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Class 11 History Chapter 4 Important Extra Questions The Central Islamic Lands
The Central Islamic Lands Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What are the sources used for the description of the Central Islamic lands?
These are Chronicles-
- Hadith and
- Tafsir-are composed of a compilation of Akhbar, Khabar, and isnad.
- Legal texts,
- stories and poems.
- Arabic papyri,
- official orders,
- private correspondences.
Epigraphy-Study of inscriptions.
Numismatic–Study of coins.
What was Aramaic?
It was a language of Hebrew and Arabic family or group of languages. This language can be seen on the Ashokan pillars.
Who was Muhammed?
He was an Arab by culture and a merchant by profession. . His tribe was Quraysh. He was murals and therefore, chosen as chief of his tribe. Subsequently, he became a prophet to Islam.
How was Islam came into being in Arabia?
It was due to the rise of Muhammed, the chief of the Quraysh tribe as a prophet and with his declaration as rasul (messenger) of Cod.
Who was considered a member of Umma?
The man who offers Salat, generous to the poor (i.e. gives alms) and keeps him away from any theft and piracy.
Whether you think, raid and loot of caravans was not theft but labor?
Actually, Islam has considered theft confine to mere defraud or cheat not involving the use of force, tricks, etc. which tantamounted to exhort things that genuinely and legally not one’s owned or earned.
What would the Umma do in Islamic concern?
Umma or the community of believers in God would bear witness (Shahada) to the existence of the religion before God as well as before members of other religious communities.
Who are Muslims?
Followers of Islamic order or religion are Muslims because since Prophet Muhammed’s ruling, coincide religion made integral parts to constitution and raids for booty were not considered “theft” however; abstain from theft was the feature of eligibility to become a member of Umma.
Who was Marsalis?
Non-Arabs were addressed as Marsalis. These became members of Arab tribes through the patronage of prominent tribesmen. They were discriminated against by, Arab tribes on several counts.
Who brought messages to Muhammed?
He was a divine figure reckoned with Archangel Gabriel (Jibril). His first word was Iqra from which has come to the term Quran.
What is considered in Islamic cosmology?
Angels are considered as one of the three intelligent forms of life in the Universe. The other two are humans and Jinns.
Who opposed the Muslims at the beginning of Islam?
Those were the groups of affluent Meccans. They took it as negligence to their deities, they .worship under idolatry system. They thought this new religion may bring their image till then formed in the popular down and the prosperity as well.
What were the basic tenets of Islam?
- One has to enroll with Umma (a community of believers).
- The communist will bear witness (Shahada) to the existence of the religion before God and other religious communities.
- The members of that community will be called Muslims.
- The member shall have the promise of salvation on the day of judgment (iqama).
- He will have to share the resources of the community while on earth.
What is Hijri Era?
Counting of year system like B.C. in Gregorian calendar in Islamic empire is called Hijri Era. It is counted the day, Muhammed left Mecca with his followers to Medina.
What is written after the date of the Hijri calendar?
AH e.g. 1427 shall be written for 2006 as the Hijri era starts from 622 CE.
What is the calculation formula of Hijri vis-a-vis Gregorian Christian (C) years?
It is – (H × 32/33) + 622 = C – Christian
(C – 622) × 33/32 = H – Hijri
Eg. 2006 C.E. in Hijri shall be:-
(2006 – 622) × 33/32 = 1427 H
What kind of political institutions are required for consolidation and protection of the community?
States and governments like institutions.
How are states and governments created?
These are inherited from the past, borrowed from outside, or created from scratch.
Which kind of political order had Muhammed created?
- Umma converted into a wider community to include polytheists and Jews of Medina.
- Certain modifications were done in rituals/ethical ‘ principles.
- Alms tax (Zakat) imposed.
- Raids (Ghazw) on Meccan caravans allowed to collect booty in order to run the expenses of an organization.
Whether Muhammed had waged war against any – country?
Yes, the Muslim community under Muhammed fought ‘ against Meccans and Jews of Medina when they reacted to the raids, Muhammed conducted. As a result of the battle, Muhammed conquered Mecca.
Tell the expansion of the Islamic kingdom under Muhammed?
Entire Arabia including Mecca and Medina.
Why did the idols get remove from Kaba?
