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The Nationalist Movement in Indo-China Class 10 Extra Questions History Chapter 2
How many nations are parts of Indo China?
Three: Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos.
When was French Indo-China formed?
Though the French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858, and the region came under the French control in 1880s, it was only after the French-Chinese war that Indo-China was formed in 1857.
Mention three barriers in Vietnam which were to be overcome as suggested by Paul Bernard.
- High population level,
- low agricultural productivity,
- extensive indebtedness
What was the main object the French colonisers in introducing education in Vietnam?
To create Asiatic France solidly tied to European France; the education would make the Vietnamese respect the French culture.
Why did the French follow the deliberate policy of failing students in Vietnam?
The policy was to fail the students so that they do not become eligible for jobs, in 1977 out of a population of 170 lakhs, only 400 students were passed.
Name the political party the students began forming.
In 1920s, the students formed Party of Young Annan, and also a journal the Annanesc Student.
What were Vietnam’s religious beliefs?
The Vietnamese religious beliefs were mixture or Buddhism, Confucianism, leading to a general uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien where a thousand Catholics were killed.
What do you know about Hoa Hao movement?
A religious anti-imperialist movement inspired by Huynh Phu So. The movement was launched in 1939 in Mekong area. The French government attempted to suppress it by sending the leader to exile to Laos, and his supporters to concentration camps.
What is ‘go-east movement;?
‘Go-east movement’ was one movement through which Vietnamese students, inspired by Japan, wanted to drive out the French, overthrow the puppet monarchy supported by the French.
When was the Communist Party of Vietnam established? Who was its leader?
The Communist Party of Vietnam (later renamed as the Indo-Chinese Communist Party) was established in 1930. Ho Chi Minh was its leader.
When was the Democratic Republic of Vietnam formed and who was its Chairman?
The Democratic Republic Vietnam was formed in 1945 and Ho Chi Minh became its chairman.
Following the defeat of France, what were the results of the Geneva negotiations?
Following the defeat of France in May 1954, the Vietnamese were forced to accept the division of Vietnam at the Geneva negotiation. The North Vietnam came under Ho Chi Minh at the South Vietnam, under Bao Dai.
What were the consequences of the US entry in Vietnam?
The US entry in Vietnam, between 1965 and 1974, proved costly for both the Vietnamese as well as the American. The death toll was 47244 and those who were wounded were 303,704.
Mention briefly women’s role in the Vietnam war.
Women, during the Vietnamese war, were represented not only as warriors but also as workers. They used to have a rifle in one hand, and hammer, in the other hand. They worked as nurses.
What does the 1902 plague and measures to control it tell us about the French colonial attitude towards questions of health and hygiene.
The attitude of the French government towards questions of health and hygiene and Vietnamese people was indifferent, irresponsible and careless.
How did the French establish their grip on Vietnam?
The French troops landed in Vietnam in 1858 and by mid-1880s, they had established a firm grip over the northern region of the country. After the Franco-Chinese war, the French assumed control of Tonkin and Annam and, in 1887, French Indo-China. was formed. In the following decades the French sought to consolidate their position, and people in Vietnam began reflecting on the nature of the loss that Vietnam was suffering, nationalist resistance developed out of this reflection.
Why the French thought the colonies are necessary?
Colonies were considered essential to supply natural resources and other essential goods. Like other Western nations, France also thought it was the mission of the ‘advanced’ European countries to bring the benefits of civilisation to backward people. For extracting maximum profit, they began building canals and draining lands for cultivating rice. They also developed infrastructure projects to help transport goods and for trade.
What was the immediate effect of expanding areas for irrigation?
The French began irrigating lands in Mekong delta. The area under rice cultivation went up from 274,000 hectares in 1873 to 1.1 million hectares in 1900 and 2.2 million in 1930. Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third-largest exporter of rice in the world.
Mention the infrastructure projects which the French undertook in Vietnam.
