to form an Inland waterway. The Estuary of St; Lawrence River along with great lakes forms a commerical waterway.

Question 7.
Analyse the three factors that affect the development of Inland of waterways. Explain the significance of Rhine Inland Waterway. (Delhi 2019)
The development of inland waterways depend upon the following factors :
(i) Width and depth of channel
(ii) Continuous flow of water
(iii) Use of technology for dredging.

Significance of Rhine Inland Waterway: The Rhine flows through Germany and the Netherlands. It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its north in the Netherland to Basel in Switzerland. It flows through a rich coalfield and the whole basin has become a prosperous manufacturing area. This waterway is the world’s most heavily used.

Question 8.
Write an essay on the economic importance of Trans-Siberian Railway line. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Trans-Siberian Railway line connects the Ear East, the Ural region and the Siberian region with the European Russia. It has helped in the economic development of Siberia. Iron ore and machinery is sent to the Eastern region by this railway.

Foodgrains, wood and coal are sent towards the western part from the Siberian region. Many navigable rivers join this railway line from North and South. Many industrial and commercial towns of Siberia are located on this railway fine. This railway line has helped in the utilisation of resources of Siberia and consequently the density of population has increased in this region.

Question 9.
Name any two inland waterways of Europe. Explain any two factors that influence inland waterways. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
The two important inland waterways of Europe are Rhine waterway and Danube waterway. The following factors affect the inland waterways.
(i) Navigability of waterway
(ii) Width and depth of waterway
(iii) Water flow
(iv) Transport technology.

Question 10.
Write six characteristics of Panama canal. (C.B.S.E. 2009, 2017)
Panama Canal.
1. It is located in Panama. U.S.A. has control over this canal.
2. It allows two way traffic.
3. It has lock system to allow the ships.
4. Less taxes are charged from the ships passing through this canal.
5. It connects the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
6. Coal is not available in large quantity on this route.
7. It is important for U.S.A., as the ships do not have to go around Cape Horn.

Question 11.
Name the trans-continental railway of North America constructed in 1886. Write any two characteristics of it. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Trans-canadian railway line was constructed in 1886.

• It runs across Canada from West to East.
• It connects Halifax and Victoria.

Question 12.
Write any six characteristics of the Suez canal. (C.B.S.E. 2009)

• Suez canal is the longest navigation canal in the world.
• It was constructed in 1866 by French Engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps.
• Suez canal joins Red Sea with Mediterranean Sea.
• Suez canal has been called the lifeline of the British Empire.
• It is well served with coal and oil.
• This is a sea level canal passing through a level area.

Question 18.
Mention any six advantages of oceanic routes. (C.B.S.E. 2009)

• It is the cheapest means of transport.
• It is a natural highway and involves no expenditure on its construction.
• It is a global route as all the oceans are interlinked.
• It saves a lot of coal and petroleum as fuel.
• It carries heavy goods. Cost of transportation becomes low.
• Ocean routes run in all directions with no maintenance costs.

Question 14.
Describe the pack animals used in different countries.
Pack Animals. The following pack animals are used in different countries :
(i) Horses are used as a draught animal even in the Western countries
(ii) Dogs and reindeer are used in North America, North Europe and Siberia to draw sledges over the snow-covered ground.
(iii)Mules are preferred in the mountainous regions
(iv) Camels are used for caravans in deserts and arid regions
(v) In India, bullocks are used for pulling carts.

Question 15.
Describe the main railways of African continent. How do these connect mining areas ?
Africa. This continent, despite being the second largest, has only 40,000 km of railways with South Africa alone accounting for 22,051km due to the concentration of gold, diamond and copper mining activities. The important routes of the continent are

• the Benguela Railway through Angola to Katanga- Zambia Copper Belt
• the Tanzania Railway from the Zambian Copper Belt to Dar-es-Salaam on the coast
• the Railway through Botswana and Zimbabwe linking the landlocked states to the South African network, and
• the Blue Train from Cape Town to Pretoria, Republic of South Africa.

Question 16.
Describe any three major problems of road transport in the world. (CBSE 2018)
Major problems of Road transport are:
(i) Air pollution is caused by C02, hydrocarbons and nitrogen emission from the automobiles.
(ii) High rate of accidents are there to use unmetalled or low maintained roads.
Roads are difficult if use during the time of natural calamities and bad weather conditions.
(iii) Road network cannot cope with the demands of traffic as a result congestion occurs.
(iv) Road construction requires heavy investment in construction and regular maintenance.

Question 17.
Describe the Rhine Waterway. “The Rhine waterways is the world’s most heavily used inland waterway.” In the light of this statement, examine the significance of this waterway. (CBSE 2016)
The Rhine Water way: The Rhine flows through Germany and the Netherlands. It is navigable for 700 km from Rotterdam, at its mouth in the Netherlands to Basel in Switzerland. Ocean-going vessels can reach up to Cologne. The Ruhr river joins the Rhine from the east. It flows through a rich coalfield and the whole basin has become a prosperous manufacturing area.

Dusseldorf is the Rhine port for this region. Huge tonnage moves along the stretch south of the Ruhr. This waterway is the world’s most heavily used. Each year more than 20,000 ocean-going ships and 2,00,000 inland vessels exchange their cargoes. It connects the industrial areas of Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands with the North Atlantic Sea Route.

Question 18.
Why Pipelines are used extensively to transport commodities such as mineral oil and natural gas ? (C.B.S.E. 2011, Delhi 2019)
“Pipelines have become the most convenient and efficient mode of ; transporting liquids and gases over ; long distances in India.” Support the statement with examples. (Delhi 2019)
Pipelines are used extensively to transport liquids and gases such as water, mineral oil and natural gas. We are familiar with supply of water and mineral oil through pipes. Even cooking gas or LPG is supplied through pipelines in many parts of the world.

Pipelines can also be used to transport coal mixed with water. In USA, there is a dense network of pipelines for carrying petroleum from the regions of production to the regions of consumption. A famous pipeline of USA, known as the ‘Big Inch’ carries mineral oil from the wells of the Gulf of Mexico to the north-eastern part. About 17 per cent of all freight per tone-kilometre is carried through pipelines in U.S.A.

In Europe, West Asia, Russia and India, pipelines are being used to connect oil wells to refineries and to ports in internal markets. It is also popular for carrying natural gas. One of the longest pipelines, called COMECON, is 4800 km long. It connects oil wells of the Ural and the Volga region to the countries of East Europe.

Question 19.
Describe the importance of Railways.
Railway is a major medium of land transport in modem times. Railways are important from economic, social and political point of view.

• These help in the development of minerals of an area.
• Railways carry raw materials to industrial areas and distribute manufactured goods to the market.
• Railways help to maintain national unity.
• Railways provide useful help during any emergency.
• In areas of low population, construction of railways help in the growth of population.
• It is a convenient means for long distance travel.

Question 20.
‘Transport and communications are necessary infrastructure for the economic advancement of a country.’ Explain.
Means of transportation are necessary for the exchange of goods to meet the basic needs of man. Transportation means the exchange of persons, goods and information from one place to another. Transport and communications constitute the infrastructure for the growth and development of agriculture, industry and trade of country. These determine the stage of development and culture of the people of a country.

Main features of transport:
(i) The production and exchange of agricultural products depends on means of transportation.

(ii) Developed means of transport are essential for assembling raw materials for different industries. The manufactured goods are sent to markets at a low cost of transportation.

(iii) An efficient system of transport is essential for the growth of trade of country.

(iv) The working population, both employed in the government and personal services, largely depends on the means of transportation. Life in the Metropolitan cities would come to a standstill if the lines of transport and communications were dislocated for a single day.

(v) Regional specialisation such as tea plantations in Assam and steel plants in Damodar valley are not possible without an efficient system of transport.

(vi) Telecommunication networks help in the diffusion of new ideas to far more people.

(vii) Development of the Trans-Siberian railway line has helped in the utilisation of mineral, forest and agricultural resources of Siberia and Central Asia.

(viii) The sparsely populated, forested, mountainous and arid regions lack developed means of transportation.
As a matter of fact, the developed mean of transport are an index of a country’s economic development. Transport and communications serve as ‘lifelines’ of a country’s development. These can be compared to arteries and veins of a nation.

Question 21.
Distinguish between a harbour I and a port.
Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Extra Questions Long Answer TypeTertiary and Quaternary Activities Extra Questions HOTS

 Harbour Port 1. A harbour is an area of sea presiding tie up for anchor. 2. It protects the ships front waves and storms. 3. River estuaries and Bays provide natural harbours surh as Mumbai. 4. A harbour provides sufficient room hinterland. 1. A port is a point on coast where ships can safe entrance to ships. 2. Ships load and unload commodities here. 3. Indented coasts provide natural ports. 4. A port is connected with a productive for an chorage of ships.