It was because idolatry was strongly opposed to the Islamic order.
To whom was the political authority of Muhammed transferred?
It was to Umma (i.e. a community of believers). Caliphate was created later-on.
What was Caliphate?
It was a governing system like an aristocracy in which the leader of the community (amir aluminum) would rule as a deputy (Khalifa) of the Prophet Muhammed.
Write the names of the first and third Khalifa.
The first Caliph was Abu Bakr and the third was Uthman.
Describe the area expansion under the Caliphate regime in Arab.
The regions carried under the Arab empire were-Syria, Iraq, Iran (Sasanian empire), and Egypt including the Byzantine empire. Three successful campaigns from 637-642 had brought frontiers of the Arab empire so extended.
What was the behavior of Muslims to Jews and Christians during the seventh century?
The Caliph treated them as protected subjects in its constitution akin to scheduled caste and scheduled tribes treated in India’s constitution.
Who had formed the two sects-Shias and Sunni’s of Islam?
Ali, the fourth Caliph fought two wars against representatives of the Meccan aristocracy. Hence, Meccan formed a sect of Sunnis, and Ali’s own sect formed Shia.
Who was Muawiya?
Muawiya was a kinsman of Uthman, the third Caliph of Meccan aristocracy. He was during Ali’s regime, became governor of Syria.
what were the consequences of two battles fought by Ali, the fourth Caliph?
In the first battle of the Camel (657 CE), Ali defeated Aisha, Muhammed’s wife, but in the second battle of Siffin (northern Mesopotamia), he had to enter in a truce with Muawiya, a kinsman of Uthman.
Who had founded the Umayyad dynasty?
Muawiya, a kinsman of the third Caliph Uthman founded the Umayyad dynasty in 661 CE. It lasted in 750 CE i.e. about one hundred years, it ruled.
Who was Kharjis?
There were the enemies of Ali, the fourth Caliph. A Kharji assassinated Ali in a mosque at Kufa in Baghdad.
Who had established an authoritarian rule after the ruination of the Caliphate system of the aristocracy?
The Umayyad dynasty had founded an authoritarian ruling system. Muawiya, a kinsman of Uthman, the third Caliph was the first Umayyad Caliph. It was based on hereditary succession.
What were the salient features of the Umayyadian dynasty?
The skill of statecraft or ruling and the army were the cardinal elements of that ruling system. The legacy of Islam was however maintained.
What were the main achievements of Abd al-Malik, an Umayyad?
He adopted Arabic as the language of administration and circulated Islamic coinage. It was called dinar in gold and dirham in silver. The shape, symbol, and inscriptions were copied from Byzantine coin (denarius) and Iranian coin (drachm) but in the Arabic version. Dome of the Rock was built in Jerusalem.
How did the Umayyad dynasty meet to decline?
There was a loop-hole in their centralization drive for Muslim monarchy (Polity) which had to meet a movement i.e. Dawa of Abbasids, another family of Meccan origin in 750 CE. The revolutionists gave it the color of religion i.e. a drive to restore the original Islam of the Prophet.
What were the reasons for the fall of the Umayyad dynasty?
- The mixed Arab-Iranian public in Khurasan (Iran) favored the revolutionists. Their demand for reduction in taxes was left unheard.
- Iraqi soldiers in the Arab military disliked the rule of the Syrians (Umayvads).
- Iranian Muslims (Mawalis) were upset due to racial discrimination by the Umayyads.
Who were Abbasids?
They were descendants of Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle. They claimed the throne on a promise that a Messiah (Mahdi) from the family of the Prophet (Ahl al-Bayt) will liberate the populace from the oppressive regime of the Umayyads.
Where was the battle between the Umayyads and Abbasids took place?
It at the bank of the river Zab in which the last Umayyad Caliph, Marwan was defeated.
How can you say that Abbasids also established the monarchy in the name of the Caliphate like the Umayyads?
They maintained imperial architecture and court ceremonials of the Umayyads.
What reasons do you ascribe for the fall of Abbasid’s regime?
- Pro-Arab and Pro-Iranian conflict in the army broke out.
- The civil war of 810 CE more fuelled factionalism.
- Shiism competed with Sunnis for power.
Name some smaller dynasties after Abbasids.