The French began infrastructure projects to help transports goods for trade, move military garrisons and control the entire region. Construction of a trans-Indo-China rail network that would link the northern and southern parts of Vietnam and China was begun. This final link with Yunan in China was completed by 1910. The second line was also built, linking Vietnam to Siam (as Thailand was then called), via the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh.
How did the French project themselves and the Vietnamese in school textbooks?
School textbooks glorified the French and justified colonial rule. The Vietnamese were represented as primitive and backward, capable of manual labour but not of intellectual reflection; they could work in the fields but not rule themselves; they were ‘skilled copyists’ but not creative. School children were told that only French rule the Vietnamese peasant no longer lives in constant terror of pirates Calm is complete, and the peasant can work with a good heart.
How do you describe Phan Boi Chau as a nationalist?
Phan Boi Chau (1869-1940) was an important nationalist of Vietnam. In fact, he became a major figure in the anti-colonial resistance from the time he formed the Revolutionary Society (Duy Ten Hoi) in 1903, with Prince Cuong De as the head Phan Boi Chau met the Chinese reformer Liang Qichao (1873-1929) in Yokohama in 1905. Phan’s most influential book, The History of the loss of Vietnam was written under the strong influence and advice of Qichao.
It became a widely read bestseller in Vietnam and China and was even made into a play. The book focuses on two connected themes; the loss of sovereignty and the severing of ties with China-ties that bound the elites of the two countries within a shared culture.
Give a brief account of Phan Chu Trinh.
Phan Chu Trinh (1871-1926) was intensely hostile to the monarchy and opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. His desire was to establish a democratic republic, Profoundly influenced by the democratic ideals of the West, he did not want to wholesale rejection of Western civilisation.
He accepted the French revolutionary ideal of liberty but charged the French for not abiding by the ideal. He demanded that the French set up legal and educational institutions, and develop agriculture and industries.
When was the Democratic Republic of Vietnam formed?
After establishing the Communist Party of Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh became an important leader of the country. During the Second World War, the Japanese occupied Vietnam. The nationalist now were faced with two enemies: the Japanese and the French.
The League for the Independence of Vietnam (Vietnam Doc Lap Dong Mirth), which came to be known as the Vietnam, fought the Japanese occupation and recaptured Hanoi in September 1945. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam was formed and Ho Chi Minh became Chairman.
Give an account of the major event after the formation of the Republic of Vietnam in 1945.
The new republic faced a number of challenges. The French tied to regain control by using the emperor, Bao Dai, as their puppet. Faced with the Faced offensive, the Vietnam were forced to retreat to the hills. After eight years of fighting the French were defeated in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu. The entire commanding staff, including a general, India And Contemporary World-II /17 16 colonels and 1749 officers were taken, prisoners.
In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French”defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of”the country. North and South were split: Ho Chi Minh and the”put in power in the south.” communists took power in the north while Boi Dai’s regime was”account of the US bombing in Vietnam.”
What was the deadly poison ’Agent Orange? Give an account of the US bombing in Vietnam.
Agent Orange is a defoliant, a plant killer, so-called “because it was stored in drums marked with an orange band” Between 1961 and 1971, some 11 million gallons of this chemical” was sprayed from cargo planes by US forces. Their plan was to”destroy forests and fields, so that would be easier to kill if there”was no jungle cover for people to hide in.
Over 14 per cent of the country’s farmland was affected by this poison. The tonnage of”bombs, including chemical arms, used during the US intervention”(mostly against civilian targets) in Vietnam exceeds that used” throughout the Second World War.
What do you know about the Ho Chi Minh trail?
The Ho Chi Minh trail, a network of footpaths and roads, “was used to transport men and materials from the north to the”south. The trail was improved from the late 1950s, and from 1967″ about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops came south each month on”this trail.
The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way. In”some parts supplies were transported in trucks, but mostly they”were carried by porters, who were mainly women. These porters”carried about 25 kilos on their backs or about 70 kilos on their bicycles.
Most of the trail was outside Vietnam in neighbouring Laos” and Cambodia with branch lines extending into South Vietnam “The US regularly bombed this trail trying to disrupt supplies, but”efforts to destroy this important supply line by intensive bombing” failed because they were rebuilt very quickly.
Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)
Little is known about his early life mostly because Minh chose to”downplay his personal background and identify himself with the cause” of Vietnam, Probably born as Nguyen Van Thanh in Central Vietnam,” he studied at French schools that produced leaders such as Ngo Dinh” Diem, Vo Nguyen Giap ane, Pham Van Dong He briefly taught in I “1910, and in 1911, learnt baking and took a job on a French liner on”the Saigon-Marseilles run Minh became an active member of the”Comintern, meeting Lenin and other leaders in May 1941, after 30” years abroad in Europe, Thailand and China, Minh finally returned to”Vietnam In 1943 he took the name. Ho Chi Minh (Fie who Enlightens).
“He became president of the Vietnam Democratic Republic, Ho Chi” Minh died on 3 September 1969. He led the party successfully for over”40 years, struggling to preserve Vietnamese autonomy.
What dilemmas were the French faced with regard to the” spread of education in Vietnam?
Education was seen as one way to civilise the ‘native .” But in order to educate them, the French had a dilemma. How far”were the Vietnamese to be educated? The French needed an”educated local labour force but they feared that education might”create problems. Once educated, the Vietnamese may begin to question colonial domination.
Moreover, French citizens living in Vietnam (called colons) began fearing that they might lose their”jobs – as teachers, shopkeepers, policemen – to the educated”Vietnamese. So they opposed policies that would give the”Vietnamese full access to French education.
The French were faced with yet another problem in the sphere” of education: the elites in Vietnam were powerfully influenced by”Chinese culture. To consolidate their power, the French had to”counter the Chinese influence. So they systematically dismantled”the traditional educational system and established French schools ‘for the Vietnamese, But this was not easy.
The solution which came up was that the Vietnamese be taught”at the lower classes, and the French at the higher ones. The French”wanted Asiatic France solidly tied to European France. However,” who learnt the French culture could acquire French citizenship.
How was the Hoa Hao movement opposed to the colonial”rule in Vietnam. Discuss briefly.
Numerous movements were opposed to the French colonialism One such movement was the Hoa Hao movement. It began in 1935 and gained great popularity in the fertile Mekong” uprisings of the nineteenth century, “delta area. It drew on religious ideas popular in anti-French uprisings of the nineteenth century.
The founder of Hoa Hao was a man called Huynh Phu So. He performed miracles and helped j the poor. His criticism against”useless I expenditure had a wide appeal. He also opposed the sale” of child brides, gambling and the use of alcohol and opium.
The French tried to suppress the movement inspired by Huynh Phu So. They declared him mad, called him the Mad Bonze, and”put him in a mental asylum. Interestingly, the doctor who had to”prove him insane became his follower, and finally in 1941, even”the French doctors declared that he was sane. The French” authorities exiled him to Laos and sent many of his followers to”concentration camps.
Give the story of the Vietnamese plague and the”subsequent hunt for rats.
The French, in their effort to modernize Vietnam, took” measures to beautify Hanoi,, its ! French part while keep the ’native'” part as dirty I as before. In the French part, a well-laid out sewer” system was introduced. The refuse from the native part of the city” began draining towards the French part of Hanoi. The result was”the spread of plague. The sewers, as a great transport system, “allowing the rats to move around the city without any problem. “And rats began to enter the well-cared-for homes of the French” through I the sewage pipes. What was to be done.
To stem this invasion, a rat hunt was started m 1902. The French” hired Vietnamese workers and paid them for each rat they caught.”Rats began to be caught in thousands: on 30 May, for instance,”20,000 were caught but still there seemed to be no end. For the”Vietnamese the rat hunt seemed to provide an early lesson in the”success of collective bargaining.
How did the Vietnamese nationalists S look to Japan and”China for inspiration? Explain. !
Early Vietnamese nationalists had a dose relationship” with Japan and China. They provided models for those looking to change, a refuge for those who were escaping French police, and a location where a wider Asian network of revolutionaries could be”established. In the first decade of the twentieth century, a ‘go east movement’ became popular. In 1907-08 some 300 Vietnamese” students went to Japan to acquire modern education.