Question 22.
Distinguish between National highways and State highways.

 National highways State highways 1. These are the major roads of the whole country. 2. These connect the different capitals of within a state. 3. These are maintained by the Central Government. 4. Total length of national highways in India is 33,612 km. 5. These have commercial and strategic significance. 6. Sher Shah Suri large (G.T. Road) is a national highway. 1. These are the major roads within a state. 2. These connect the state capitals with the major towns and district headquarters within a state. 3. These are maintained by State Government. 4. The total length of state highways is 3.81,000 kms. 5. These have administrative significance. 6. Amritsar-Chandigarh is a state highway.

Question 23.
Write a comparative account of the Panama Canal and Suez Canal.

 Panama Canal Suez Canal 1. It is located in Egypt which has control over this canal. 2. It has one way traffic. 3. It is located on level aroii. 4. Heavy taxes are charged from the ships passing through this canal. 5. It connects Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. 6. Coal and petroleum are available on this route. 7. It is important for U.K. as the ships have not to go around Cape of Good Hope. 1. It is located in Panama. U.S.A. has control over this canal. 2. It allows two way traffic. 3. It has lock system to allow the ships. 4. less taxes are charged from the ships passing through this canal. 5. It connects Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. 6. Coal is not available in large quantity on this route. 7. It is important for U.S.A. as the ships have not to go around Cape Horn.

### Transport and Communication Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Describe the world distribution of roads.
The developed countries have a well developed system of metalled roads. These are also called Highways. The industrial countries depend upon roads for raw materials. The countries with developed economies have large and dense road network.

(i) North America: The U.S.A. and Canada in North America have largest road network in the world. The U.S.A. has the highest density of roads in the world and has the largest number of vehicles in the world. The highway density is 0.65 km per km2 and every place is within 20 km distance from a highway. Cities located on the Western and Eastern coasts of North America have been linked by highways.

The Pan American highway connects Alaska in the North with Southern Chile. It is 48,000 kilometres long and is the longest highway in the world. The Trans Canadian Highway links St. John City in New foundland and Vancouver in British Columbia. Alaskan Highway links Edmonton to Anchorage.

(ii) Asia : Land transport has been important in Asia since earliest times. Travellers have been following caravan routes. In China, Beijing is connected with Shanghai Guangzhou, Tsungtso. A highway runs from Chengdu to Lhasa.

(iii) India: In India, most of metalled roads are found in Southern India. Sher Shah Suri Marg or G.T. Road is historically important. It connects Amritsar, Delhi and Kolkata and is known as National Highway No. 1. and No. 2. Its total length is 2500 km. The longest highway in India is N. H. No. 7. which links Varanasi to Kanniyakumari and is 2369 km long. The Golden Quadrilateral or Super express way links New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.

(iv) Other Routes: Europe has a dense network of roads in Russia where Moscow is the focus. In Africa, Cairo to Capetown is an important highway. In Australia, Stuart Highway connects Eastern, Southern and Western Australia, (from Darwin to Melbourn).

Question 2.
Describe the location and importance of major railways of the world.
Railways : Railways are the most important means of transport on land. The invention of Steam Engine in 1819 and the industrial revolution led to the development of Railways. Railways are very important from the economic, social and strategic point of view.

Importance :

• Railways carry heavy raw materials to industrial areas.
• Railways distribute large volume freight manufactured goods over long distances.
• Railways are vital for national unity, and administration in time of war and peace.
• Railways are the important life-lines of a nation. They bring people close to one another.
• Railways are the cheapest and fastest carriers of passengers for long journeys. Underground railways in big cities carry huge number of people.

Major Railways of the World. The U.S.A. has the longest network of railways in the world.

1. Trans-Siberian Railway line : Trans-Siberian Railway line is the longest railway in the world. It is 11,000 km. long. It is mainly double-tracked. It runs from Vladivostok through Moscow to St. Petersburg. Many towns like Kubyshev, Omsk, Irkutsk, Chita are located on it.

It is the basis of industrial and economic development of Siberia. It has helped settlement in these empty lands. This railway connects wheat lands, coalfields, iron ore region and industrial areas of Siberia. It is highly important from the strategic point of view. Irkutsk is a fur centre on it.

2. Canadian Pacific Railway: Canada has a large east-west extent. It covers mostly snow covered mountains, forests, lakes and high mountains. Canada has two great railway systems. These run from Atlantic coast to Pacific coast connecting Quebec-Montreal industrial region with wheat belt of Prairies and coniferons forests.

The Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway run from Vancouver and Seatle on the west coast to Montreal, Halifax and St. John on the Atlantic coast. These railways carry wheat, minerals, coal and iron ore.

3. Railways of the U.SA. : A dense network of railways is found in the eastern part of the U.SA. On the western side, railways are not developed due to hilly nature of the area. These railways join the main centres on the east coast and on the west coast. These are also called Trans-Continental Railway lines. The Union Pacific railway line runs from Chicago to San Francisco. Chicago is the largest rail junction in the world. Ores, grain, paper, chemicals and machinery are exported.

4. Cape-Cairo Railway: This railway line connects Cape Town in South Africa and Cairo (Egypt). This railway runs in a North-South direction. It has to face many obstacles like mountains, high plateaus, equatorial forests and political barriers. This railway has not been completed so far. It runs from Capetown through Kimberley, Lusaka to Bukama (Zaire).

After this, there is water transport (Victoria Lake) or road transport up to Khartoum (Sudan). This railway line continues beyond Khartoum up to Cairo. This railway has helped mining areas and agricultural areas of Africa. South Africa alone has 18000 km railways due to concentration of gold, diamond and copper mines.

5. Trans-Andean Railway: This trans continental railway line, 400 km. long, links Valpraiso (Chile) and Buenos Aires (Argentina). This railway line runs through the Andes mountains at a height of 3485 metres, through Uspallata Pass. It connects the wheat areas of Argentina, coffee areas of Brazil and mining areas of Chile. Pan American railway from Alaska to Chile is the longest railway line in the world.

6. Europe. Europe has one of the most dense rail networks in the world, (about 4,40,000 kms). Most of which is double tracked. Belgium has the highest density of 1 km for every 6.5 km2. London, Paris, Brussels, Milan, Berlin and Warsaw are main rail heads. Channel Tunnel (Euro Tunnel Group) connects London with Paris. Underground railways run in

London, Paris and Moscow Orient express railway runs from Paris to Istanbul. There is a proposal to build a Trans-Asiatic railway linking Istanbul to Bangkok via Iran, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

7. Australian Trans-continental Railway. It runs west-east across the Southern Australia from Perth to Sydney; passing through Kalgoorlie, Broken hill and Port Augusta. This is called National Railway line.

Question 3.
Write short notes on :
(i) Inland waterways
(ii) Air transport.
(i) Inland waterways: Water transportation is of two types :
(a) Inland waterways
(b) Ocean routes.
Ocean routes are used for international trade; Inland waterways are used for internal trade of a country. Navigable rivers, canals and lakes are used as inland waterways. These provide cheap transport for heavy raw materials in industrial countries. Rivers and canals should be deep and flow throughout the year. They should have plenty of water. There should be no silting of beds. The river course should be free from waterfalls.

Inland waterways of the world :
(a) Europe :
A number of countries like France, Germany and Russia use rivers and canals as inland waterways. The Rhine (Germany), Seine, Rhone (France), Volga (Russia), Danube, Elbe and Weser are the important navigable rivers. The Rhine river is the life line of the trade of Germany. The Volga system links five seas. The Rhine-Rhone canal, Volga-Baltic canal, Manchester Liverpool canal are also used as inland waterways.

(b) North America : Great lakes, St. Lawrence sea waterways and the Mississippi river are the important waterways. They serve the industrial region of North America.

(c) Others : The Amazon is the main inland waterway in South America. It is navigable for 1600 kms. upstream. The Yangtze river in China, the Indus in Pakistan, the Ganga and Brahmaputra in India and Irrawaddy in Burma provide inland water transport. The Nile, the Zaire and the Niger rivers in Africa are not useful. These are interrupted by waterfalls.

(ii) Air transport: Since ancient times, men have wanted to fly. The first successful flight by aeroplane was made by the American Wright Brothers in 1903. Many developments during the 20th century have revolutionised air transport.Air transport is the quickest means of transport. It needs no expenditure on the construction of air routes. It can cross physical barriers like mountains, oceans and deserts. But it is a costly means of transport. It is useful for transporting passengers, mails, food supplies and commodities of high value.

Factors affecting air transport:

• Air routes generally follow great circles to fly over the shortest distance.
• Air transport needs clear weather. Low clouds, fog, dust storms and snow are big handicaps.
• The construction of aerodromes needs level land.
• Air transport requires huge capital.
• The air transport needs adequate equipment and machinery.