- Tahirids in Khurasan (Iran),
- Samanids in Transco Xiana (Turan),
- Tulunids in Egypt and Syria.
Who had occupied Baghdad and when?
Buyid rulers (Shahenshah) of the Daylam region in Iran captured Baghdad in 945 CE.
Who were Fatimids?
They were belonged to the Ismaili sub-sect of Shiism and claimed rightful ruler as they were descended from the Prophet’s daughter Fatima. They conquered Egypt in 969 and established the Fatimid Caliphate.
Who were Turks and how did they set themselves under Umayyad and Abbasid regimes?
Turks were nomadic tribes from the Central Asian Steppes of Turkistan extended up to the borders of China. Being skilled riders and warriors, they set themselves as soldiers and slaves under Umayyad and Abbasid regimes.
Who was the founder of the Turkish sultanate?
Alptegin Ghazni in 961 CE.
Who had supported Mahmud Ghazni (998-1030)?
The Abbasid Caliph supported Mahmud because he wanted to ruin Shiite power and Mahmud was eager to receive the title of Sultan from the Caliph especially because he was a slave under them earlier.
Who were Tughril and Chghri Beg?
They were brothers and Seljuq Turks. Earlier, they had entered Turan as soldiers in the armies of Samanids and Qarakhanids (non-muslim Turks of farther east).
Why is Nishapur famous?
Umar Khayyam, an Islamic poet born in Nishapur (Khurasan) and it was made the capital by Seljuq Turks in 1037.
Who had received the title of Sultan in 1055 CE?
It was Tughril Beg, a Seljuq Turk and became ruler. The Caliph, al-Qaim awarded him the title of Sultan.
What were the major events that took place from the eleventh to thirteenth centuries?
A number of conflicts one after another between European Christians and the Arab states took place during that period of two hundred years. There were called Crusades.
What was the reason for Christian’s dissension from Islamic society?
- Jerusalem, the holy place of Christian was captured by the Caliphs in 638.
- Palestine was their holy land because Jesus was crucified and he was resurrected there.
What had happened in the eleventh century?
Main events of eleventh-century were-
- Conversion of Normans, Hungarians, and slaves into Christianity.
- Clergy and the warrior class (i.e. the priest and the nobility) launched a drive for bringing in political stability and economic growth based on agriculture and trade.
What was the control imposed by the Peace of God?
- To reduce possibilities of armed conflict between Principalities on feudal lines.
- To degenerate plunder and loot by splitting groups or organizations so formed.
What religion-based rulings were made by the Christian Priests in order to control military confrontation?
- Some periods declared sacred in Church’s calendar.
- Conflicts against Churchman and the common people pronounce as sins in Christian codes.
- Conflicting soldiers and print cities were declared enemies of God.
- Non-believer’s (viz. non-Christians) suppression was declared as noble-deed.
Who had seized the sultanate of Malik Shah after his death in 1092?
It was Byzantine emperor, Alexius-I. He regained Asia Minor and northern Syria.
Which wars were designated as Crusades?
The wars fought between 1095 and 1291 i.e. for the period about one hundred years were crusades. These were wars between Muslims and Christians.
How did the first crusade come into being?
Pope Urban 111 joined Alexius I, the Syrian emperor, and launched the first crusade in 1090-98.
What have the Muslim writers mentioned Christians in their records about the first crusade in which Christians seized Antioch in Syria and cleared Jerusalem?
Christians have been mentioned as firing or firangi and this attack was a Frankish invasion.
What was called Outremer?
It was the joint name of territories (four in number) conquered by Christians in the region of Syria-Palestine.
What was the cause of the second crusade in 1145-49?
The Turks had captured Edessa in 1144 CE and Pope accumulated the support of the German and French army.
What was Jihad?
It was also crusaded but conducted by Muslims. The first Jihad was fought in 1107 and Jerusalem was regarded by Salah al-Din (Saladin).
How was the behave of Saladin against the Christians?
It was humane yet Churches were turned into mosques and custody of the Church (Holy Sepulchre i.e. main Church) was given to Christians.
What were the consequences of the third crusade?
The consequences of the third crusade were that Chr’ ‘tians could regain Palestine and an unrestricted monument to Jerusalem for pilgrims.
Who had again driven the Christian away from Palestine?