For many of them, the primary objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam, overthrow the purple emperor and re-establish the”Nguyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French. These”nationalists looked for foreign arms and help. They appealed to”the Japanese as fellow Asians, Japan had modernised itself and”had resisted colonisation by the West, Besides, its victory over, “Russia in 1907 proved its military capabilities.
Developments in China also inspired, Vietnamese nationalists. In 1911, the long-established monarchy in China was overthrown by a popular movement under Sun Yat-sen, and j a Republic was set up. Inspired by these developments, Vietnamese students organised the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam (VietNam Quan Phuc Hoi). Now the nature of the anti-French”independence movement changed. The objective was no longer to”set up a constitutional monarchy but a democratic republic/’society.
Mention how the new woman arose in the Vietnamese society.
Women in Vietnam traditionally enjoyed greater equality than in China, particularly among the lower classes, but they had only limited freedom to determine their future and played no role in public life.
As the nationalist movement grew, a new image of womanhood emerged.
Writers and political thinkers began”idealising women who rebelled against social norms. In the 1930s, a famous novel by Nhat Linh caused a scandal because it showed”a woman leaving a forced marriage and marrying someone of her choice, someone who was involved in nationalist politics. This rebellion against social conventions marked the arrival of the new* woman in Vietnamese society.
Rebel women of the past were similarly celebrated In 1913, the nationalist Phan Boi Chau wrote a play based on the lives of the Trung sisters who had fought against Chinese domination in 39-43 CE. In this play, he depicted these sisters as patriots fighting to save the Vietnamese nation from the Chinese.
They were depicted in paintings, plays and novels as “representing the indomitable will and the intense patriotism of the Vietnamese We are told that they gathered a force of over 30,000, resisted the Chinese for two years, and when ultimately defeated,” they committed suicide, instead of surrendering to the enemy.
How did the war come to an end in Vietnam?
The prolongation of the war created strong reactions even” within the US. It was clear that the US had failed to achieve its objectives: the Vietnamese resistance had not been crushed; the support of the Vietnamese people for US action had not been won. In the meantime, thousands of young US soldiers had lost their lives, and countless Vietnamese civilians had been killed. This was a war that has been called the first television war.
Battle scenes were shown on the daily news programmes. Many became disillusioned with what the US was doing and writers such as Mary McCarthy, and actors Intake Jane Fonda even visited North Vietnam and praised their heroic defence of the country. The scholar Noam Chomsky called the war the greatest threat to peace, to national self-determination, and to international cooperation.
The widespread questioning of government policy strengthened moves to negotiate an end to the war. A peace” settlement was signed in Paris in January 1974. This ended conflict with the US but fighting between tire Saigon regime and the NLF continued, The NLF occupied the presidential palace in Saigon on 30 April 1975 and unified Vietnam.
Objective Type Questions
Choose true (✓) and false (✗) in the following:
(i) After the Franco-Chinese war, the French took control” of Hanoi.
(ii) Before the French occupation of Vietnam, the country” was ruled by Nguyen dynasty,
(iii) Tonkin Free School began functioning in 1907.
(iv) Plague struck Hanoi in 1899.
(v) The English intervened in the Vietnam war in 1974.
Choose the most appropriate alternative
(i) Cochinchina (the South) became a French colony in
(ii) The Communist Party of Vietnam was formed by
(a) Phan Boj Chau
(b) Ho Chi Minh
(c) Than Chu Trinh
(d) Hugnu Phu So
(b) Ho Chi Minh
(iii) The New Republic of Vietnam in the north was established in
(iv) Phan Boj Chau wrote the following book
(a) The History of the loss of Vietnam
(b) The History of Vietnam
(c The Loss of Vietnam
(d) None of the above
(a) The History of the loss of Vietnam
(v) The name of the plant killer used by the USA in Vietnam war was
(a) Agent Mange
(b) Agent Pear
(c) Agent Apple
(d) Agent Orange
(d) Agent Orange.