World Air-Routes : Major air-routes of the world connect economically developed countries. The U.S.A., Russia and Western Europe have a dense network of air routes.

• North Atlantic Air Route (between N. America and Europe).
• South Atlantic Air Route (between S. America and Europe).
• Air Routes between Europe and Russia.
• Air Routes between Middle East and Europe.
• Europe-Australia Air Route.
• Europe-Asia (Far East) Air Route.

Nodal points. U.S.A. alone accounts for the 60% of this airways of the world. New York, London, Paris, Amestardam, Frankfurt, Rome, Moscow, Karachi, New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangkok, Singapore, Tokyo, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Chicago are nodal points where air routes coverage or radiate.

Question 4.
Describe the chief ocean routes of the world. Discuss their characteristics, trade and importance.
Ocean routes are the most important and the cheapest means of transportation. It is the mainstay of international trade. When the ships regularly follow a well defined track, it is called a route.

Importance of Ocean Routes :

• It is the cheapest means of transport.
• It is a natural highway and involves no expenditure on its construction.
• It is a global route as all the oceans are inter-linked.
• It saves a lot of coal and petroleum as fuel.
• It carries heavy goods. Cost of transportation becomes low.

Factors influencing the ocean routes. Ocean routes depend on the following factors:

• Ocean routes follow great circles (the shortest distance between two points on the globe).
• Ships pass through the points where cargo is available.
• Ships avoid areas of icebergs, fog and storms.
• Ships stop at ‘ports of call’ where fuel is available.
• Ocean routes pass through densely populated and economically developed areas.

Major Ocean Routes of the World. The major ocean routes are located in mid-latitude countries.

1. North Atlantic Route. This route lies between 40° – 50° N latitudes and connects Europe and North America. It is the busiest route of the world. About 25% ships of the world follow this route.

About half the major ports of the world are located on this route. This route connects the two continents highly developed in manufacturing, transportation and trade. This is called Big-Trunk Route.

This route follows the Great Circle. This route is well served with Coal and Petroleum. On both sides of the route, there are many deep, protected harbours and modern shipyards. The route connects two regions of dense population with a high standard of living of the people. The route suffers from the handicaps of fog and icebergs near Newfoundland.

Ports and Trade. The important ports of the European side of the route are London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Oslo, Hamburg, Rotterdam and Lisbon. On the American side of the route, the major ports are Quebec, Montreal, Halifax, Boston, Philadelphia and New York. This route handles about one fourth of the world’s trade.

The East-bound traffic consists of wheat, cotton, wood-pulp, petroleum, dairy products and fruits. The West-bound traffic consists of medicines, olives, chalk, pyrites and manufactured goods.

2. The Suez Route. This route runs through the heart of the old world. It serves most of the world-land area and most of the world’s population. It is known as Grand Trunk Route as regards its length. It is a vital link between the Northern and Southern continents.

This route is well served with coal and petroleum. This route has resulted in the saving of distance of 8000 kms. between Asia and Europe. The Suez route has been called the Life-Line of the British Empire.

Ports and Trade. This route extends from Western Europe through Mediterranean Sea upto Suez Canal. After crossing the Suez Canal it runs through Red Sea and Indian Ocean. This route follows three directions:

• Towards South-Africa.
• Towards Australia and New Zealand.
• To India and the Far-East.

This route is a short-cut to Afro-Asian market. On the western side, European Ports serve this route. On the Eastern side, the important ports are Aden, Karachi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Colombo, Rangoon, Singapore, Hongkong, Shanghai, Yokohama, Melbourne and Wellington. The

East-bound traffic consists of manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, medicines. The West- bound traffic consists of oil, dates from the Persian Gulf; jute, tea, sugar from India; tin and rubber from Malaysia ; sugar, tea, spices from Indonesia; silk and cotton textiles from China and Japan, dairy products from Australia.

3. The Panama Route. This route connects the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. The Panama canal was opened in 1914. The Panama Canal is the Gateway to the Pacific. This route has increased the trade between the West coasts of America and Europe. It has eliminated the long voyage round the stormy Cape Horn. It has reduced the distance between East and West of North America by 10,000 kms.

Ports and Trade. The important ports on the western side are Auckland, Valparaiso, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Vancouver and Prince Rupert. On the eastern coast, the important ports are Kingston, Havana, Rio-de- Janeiro, Panama and New Orleans. There is a great exchange of minerals and raw materials between these regions. Iron-ore, nitrates, copper, cotton, coffee move along this route in exchange for manufactured goods.

4. Cape of Good-Hope Route. The route was discovered in 1498 by Vasco-de-Gama. It became an important route due to the closure of Suez canal. It connects Europe with South-Africa, Australia and New Zealand. This route follows a great circle to clear the shoulder of Africa. This route is cheaper than Suez route. Cape of Good-Hope? is a focus of many trade routes from Europe to

• South Africa
• Persian-Gulf
• Far- East
• Australia and New Zealand.

Ports and Trade. On the western side, it serves all the important ports of Europe. On the eastern side, Capetown, Durban, Dar-es-Salaam, Adelaide, Sydney and Jakarta are the important ports. The East-bound traffic consists of manufactured goods, machinery, automobiles and medicines. Large quantities of wheat, hides, rubber, sugar, copper, gold, wool and coffee are exported to Europe.

5. Trans-Pacific Routes. This route connects the western coas t of North America with Asia. This is an unimportant route. Few ships move across the vast ocean. It forms a Great circle route. Several routes meet at Honolulu. It is called the cross roads of the Pacific.

Ports and Trade. The important ports on the American side are Vancouver, Prince Rupert, San Francisco and Los Angeles. On the eastern side, Yokohama, Hong Kong, Manila, Sydney and Auckland are important ports. Wood-pulp, wheat, paper and machinery is exported towards Asian side. Sugar, jute, tea, silk, toys, rubber, teak are sent to North America.

6. The South Atlantic Route. This route connects West Indies and South America with Europe. It links the agricultural nations of Brazil and Argentina with the industrial regions of Europe and U.S.A. Cape San Roque (Brazil) leads this route into two branches, one to Europe and the other-to North America.

Ports and Trade. On the northern side, it serves the ports of Europe and North America. On the southern side, the important ports are Kingston, Bahia, Santos, Buenos Aires, Monte Video and Rio-de-Janeiro. Wheat, coffee, sugar and wool are sent to Europe in exchange of coal, machinery and manufactured goods.

Question  5.
Describe the geographical, economic and strategic importance of Suez Canal. (C.B.S.E. Outside 2017) (CBSE 2018-19)
Suez canal
1. Location. The Suez Canal is the longest navigation canal in the world. It has been cut across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt.

2. History. The construction of Suez canal was begun by French Engineer, Ferdinand-de-Lesseps in 1859. It was opened on 17th November, 1869. It took ten years to complete this canal at a cost of Pound 180 lakh. The canal was nationalised on 26 July, 1956 by Col. Abdul Nasser to help-the construction of Aswan dam. Due to war, the canal remained closed till 1975 due to Arab-Israel conflict.

3. Seas and Ports. Suez canal joins the Red Sea with the Mediterranean. On the Mediterranean Sea, Port Said is the major Port while Port Suez stands on the Red Sea side. This canal is 162 kms. long, has a depth of 13 metres and a width of 60 to 80 metres. This is a sea-level canal passing through a level area. It has 3 salt lakes :

• Little Bitter Lake
• Great Bitter Lake
• Timshah Lake.

It takes about 12 hours to cross this canal. The Suez Canal can handle about 10 ships a day. It is difficult for modern ships to pass through this canal.

4. Importance. This route runs through the densely populated areas. It is well served with coal and oil. Many deep, protected harbours are found on this route. It is located at the cross-roads of the three continents. It has been called the life-line of the British Empire. Ships avoid long route via Cape of Good-Hope. The distance between Europe and Asia has been shortened by about 8000 kms. This manmade navigation canal serves as gate-way to India Ocean.

5. Drawbacks. It is a narrow canal. It is not very deep. Modern ships and oil tankers cannot pass through it. It takes longer time to cross the canal due to oneway traffic. The canal taxes are very high. Therefore, it is a costly route. It needs regular dredging due to the sand falling into the canal.

The closure of Suez canal had adverse effect on the economy of many countries. It caused an increase in the prices of oil and raw materials. The canal had been re-opened on June 5, 1975. It has definitely helped India to increase her exports. Suez Canal is being deepened and widened at a great cost, but it will not be the same old romantic Suez Canal.

Question 6.
Describe the geographical, economic and political importance of Panama Canal. (Imp)
Panama canal
1. Location. Panama Canal has been cut across Panama isthmus. The canal lies in Panama situated in Central America.