It was the Mamluks, the rulers of Egypt. He drove them finally in 1291. No crusades were fought thereafter as Christians understood it a futile and e\er failed strategy or no time ripen for final freedom to Palestine.
What was the land revenue called in Islamic lands?
It was Kharaj which varied from half to a fifth of the products according to the condition of cultivation. Muslim cultivated land was charged with one-tenth (Ushr) of the product under the Kharaj system of taxation.
What was Iqtas?
Revenue assignment to the official in lieu of salary was called Iqtas. According to this system, the officers (mainly Jagirdars/ Army officers) were allowed a collection of Kharaj from their territories assigned and later to salary requirement.
Name some crops grown by peasants in Islamic lands?
Crops like cotton, oranges, bananas, watermelons, spinach, and brinjals were mainly grown.
What was the name of cities established for soldiers?
These were called Misra (garrison cities). Arab soldiers were called Jund.
Name the two building complexes in the center of the city.
It was masjid al-Jami (congregational mosque) and suq (the central market place).
What was Geniza (Ghaniza)?
It was a sealed room containing a huge collection of Jewish documents. It had been discovered in Fustat where Ben Ezra Synagogue had been erected.
What kinds of documents were found in Geniza?
These were personal letters between merchants, family, and friends, contracts, promises of dowry, bank documents, laundry lists, and other (common documents).
Wherefrom the gold and silver obtained in Islamic lands?
Gold was obtained from Africa (Sudan) and silver from Central Asia (Zarafshan Valley).
What was the greatest contribution of the Muslim world to medieval economic life?
It was the development of superior methods of payment and business organization. Letters of credit including cheques (Sakk) and bill of exchange (Suftaja) were adopted to transfer money from one place or individual to another.
What was Muzarba?
It was formal business arrangements in which capital was given to traveling merchants and shared profits and losses in agreed proportion between traveling merchants and the people engaged in businesses other than trading in distant lands.
What was the trick followed in order to escape from the law which restricted interest-bearing transactions (riba)?
That process was called Hiya. Under it, money was borrowed in one type of currency (coin) and paid in another. Thus, interest in the disguise of the commission was earned on currency exchange (bill of exchange).
What was the way told by religious scholars to know the will of God?
It was Ilm derived from the Quran and the model behavior of the Prophet (Sunna).
In what work, the Ulamas had devoted themselves?
They devoted themselves to writing tafsir and hadith and some among them had preferred Sharia (the straight path) to govern the relationship of Muslims with God through ibadat and with the rest of humanity through social affairs (Muamalat).
What were the four schools of law (Mazhab)?
These were-Maliki, Hanafi, Shafii, and Hanbali. These were named after the leading jurists (faqih).
What is Quran?
It is a collection of messages (revelations) which God sent to the Prophet Muhammed between 610 and 632 first in Mecca and then in Medina.
What was called customary laws and laws of the state on political and social order?
These were-Urf and Siyaysa Sharia.
Who were religious-minded people in medieval Islam?
Those people were Sufis. They got deeper personal knowledge of God through asceticism (Rahbaniya) and mysticism (Lasawwuf).
What was pantheism?
It was the idea of the oneness of God and his creation which implies that the human soul must be united with its maker.
What was the influence of Greek philosophy and science on Islam?
An alternative vision of God was developed in the Islamic approach.
Which subjects were taught in the schools of Alexandria, Syria, and Mesopotamia?
These were-Greek philosophy, mathematics, and medicines.
What effect the study of new subjects had made on Islamic beliefs.
Scholars with a theological bent of mind (Mutazila) used Greek logic, and methods of reasoning (Kalam) to defend Islamic beliefs.
What is Shahnama (Book of Kings)?
It is an epic of 50,000 couplets. It is an anthology of traditions and legends (Rustam’s story etc.). It was composed by Firdausi.
Name some history books of Islamic lands.
- Ansab al-Ashraf (Genealogies of the Nobles) by Baladhuri and,
- Tarikh al-Rusul Wal Muluk (History of Prophets and Kings) by Tabari.
The Central Islamic Lands Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Discuss the structure of the mosque built during Islamic regimes?
The main features of a mosque were-
- Sahn (an open courtyard),
- Vaulted Hall,
- mihrab (a niche),
- Minbar or mimbar (a pulpit),
- Minaret (a tower).