2. History. After the opening of Suez Canal, Ferdinand-de-Lesseps started the construction of Panama Canal in 1882. The project faced many handicaps and was abandoned. In 1914, U.S.A. completed the construction of Panama Canal. This canal is constructed, owned and controlled by U.S.A. The construction of Panama Canal was a great feat of engineering.

3. Ports and seas. The canal connects two great oceans—The Pacific and the Atlantic. It is also called the Gateway to the Pacific. The port of Colon is situated on the Atlantic while the port of Panama is situated on the Pacific. The canal is 81.6 km long, about 13 metres deep and the width varies from 90 to 305 metres. It takes ships about 8 hours to cross this canal.

The water level in the canal is 26 metres above sea level. So it is necessary to construct locks in the canal to raise and lower ships. The Panama Canal passes through:

(i) Two bays.
(ii) One artificial lake—Gatun lake
(iii) One natural lake
(iv) One cut through Culbera Ridge.
(v) Three lock systems

• Gatun locks
•  Pedro Miquel lock
• Mira Flores lock.

4. Importance
(i) Panama Canal has changed the element of distance in geography of transportation. The Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean are nearer to each other now by 1000 km.
(ii) It has eliminated the long voyage around the stormy Cape Horn.
(iii) It has reduced the distance between the eastern and western coasts of U.S.A.
(iv) Australia, New Zealand and South America are now nearer to Europe via Panama Canal.
(v) It is of great strategic importance to U.S.A. as she can keep only one navy.

5. Drawbacks:
(i) The system of locks is inconvenient, costly and delays the ships.
(ii) The vast Pacific Ocean has few ports and islands.
(iii) Large ships cannot pass through this canal.
(iv) The Panama Canal passes through thinly populated and under-developed countries.

Future. U.S.A is the biggest user of this canal. Almost 50 ships pass through this canal daily. The opening of this canal has helped the development of West India and Western coast of South America.

Question 7.
“The Suez and Panama canals are two vital man-made navigation canals which are gateway of commerce for both the Eastern and Western World!” In the lights of this statement explain the economic significance of these two canals. (C.B.S.E. 2010)

Suez canal
1. Location. The Suez Canal is the longest navigation canal in the world. It has been cut across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt.

2. History. The construction of Suez canal was begun by French Engineer, Ferdinand-de-Lesseps in 1859. It was opened on 17th November, 1869. It took ten years to complete this canal at a cost of Pound 180 lakh. The canal was nationalised on 26 July, 1956 by Col. Abdul Nasser to help-the construction of Aswan dam. Due to war, the canal remained closed till 1975 due to Arab-Israel conflict.

3. Seas and Ports. Suez canal joins the Red Sea with the Mediterranean. On the Mediterranean Sea, Port Said is the major Port while Port Suez stands on the Red Sea side. This canal is 162 kms. long, has a depth of 13 metres and a width of 60 to 80 metres. This is a sea-level canal passing through a level area. It has 3 salt lakes :

• Little Bitter Lake
• Great Bitter Lake
• Timshah Lake.

It takes about 12 hours to cross this canal. The Suez Canal can handle about 10 ships a day. It is difficult for modern ships to pass through this canal.

4. Importance. This route runs through the densely populated areas. It is well served with coal and oil. Many deep, protected harbours are found on this route. It is located at the cross-roads of the three continents. It has been called the life-line of the British Empire. Ships avoid long route via Cape of Good-Hope. The distance between Europe and Asia has been shortened by about 8000 kms. This manmade navigation canal serves as gate-way to India Ocean.

5. Drawbacks. It is a narrow canal. It is not very deep. Modern ships and oil tankers cannot pass through it. It takes longer time to cross the canal due to oneway traffic. The canal taxes are very high. Therefore, it is a costly route. It needs regular dredging due to the sand falling into the canal.

The closure of Suez canal had adverse effect on the economy of many countries. It caused an increase in the prices of oil and raw materials. The canal had been re-opened on June 5, 1975. It has definitely helped India to increase her exports. Suez Canal is being deepened and widened at a great cost, but it will not be the same old romantic Suez Canal.

Panama canal
1. Location. Panama Canal has been cut across Panama isthmus. The canal lies in Panama situated in Central America.

2. History. After the opening of Suez Canal, Ferdinand-de-Lesseps started the construction of Panama Canal in 1882. The project faced many handicaps and was abandoned. In 1914, U.S.A. completed the construction of Panama Canal. This canal is constructed, owned and controlled by U.S.A. The construction of Panama Canal was a great feat of engineering.

3. Ports and seas. The canal connects two great oceans—The Pacific and the Atlantic. It is also called the Gateway to the Pacific. The port of Colon is situated on the Atlantic while the port of Panama is situated on the Pacific. The canal is 81.6 km long, about 13 metres deep and the width varies from 90 to 305 metres. It takes ships about 8 hours to cross this canal.

The water level in the canal is 26 metres above sea level. So it is necessary to construct locks in the canal to raise and lower ships. The Panama Canal passes through:

(i) Two bays.
(ii) One artificial lake—Gatun lake
(iii) One natural lake
(iv) One cut through Culbera Ridge.
(v) Three lock systems

• Gatun locks
•  Pedro Miquel lock
• Mira Flores lock.

4. Importance
(i) Panama Canal has changed the element of distance in geography of transportation. The Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean are nearer to each other now by 1000 km.
(ii) It has eliminated the long voyage around the stormy Cape Horn.
(iii) It has reduced the distance between the eastern and western coasts of U.S.A.
(iv) Australia, New Zealand and South America are now nearer to Europe via Panama Canal.
(v) It is of great strategic importance to U.S.A. as she can keep only one navy.

5. Drawbacks:
(i) The system of locks is inconvenient, costly and delays the ships.
(ii) The vast Pacific Ocean has few ports and islands.
(iii) Large ships cannot pass through this canal.
(iv) The Panama Canal passes through thinly populated and under-developed countries.

Future. U.S.A is the biggest user of this canal. Almost 50 ships pass through this canal daily. The opening of this canal has helped the development of West India and Western coast of South America.

### Transport and Communication Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Why is river Rhine the world’s most heavily used waterway? Explain any three reasons. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
The river Rhine flows through Germany and Netherlands. It is the most used inland waterway.

• It flows through a rich coalfield (Ruhr) and the whole basin is a prosperous manufacturing area.
• Huge tonnage vessels moved along the stretch, south of Ruhr each year more than 20,000 ocean going ships and 2,00,000 inland vessels exchange their cargo.
• It connects the industrial areas of Switzerland, Germany, France, Belgium and the Netherlands with the North Atlantic sea route.

Question 2.
Study the map given below carefully and answer the questions that follow :
(i) Identify and name the canal shown in the map.
Panama canal

(ii) Explain any two features of this canal.

• The canal connects two great oceans-the Pacific and the Atlantic. It is also called the gateway to the Pacific.
• Panama canal has been cut across Panama Isthmus.
• It has reduced the distance between eastern and western coasts of U.S.A.

## Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Class 12 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 7

Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 7 Tertiary and Quaternary Activities. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 Geography Chapter 7 Important Extra Questions Tertiary and Quaternary Activities

### Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Which two elements are included in tertiary activities ?
Production and exchange.

Question 2.

Question 3.

Question 4.
Name two types of trading centres.
Rural and urban.

Question 5.
What are Quasi urban centres ?
Rural marketing centres.

Question 6.
What are mandis ?
Wholesale markets.

Question 7.
State four examples of retail trading service ?
Street peddling, handcarts, mail-order and door to door.

Question 8.
Expand ICT.
Information Communication Technologies.

Question 9.
What are Isochrone lines ?
Isochrone lines are drawn on a map to join places equal in terms of the time taken to reach them.

Question 10.
Which is the fastest means of communication ?
Mobile Technology and Satellites.

Question 11.
What are modes of Mass media ?

Question 12.
Name three services involving mental labour.
Teacher, lawyers and physicians.

Question 13.
Expand CBD.

Question 14.
Which industries are fostered by Tourism ?
Infrastructure industries, Retail trading and Craft industries.

Question 15.
Name two tourist regions of the world.
(i) Mediterranean coast
(ii) Goa coast.

Question 16.
What are entrepreneurs ?
These are empowered workers which believe in self-actualisation and not wealth. They believe in value system, quality of life and creativity.

Question 17.
Analyse the development of service sector as an outcome of improvement in transport and communication.
(Sample Paper 2018-19)
The service sector includes important services such as transportation and communication. Improvement in these services play an important role for integrated and facilitates economic development and growth.

Question 18.
Give two examples of high service.
Finance and insurance.

Question 19.
Give one example of a global city.
London.

Question 20.
What is the importance of secondary activities in the world ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials to valuable products.

Question 21.
What was the initial form of trade in the primitive society ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
The initial form of trade in the primitive society was barter system. In this, direct exchange of goods take place without use of money.

Question 22.
Define the term ‘tertiary (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Activities related to the service sector.

Question 23.
Give the meaning of retail.(C.B.S.E. 2013)
Business activity concerned with the sale of goods directly to the consumer.

Question 24.
Write the meaning of Trading centres’. (Delhi 2019)

### Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is trade ? What is its aim ? What are trading centres ? (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Trade is essentially buying and selling of items produced elsewhere. It is of two types. Wholesale and Retail trade. The trade services are intended for profit. All this work takes place in towns and cities and are known as trading centres (Rural and Urban).

Question 2.
What are Periodic markets ?
In rural areas, local periodic markets are organised. These may be weekly or bi-weekly. People from surrounding areas meet their demands from it. These markets move from one place to another. Thus shopkeepers serve a large area on all the days.

Question 3.
Describe the different types of stores. (C.B.S.E. 2017)
(i) Consumer co-operatives. These provide large scale retailing.
(ii) Departmental stores. Heads of each department purchases and sells commodities.
(iii) Chain stores. These experiment sale of goods in one store and apply the results to other stores.

Question 4.
What is Transport Service ? Why is it necessary ?
Transport is a service by which persons, manufactured goods and property are physically carried from one location to another. It is necessary to satisfy man’s basic need of mobility. It is necessary to have speedy and efficient transport system.

Question 5.
Describe any three characteristics is of chain stores in the world. (C.B.S.E. Outside 2017)
The use of telecommunications finked to the development of electrical technology. It carries the messages with great speed. The time reduced is from weeks to minutes. Mobile telephones can send communications direct and instantaneusly at any time and from any where.

Question 6.
What are means of mass media ? Explain its different types.
Radio and television also help to relay news, picture and telephone calls to vast audiences around the world and hence they are termed as mass media. Its functions:

• They are vital for advertising and entertainment.
• Newspapers are able to cover events in all corners of the world
• Satellite communication relays information of the earth and from space
• The internet has truly revolutionized the global communication system.

Question 7.
What is unorganised sector of services ? What do you know about Mumbai’s Dabbawala ?
Unskilled workers migrate from rural to urban areas in search of employment. They are employed in domestic services as housekeepers, cooks, gardeners and are called unorganised sector. In India, Mumbai’s Dabbawala (Tiffin) service provides about 1,75,000 customers all over the city.

Question 8.
What is the basis of Quarternary services ? Which activities are involved in these ? (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Knowledge based sector is called Quartemary services. It involves three processes.

• collection
• production
• dissemination of information.

Question 9.
What are Quinary activities ? Give examples. (C.B.S.E. 2009)(Sample Paper 2018-19)
Quinary activities focus on the creative, re-arrangement of new and existing ideas, data interpretation and use of evaluation of new technologies. That is one highest level of decision makers. These are referred as Gold Collar professions. They have special and highly paid skills of senior business executives research scientists and financial consultants.

Question 10.
How does the climate of a region attract tourists. Explain with examples from different regions of the world. (C.B.S.E. 2009)
Influence of climate in tourism.

Examples :
(i) Most people expect to have warm, sunny weather for beach holidays. This is one of the main reasons for the importance of tourism in South Europe.

(ii) The Mediterranean climate offers almost consistently high temperatures, long hours of sunshine and low rainfall throughout the peak holidays seasons.

(iii) People taking winter holidays have specific climate requirements, either highest temperatures than home, or snow suitable for skiing Mediterranean region is called ‘Playground of Europe’.

Question 11.
Distinguish between rural marketing centres and urban marketing centres.
Rural marketing centres. These centres cater to nearby settlements. These are Quasi-urban centres. Here personal and professional services are not well developed. These form local collecting and distributing centres. Most of these have Mandis and also retailing centres. These supply goods demanded by rural folk. Periodic markets are held here—(weekly or bi-weekly).

Urban Marketing centres. These provide urban services. These supply specialized goods and services. These sell manufactured goods. Markets for labour, housing, semi-finished goods are held. These provide services of education, teachers, lawyers, consultants, physicians, dentists and veterinary doctors.

Question 12.
What do you know about medical services for overseas patients ?
Medical Services for Overeas Patients in India. About 55,000 patients from USA visited India in 2005 for treatment. This is still a small number compared with the millions of surgeries performed each year in the \$2 trillion U.S. health-care system. India has emerged as the leading country of medical tourism in the world.

World class hospitals located in the Metropolitan cities and Vellore cater to the patients all over the world. Medical tourism brings abundant benefits to developing countries like India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia.

Question 13.
Describe the major components of services.
The major components of services may broadly be grouped as the following :

(ii) Finance, insurance and real estate include savings and investment banking, insurance and real estate (commercial as well as residential).

(iii) Wholesale and retail trading links the producers with consumers. Personal services such as maintenance services, beautician and repair work are included in this.

(iv) Transport and communications include railways, roadways, shipping and airline services and post and telegraph services.

(v) Entertainment includes television, radio, film, publishing and lodging.

(vi) Government at different levels—local, state and national includes bureaucracies, police and army, and other public services.

(vii) Non-governmental agencies include those organisations which have been set-up by individuals or groups for charity or non profit social activities concerning education, healthcare, environment, rural development, etc.

Question 14.
Discuss the nature and growth of Quarternary services in the world.
Or
‘The Modern Economic development in the world is the result of the development of quarternary services, Justify the statement. (C.B.S.E. 2014) (C.B.S.E. 2011)’.(Sample Paper 2)
Or
Evaluate the importance of quarternary activities. (C.B.S.E. 2018)
Economic activities have become much more specialized and complex. As a result quarternary activities have come into use now. Activities concerning knowledge, education, information, research and development (R & D) are recognized as quarternary activities or services.

Main Characteristics :

• The term quaternary basically refers to the more intellectual occupations.
• Their task is to think, research and develop ideas.
• As such, this sector is especially concerned with research and development.
• In the most economically and advanced nations, the quarternary activities involve a small but growing proportion of the population.
• These people have the highest incomes and a higher degree of mobility in the process of career advancement.

Growth of Quarternary Activities :
In recent years, revolution in information technology has given rise to knowledge-based industries. There has been a remarkable growth in the science and technology based industrial complexes called Science and Technological parks.

### Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Write the meaning of tourism. (Delhi 2019)
What is tourism? Explain the factors which attract the tourists in the world. I (Outside Delhi 2019)
Tourism. Tourism is travel undertaken for purposes of recreation rather than business. Employment. It has become the world’s single largest tertiary activity in total registered jobs (250 million) and total revenue (40 per cent of the total GDP). Besides, many local persons, are employed to provide services like accommodation, meals, transport, entertainment and special shops to recreational travellers. Tourism fosters the growth of infrastructure industries, retail trading, and craft industries (souvenirs).

Seasonal and Year Round Tourism. In some regions, tourism is seasonal because the vacation period is dependent on favourable weather conditions, but many regions attract visitors all year round.

Tourist regions :

• Mediterranean Coast. The warmer places around the Mediterranean Coast.
• The West Coast (Goa and Kerala) of India are some of the people tourist destinations in the world.
• Winter sports regions, found mainly in mountainous areas.
• Various scenic landscapes and national parks, which are scattered.
• Historic towns also attract tourists, because of the monuments and cultural facilities.

Factors affecting tourism
(i) Demand. Since the last century, the demand for holidays has increased rapidly. Improvements in the standard of living and increased leisure time, permit many more people to go on holidays.

(ii) Transport. The opening-up of tourist areas has been aided by improvement in transport facilities. Travel is easier by car, with better road systems. More significant in recent years has been the expansion in air transport. For example, air travel allows one to travel anywhere in the world in a few hours’ of flying¬time from their homes. The advent of package holidays has reduced the costs.

(iii) Climate. Most people expect to have warm, sunny weather for beach holidays. This is one of the main reasons for the importance of tourism in South Europe. The Mediterranean climate offers almost consistently high temperatures, long hours of sunshine and low rainfall throughout the peak holidays season.

People taking winter holidays have specific climate requirements, either higher temperatures than home, or snow suitable for skiing. Mediterranean region is called ‘Playground of Europe’.

(iv) Landscape. Many people like to spend their holidays in an attractive environment, which often means mountains, lakes, spectacular sea coasts and landscapes not completely altered by man.

(v) History and the arts of an area have potential attractiveness. People visit ancient or picturesque towns and archaeological sites, and enjoy exploring castles, palaces and churches.

(vi) Culture and economy entice tourists with a penchant for experiencing ethnic and local customs. Besides, if a region provides for the needs of tourists cheeply (low-cost), it is lively to become very popular. Home-stay has emerged as a profitable business tourism segment in heritage homes in Goa and Madikere (Coorg, Karnataka).

Question 2.
What is meant by Outsourcing ? What is the role of KPO’s and BPO’s ?
Outsourcing. Outsourcing or contracting out is giving work to an outside agency to improve efficiency and reduce costs. When outsourcing involves transferring work to overseas locations, it is described by the term off shoring, although both off shoring are outsourcing are used together.

Activities involved in outsourcing.

• information technology (IT)
• human resources
• customer support
• call centre services
• manufacturing
• and engineering.

Data processing is an IT related service easily be carried out in Asian, East European and African countries. In these countries IT skilled staff with good English language skills are available at low wages than those in the developed countries.

Thus, a company in Hyderabad or Manila does work on a project based on GIS techniques for a country like USA or Japan. Overhead costs are also much lower making it profitable to get job-work carried out overseas, whether it is in India, China or even a less populous country like Botswana in Africa.

Call Centres. Outsourcing has resulted in the mushrooming of call centres in India, China, Eastern Europe, Israel, Philippines and Costa Rica. It creates new jobs in these countries, but it has also led to a crisis for job seekers in the countries which outsources jobs.

KPO’s and BPO’s. New trends in quarternary services include knowledge processing, outsourcing (KPOs) and ‘home shoring’, the latter as an alternative to outsourcing. The KPO industry is distinct from Business Process Outsourcing (BPO). It involves more high skilled workers. It is information driven knowledge outsourcing.

KPO enables companies to create additional business opportunities. Examples of KPOs include research & development (R&D) activities. e-learning, business research, intellectual property (IP) research. Other related sectors the legal profession and the banking sector.

Question 3.
The global cities act as the command and control centres of the world system. Elaborate.
One of the most significant effects of the internationalization of financial markets has been the growth of global cities, notably London, New York and Tokyo. Though a number of other cities such as Pairs, Toronto, Los Angeles, Osaka, Hong Kong and Singapore, are also important in a global economy, the role of the trio – New York, London and Tokyo in the production and transformation of international and economic relations in the late twentieth century has been the most significant.

They act as the command and control centres of the world system by providing home of massive complexes of financial firms, business services and corporate headquarters of Transnational corporations (TNCs). They create opportunities for interaction through face-to-face contact, political connections and cultural activities.

Telecommunications have a variety of impacts upon cities and regions, both positive and negative. Electronic systems are of great use in everyday life, including credit cards, visa, passports, tax records, medical report, telephone and crime statistics. But inequalities in access to internet internationally, measured in terms of hosts per 100,000 people reflect the long standing division between the developed and developing countries.

The best connected nations are Scandinavia, Canada and Australia. Countries such as UK, Germany and Japan are next in rank. The USA, surprisingly is ranked relatively low, reflecting its sizeable poorly served population. Yet 90 per cent of all international traffic is either to or from the USA. The vast majority of the world’s people in Asia, Africa and South America have little or no Internet access.

### Tertiary and Quaternary Activities Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Technology loosens the shackles of environment or human beings. Justify. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
With the passage of time, people began to understand their environment and the forces of nature. With social and cultural development, humans developed better and more efficient technology. They moved from a state of necessity to a state of freedom. They created possibilities with the resources they obtained from the nature.

Question 2.
Define outsourcing. Which types of activities are outsourced?
Outsourcing is giving work to an outside agency to improve efficiency and reduce costs. When outsourcing involves transferring work to overseas locations it is described by the term off shoring.

Activities

• Information technology
• Human Resources
• Customer support
• Call centre services etc.

Question 3.
‘Tertiary activities include both production and exchange.’ Explain giving examples.
Tertiary activities include both production and exchange.
(a) The term production involves the provision of services that are consumed. The output is indirectly measured in terms of wages and salaries.

(b) The term exchange involves trade, transport and communication. These overcome distance. Tertiary activities involves the commercial output of services. These are not directly involved in the processing of physical raw materials.

Example :

• The work of a plumber.
• The work of an electrician and technician.
• The work of a laundrer, barber, shopkeeper.
• The work of a driver, cashier
• The work of a teacher, doctor, lawyer and a publisher.

## Secondary Activities Class 12 Important Extra Questions Geography Chapter 6

Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 6 Secondary Activities. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

## Class 12 Geography Chapter 6 Important Extra Questions Secondary Activities

### Secondary Activities Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Which is the smallest unit of manufacturing ?
Cottage industry.

Question 2.
Where is the Silicon Valley located ?
California (U.S.A.).

Question 3.
Give one example of Large Scale Industries.
Iron and Steel.

Question 4.
Which industry is called the basic industry ?
Iron and Steel.

Question 5.
Give one example of Agro based industries.
Sugar Industry.

Question 6.
To which group, does Plastic Industry belong to ?
Petro-chemical.

Question 7.
Name an industry of Public Sector.
Bokaro Steel plant.

Question 8.
In which town of India, is diamondcutting done ?
Surat.

Question 9.
Name the largest Iron and Steel region of U.SA.
Great lake region.

Question 10.
Which is the advanced stage of mechanisation ?
Automation.

Question 11.
Name major Agro-processing industries.
Food processing, sugar, pickles, fruit juices.

Question 12.
Name two forest based industries.
Paper and Lac.

Question 13.
What are smokestack industries ?
Metallurgical industries.

Question 14.
Which is the more important industrial region of Germany ? (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Ruhr.

### Secondary Activities Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Which processes help secondary activities ?
Secondary activities change the form and value of raw material by the following process :

• manufacturing
• processing
• construction.

Question 2.
Make a list of the processes used in manufacturing.

• Modern power
• Modern machinery
• Specialised labour
• Mass production
• Production of standardised products.

Question 3.
Give two examples each of Basic and Consumer industries.
Iron and steel, copper industries are basic industries, Tea and soap are consumer industries.

Question 4.
Why Iron and Steel industry is considered a basic industry ?
Iron and steel provides base for all other industries, so it is called a basic industry. It is used to make everything from sewing needle to rail sheets, tubes, wires, machines etc.

Question 5.
Explain the main characteristic of professional workers (White collar). (Out side Delhi 2019)
White collar workers does clerical workan in an office and draws monthly salaries at a fixed price. They perform managerial work for the organization.

Question 6.
What is a techno-pole ? (Outside Delhi 2019)
echno-poles include Science Parks, Science Cities and other High-tech Industrial Complexes.

Question 7.
What is automation ?
Where machines, use gadgets to do work, it is called automation. It is without human thinking. It is an advanced stage of mechanisation. These have computer control systems.

Question 8.
What factors have reduced the dependence of industry upon labour ?

• Increasing Mechanisation
• Automation
• Flexibility of Industrial processes.

Question 9.
‘Secondary activities add value to natural resources.’ Explain with two examples.
Secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into more usable products. Most of the materials from the farm, forest, mine and the sea are transformed into valuable products. Secondary activities, therefore are concerned with manufacturing, processing and construction (infrastructure) industries.

Example:
(i) Cotton in the boll has little use but after it is transformed into yam, it becomes more useful and valuable
(ii) Iron ore, directly from the mines, is practically useless; but after being made into steel gets its value and can be used for making many valuable machines.

Question 10.
What are characteristics of modern manufacturing ? (Imp)
Modern manufacturing is characterised by :

• a complex machine technology
• extreme specialisation and division of labour for producing more goods with less efforts,
• vast capital
• large organisations and
• executive bureaucracy.

Question 11.
Describe some common products of household industries. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Some common everyday products produced in this sector of manufacturing include foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, tools, furniture, shoes and figurines from wood lot and forest; shoes, thongs and other articles from leather ; porcelain, pottery and bricks from clays and stones ; jewellery and figurines from jade, ivory, pearls, bronze, gold and silver; and home remedies, paints, dyes, lacquer ware from saps, barks and seeds of plants.

Question 12.
Explain any five characteristics of large scale manufacturing in the world. (Delhi 2019)

• This manufacturing involves a huge market, different raw materials specialized workers advanced technology, etc. This type of manufacturing developed in the last 200 years.
• A large proportion of employment in manufacturing industries.
• Large scale industris use power driven heavy machines.
• These industries form the basis of development in developed countries.
• A large number of goods are produced for a bigger market.

Question 13.
What are the characteristics of traditional large scale Industrial regions ? (C.B.S.E. 2014)
These are based on heavy industry, often located near coalfields and engaged in metal smelting, heavy engineering, chemical manufacture or textile production. These industries are now known as smokestack industries.

Traditional industrial regions can be recognized by :

• High proportion of employment in manufacturing industry.
• High-density housing, often of inferior type, and poor services.
• Unattractive environment, for example, pollution, waste tips, and so on.
• Problems of unemployment, emigration and derelict land areas caused by closure of factories because of a world-wide fall in demand.

Question 14.
What a techno pole ?
Techno-poles. The locational impact of high-tech activities is already emerging in advanced industrialised countries. The most noticeable phenomena is the emergence of new technology-oriented complexes or techno-poles. A techno-pole is a planned development within a concentrated area, for technology innovative, industrial related production. Techno-poles include science or technology parks, science cities, and other high-tech industrial complexes.

Question 15.
Write a short note on cotton textile industries of the world,
Textile Industries. These are labourintensive industries that require less-skilled, low-cost workers. The production steps include spinning of fibre, weaving of yam, and finishing of fabric. Manufacturing is concentrated in countries where the main raw material-cotton-is grown. China, India, Pakistan, USA and Uzbekistan grow and produce more than half of the world’s cotton and cotton textiles.

The UK, Northwest Europe and Japan are also leading manufacturers depending on imported fibre and yarn. Europe alone accounts for nearly half of the world cotton imports. The industry has now declined in many countries but the main centres still retain some of the finishing trades. The future of the industry is bright in Asian countries due to the rising standard of living and a booming global market.

Question 16.
Explain any five characteristics of hightech industry in the world. (Delhi 2019)
(i) Professional workers make up a large share of the total workforce.
(ii) Neatly spaced, low and modern offices and factories, along with planned business parks for hightech start-ups are its characteristics.
(iii) Hightech industry is regionally. Concentrated, self sustained and highly specialised and known as technopolies.
(iv) For hightech start ups planned business parks have become part of regional and local developments.
(v) Hightech industries are the latest generation of manufacturing activities.

Question 17.
Describe any three characteristics of ‘Household industries.’(C.B.S.E.2014)
Characteristics of household industries :

• It is the smallest manufacturing unit. They use simple tools. The scale of operation is small.
• The craft spersons or artisans produce everyday goods in their homes with the help of their family members.
• These goods are locally marketed as finished goods.
Examples : Common everyday products are foodstuffs, fabrics, mats, containers, tools, shoes, furniture, pottery, etc.

Question 18.
Explain any four features of small manufacturing. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Characteristics :

• Small manufacturing uses local raw materials.
• Semi-skilled labour is used.
• The goods are sold in local markets.
• It provides employment in large number.

Question 19.
(i) Distinguish between Private Sector and Public Sector.

 Private Sector Public Sector 1.  The industries owned and managed by individuals are said to be under private sector. 1. The industries owned collectively by a community or the government means public sector. 2. Many industries run by capitalists like Birla, Tata are under private sector. 2. Schools, public buildings nationalised industries are under public sector. Bhilai Steel Plant is under public sector. 3. Private sector runs under strong compe­tition as in Japan and U.S.A. 3. Public sector runs on socialistic pattern such as Russia and India.

(ii) Distinguish between Agro-Industries and Heavy Industries.
Or
Describe any three characterstics of agro based industries in the world. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi Set-II 2017)

 Agro-Industries Heavy Industries 1. Agro-industries are based on products of primary occupations such as agriculture. 1. Heavy industries are based on manufactured goods involving use of machines. 2.    Agricultural products are processed to useful products such as tex­tiles from cotton, sugar from sugarcane. 2. A number of complex products are manu­factured from semi finished goods as iron used in the making of machinery. 3.  These are labour­intensive industries. 3. These are capital­intensive industries. 4. These cover small scale and medium scale industries. 4. These cover large sea industries.

(iii) Differentiate between small scale manufacturing and large scale manufacturing. (C.B.S.E. 2018)

 large scale manufacturing Small scale manufacturing 1. Large scale industries use power driven heavy machines. 1. Small scale industries use small power driven machines. 2. Large amount of capital is invested. 2. A small amount of capital is invested. 3. These industries form the basis of development in developed countries. 3. These industries provide employment in developing countries.

### Secondary Activities Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Classify industries on different bases.
Classification of Industries
Industries can be classified in many ways like-size, nature of products, raw materials, ownership, inputs and outputs.

1. Classification by Size
The amount of capital invested, number of people employed and the volume of production determines the size of an industry. Accordingly, industries may be classified into the following groups:
(a) Cottage or household
(b) Small scale and
(c) Large scale industries.

(a) Cottage or household industries. These are smallest manufacturing units. The craftsmen or the artisans with the help of their partime labour i.e., family members manufacture goods within their homes. These use local raw material and simple tools. The skills of production are passed on from one generation to the other.

The scale of operation is small. The tools and equipments are ordinary. The goods produced are generally sold locally. Example : Thus potters, carpenters, weavers and blacksmiths produce goods in the household sector.

(b) Small scale industries. They use modem power driven machines and employ semi skilled labour as well. The raw materials are also obtained from outside, if not available locally. These industries are larger in size than cottage industries. Their products are sold through traders beyond local markets. They provide employment to a large number of people.

Example : In countries like India, Brazil, Indonesia and China, a large number of goods such as clothes, toys, furniture, edible oil and leather goods are produced by small scale industries.

(c) Large scale industries. These include mainly heavy and capital intensive industries. These use energy, heavy machineries, employ large number of workers and produce goods for a bigger market. Emphasis is laid on quality control and production specialisation. Such industries require a very large resource base and hence raw materials are obtained from various places. The production of goods is also on a large scale, which is sent to distant markets.

These industries, therefore, require good infrastructure facilities such as roads, railways and power supply.
Example : Iron and steel industry, petro-chemicals, textiles and automobiles fall under this category in U.K., U.S.A and Europe. These are located in Large scale industrial regions and High-technology regions.

2. On the basis of size of operation and the nature of products. There are two classes of industries,
(i) Heavy industries are of large scale. They deal in bulky products and are heavily dependent on the raw materials
and hence tend to be located near the source of raw material e.g. iron and steel industry,

(ii) Light industries are usually small-scale in operation. They deal in fighter and compact products. For them, accessibility is the most important factor. Example : The electronics is one example of this kind.

3. Classification by Outputs
(a) Basic industries. Industries whose products are used to produce other goods are called basic industries. Iron and steel industry is one of the basic industries because steel produced by this industry is used in many other industries as a raw material. Some basic industries produce machines which are used to produce other goods.

(b) Consumer Goods Industries. Industries which produce goods for direct consumption such as tea, bread, soap and television are known as non-basic or consumer goods industries.

4. Classification by Inputs. Depending upon the raw materials used for the industries, they may be classified as agro-based, forest-based, metallic industries and chemical industries.
(a) Agro-based Industries. These utilise agricultural products as raw materials. Cotton, tea, sugar and, food-processing, vegetable oil industries Eire its examples.

(b) Forest-based Industries. These utilise forest products as raw materials e.g. paper and furniture industry.

(c) Mineral-based Industries. These use minerals as raw materials, such as, iron, cement, copper, etc.

(d) Metallic Industries. Industries based on metals are known as metallic industries. These are further divided into ferrous and non-ferrous industries. Industries based on metals having iron content are called ferrous industries e.g. iron and steel industry. On the other hand, industries based on metals without iron content fall into the category of non-ferrous industries e.g. copper and aluminium.

(e) Chemical Industries. Industries based on chemicals are called chemical industries e.g. petro-chemical, plastics, synthetics, fibres and pharmaceuticals. Some of these industries use raw materials found naturally e.g. minerals such as mineral- oil, salts, sulphur and potash, and vegetable products such as pulp. Some chemical industries use the byproducts of other industries.

(f) Animal based industries such as leather, wool.

5. Classification by Ownership. On the basis of the ownership pattern and management practices, industries can be classified into Government or Public, Private and Joint Sectors.

(i) When the ownership and management of an industry is in the hands of the state, it is called a public sector industry. The state establishes and runs these units.

(ii) Industries owned and managed by an individual or a corporate body belong to the private sector.

(iii) When individuals invest their own capital to establish industries, they manage them as private enterprise. Sometimes individuals join together under partnership to establish industries. The share of partners both in the capital investment and profits is pre-deeided. Industries are also established by corporations. Such a body is formed by individuals or organisations to fulfill pre-determined objectives and goals. Capital for the industry is collected by selling shares.

Question 2.
Explain the locational factors of industries with the help of suitable examples. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Manufacturing. Manufacturing is a secondary process of transforming raw materials into finished products. The raw materials of agriculture, forests, minerals are changed into new products. For example, clay is changed into pottery; timber is changed into furniture. These manufactured goods are more useful and valuable than the raw materials. The location of manufacturing industries depends on a number of physical and socio-economic factors. These factors are called the basis of industries. No single factor decides the location of industries.

1. Nearness to raw materials. Large quantities of raw materials are needed for industries. Therefore, industries are located near the source of raw materials. The industries are located near mines, forests, farms and seas. It saves the cost of transportation. Sugar mills are located in the areas where sugarcane is produced.

Iron and steel industry uses bulky raw materials. Steel centres are developed where coal and iron are easily available. Industries producing perishable goods (meat, fish and dairy products) are located near the areas of production. Example: Jute mills in West Bengal and Cotton Textile mills in Maharashtra are located due to the availability of the raw materials.

2. Power resources. Coal, oil and water power are the main sources of power. Most of the industries are located around coal-fields. The industrial regions of Damodar Valley (India) and Ruhr Valley (Germany) depend upon coal.

Some industries use large amount of electricity. Such industries like chemical industries, aluminium industries and paper industry are located near hydro electric stations, Petro-chemical Industries use large quantities of petroleum. Example : Iron and steel centres in India are located near Jharia and Raniganj coal-fields. Chemical fertilizer plant is located at Nangal where cheap water power is available from Bhakra Project.

3. Means of transportation. Modern industries need cheap, developed arid quick means of transportation. Water-transport is the cheapest means of transport. Cheap means of transportation are required for the movement of workers, raw materials and machinery to the factories.

Manufactured goods should be sent to the market at low cost. Example : The great industrial regions of the world (Europe and the U.S.A.) lie at the ends of North Atlantic Ocean Route. Great Lakes provide cheap transport to the industrial region of the U.S.A.

4. Climate : Stimulating climate increases the efficiency of the labourers. Certain industries require special type of climate. Cotton Textile industry requires humid climate. Film industry needs good weather with clear blue sky. Areas with favourable climate become huge markets.

Examples : Mumbai is the leading centre of Cotton Textile due to wet coastal climate. Dry climate has led to the location of Aircraft Industry at Bengaluru (India) and California (U.S.A.).

5. Capital. Large amount of capital is invested in many industries. Many industries have been located in big cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. Many banks and companies provide capital in these areas.

6. Skilled labour. Cheap and skilled labour is essential for the location of the industries. Areas of dense population provide cheap and large labour force. Engineering industries need skilled labour.

Example: Cotton Textile industry in Lancashire, Glass industries in Ferozabad, Sports goods industry in Jalandhar are located due to availability of the skilled labour. The Swiss are known for watch making, the British for specialised cotton textiles, the Japanese for electronic goods and Varanasi is known for silk embroidery.

7. Cheap land. Heavy industries need cheap level land. Steel industry at Jamshedpur is located in a broad river-valley.

8. Government policies. Most of the industries are located with government aid. Government policies may encourage or discourage the industries in an area. Government may offer cheap land, reduce taxes; help in providing machinery and transport.

9. Nearness to market. Industries are located near the market for the manufactured goods. Urban and industrial centres with dense population provide a large market. Market is based on demand and the purchasing power of the people. Countries of Asia don’t make a huge market because the people cannot afford to buy goods. Dairy industries are located near the ready markets of towns. Light Engineering industries are located near the big factories which require these goods. Aircraft and arm industry have a global market.

10. Early start. Momentum of an early start leads to the location of an industry such as Cotton Textile in Mumbai.

11. Defence. Some industries are located with a military motive such as Aircraft industry at Bengaluru.

Question 3.
Describe the location and development of iron and steel industry in different countries of the world.
Iron and steel industry. Iron and steel industry is the basis of modern industrialisation. It is the foundation of modem machines, tools, transportation (rail, road, water, air). It is used in making superstructures, bridges, tanks, agricultural implements and many products of daily use. It has great strength, toughness, elasticity and low cost of production. The production and consumption of steel is the index of the economic development of country. Ours is truly an ‘age of steel’.

Factors for the location of Industry.

• Raw materials. Iron and steel industry needs the bulky raw materials of manganese, limestone and scrap iron.
• Coking coal. Coking coal or charcoal is required for smelting of iron ore.
• Cheap land. Modem steel plants, furnaces require cheap level land.
• Market. The products of iron and steel industry demand a big consuming market.
• Capital. Iron and steel industry requires huge capital. Lack of capital is a main obstacle to this industry in developing countries.
• Other Factors. Iron and steel industry needs cheap transport, skilled labour and modern techniques.

World Production

During the last 50 years, world production of steel has increased six times. This industry is widely distributed in many countries.

Main Countries:
1. Russia. Russia is the largest producer of iron and steel in the world.
Main areas
(i) Ukraine region. Southern Ukraine (near Black Sea) is the oldest and the leading iron and steel producing region. Stalino Rostov and Voroshilovsk, Krivoirog, Donetsk are the main centres of steel production.
(ii) Ural region: Magnitogorsk and Chelyabisk are chief steel centres.
(iii) Moscow region: Moscow, Tula and Gorky are the main centres.
(iv) Other areas: Stalinsk, Vladivostok, Tashkent, St. Petersberg, Tbilisi are other important centres of iron and steel industry.

2. U.S.A. The U.S.A. is the second largest producer of iron and steel in the world. Pittsberg-Youngstown is the leading centre of iron and steel industry.

The important steel centres :
(i) Pittsberg : Youngstown Region. (Rust Bowl of U.S.A.)
(ii) Great Lakes Region with:

(a) Duluth on Superior Lake.

(b) Chicago and Gary on Michigan Lake.

(c) Detroit, Erie, Cleveland and Buffalo on Lake Erie.
(iii) Birmingham: Alabama Region.
(iv) Mid-Atlantic region with steel plants at Sparrow point, Bethleham and Morrisville.
(v) The western states with centres as Puebelo, Tocoma, San Francisco, Los Angeles and Fontana.

3. Japan : Japan with 15% steel production is the third largest producer of iron and steel.

Main Centres:

• Moji-Nagasaki region has Yawata Steel centre.
• Kamaishi in Honshu island.
• Mororan in Hokkaido island.
• Kobe-Osaka region.
• Tokyo-Yokohama region.

4. Germany: Iron and steel industry is centred in Westphalian Region in Ruhr Valley. The important steel producing centres are Essen, Bochum, Dortmund, Dusseldorf and Solingen. Germany has large reserves of coking coal, but iron ore is imported from Sweden. Rivers and canals provide cheap transport. Lecruresat and St. Ettienne are in France.

5. Great Britain : Great Britain has been the pioneer in steel industry. It was the largest producer of steel in the world till 1890. This region has advantage of an early start, local deposits of coal and iron ore, technical knowledge, cheap transport and huge demand. The main steel centres are :

• South Wales—Cardiff.
• N.E. Coast—New Castle, Middles Borough and Darlington.
• Yorkshire—Sheffields (famous for cutlery goods).
• Midland -Region-—Birmingham (known as Black country).
• Scotland—Glasgow.
• Lincolnshire—Fordingham.

6. China : China has made rapid progress in steel industry. China is the largest steel producer in Asia.

Main Centres

• Manchuria—Anshan and Mukden.
• Yangtz valley—Wuhan, Shanghai.
• Shensi—Shansi Region—Beijing, Tientsin.
• Canton, Tsingtao, Chinlingchen, Hupeh.

7. India: The first modem steel plant was established in 1907 at Sakchi (Jamshedpur) in Bihar, by Jamshedji Tata. India produces the cheapest steel in the world. India produces 320 lakh tons of steel and 100 lakh tons
of pig iron. With the establishment of new steel plants, it is expected to reach 500 lakh tons of steel.
Centres of production:

I. Damodar Valley. This region has TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company) steel plant at Jamshedpur and IISCO (Indian Iron and Steel Company) steel plant, at Kulti- Bumpur.

II. Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited. This steel plant is located at Bhadravati (Karnataka). It produces alloy and special steel.

III. Steel Centres in Public Sector—Four steel plants have been developed in the public sector, under HSL (Hindustan Steel Limited) with the collaboration of some foreign countries.

• Bhilai (Chhattisgarh)—With the help of Russia.
• Rourkela (Odisha)—By German Firm Krupps — Demag.
• Durgapur (W. Bengal)—With British aid.
• Boka.ro (Jharkhand)—With Russian help.

IV. New Steel Plants. The government has decided to set up three new plants by Sail at:

• Vijaynagar (Near Hospet, Karnataka).

Question 4.
Write a short note on Silicon Valley.
‘Silicon Valley’ technopolis :
The development of Silicon valley is attributed to the work of Frederick Terman, a professor and later, Vice-President of Stanford University at Palo Alto, in the northwestern part of Santa Clara country in California. In 1930s, Terman encouraged his students in electrical engineering to stay in the areas and establish their own companies.

One of the first companies was set up by William Hewlett and David Packard in a garage near the University campus. Now it is one of the world’s largest electronic firms. By the end of 1950s Terman had persuaded Stanford University to develop a special industrial park for such new high-tech firms. It created a hot house of innovation and generating a significant specialized work force and produce services.

It has sustained the continued agglomeration of high-tech electronics and has also attracted other high-tech industries. For example, nearly a third of all employment in biotechnology in the USA is located in California. Of this, over 90 percent is located in the San Francisco Bay area. Stanford University has been receiving increasing amount of donations from grateful companies, which runs into millions of dollars annually.

### Secondary Activities Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
Which is the most important industrial complex of Europe and why ?