Central courtyard (Iwan) can be seen in caravan, saris, hospitals, and palaces e.g. Khirabat- al-Mafjar (Palestine) and Qusayr Amra (Jordan).
What were the two art forms that emerged in the Islamic religion?
These art forms were-
- Calligraphy (Art of beautiful writing) and,
- Arabesque (geometric and vegetal designs).
Calligraphic art has been best preserved in manuscripts of the Quran dating from the eighth and ninth centuries. Plant and floral designs, based on the idea of the garden, were used in buildings and book illustrations.
What is excellent or unique in the history of the Central Islamic lands?
A unique in the history of the central Islamic lands was a merger of three important aspects of human civilization i.e. religion, community, and politics into one. We can see them as three circles that merge and appear as one in the seventh century. It could separate in the next five centuries. Later on, the influence of Islam over state and government became nominal and politics involved many things that have no sanction in religion and thus, the circles of religion and community were overlapped by politics. Politics became a separate circle. The only way the circles of religion and community could have separated was through the progressive secularisation of Muslim society. Philosophers and Sufis advocated this, suggesting that civil society should be made autonomous and rituals be replaced by private spirituality.
Describe a morning scene in Basra.
Basra is a city that falls in IraQuestion Here were settled Arab soldiers (Jind) who formed the backbone of the administration. It was a garrison city. There were a number of companies (branches of troops) parading in the morning. Military headquarter we see here. We could see them doing prayer in a mosque because such was made mandatory under Islamic administration.
What knowledge could one obtain from Geniza records? Explain.
Geniza records consisted of over two lakh fifty thousand manuscripts and fragments dating back from the Fa timid, Ayyubid, and early Mamluk periods. Most of the documents were written in Judaeo-Arabic, a version of Arabic written in Hebrew characters that were commonly used by Jewish communities throughout the medieval Mediterranean. These provide rich insight into personal and economic experiences and into Mediterranean and Islamic culture. These suggest that the business skills and commercial techniques of merchants of the medieval Islamic world were more advanced than those of their European counterparts. On the basis of a study on these documents, Goitein composed a multi-volume history of the Mediterranean, and Amitav Ghosh composed “In an Antique Land.”
Discuss the structure of city settlement in the Central Islamic Lands.
Cities that flourished in the central Islamic lands can be described as-
- Capital cities,
- Garrison cities.
Capital cities were founded by Caliphs like Abbasid in Baghdad, Medina. Garrison cities were Kufa and Basra in Iraq, Fustat, and Cairo in Egypt. Apart from these cities, there were developed towns such as Damascus, Isfahan, and Samarqand.
Formation of a city-In the middle of the city, there were two building complexes-
- the congregation mosque (masjid al-Jami) and
- the central market place (suq).
There were shops, merchants’ lodgings (fandub), and offices of the money changer. Administrators, scholars, and merchants lived close to the center of the city. In its outer circle, there were residences for ordinary citizens and soldiers. Churches, Synagogues, and mosques were built everywhere at a small ’ distance. There were subsidiary markets and public baths in these cities. Homes of Urban poor people, vegetable market, caravan stations, and unclean shops (tanning and butchering) were at the outskirts of the cities. There were inns and cemeteries beyond the city walls.
Describe the condition of agriculture in the Central Islamic Lands.
Condition of Agriculture
- It was the principal occupation of the settled populations.
- Ownership inland was that of small and big farmers. The large estates were owned by the state:
- Kharaj was the land revenue paid by the peasants. It was varied from half to a fifth of the products according to the conditions of cultivation (i.e. irrigated, fallow, fertile, sandy, etc.). The concession was given to Muslim peasants as they were charged in proportion to one-tenth (Ushr) of the produce.
- Irrigation system supported by the state in Nile Valley. Construction of dams, canals, and digging of wells given priority. Tax concession was given to the people who brought forest land under cultivation. Crops like cotton, oranges, bananas, watermelons, Spinach, and brinjals were grown and exported to Europe.
What was the treatment of Franks (Firangis or Christians) with Muslims in Central Islamic Lands? Explain.
We can conclude about the treatment of Christians with Muslims as mixed type. It differs from one territory to another. It has been seen that the earliest of the crusaders settled down in Syria and Palestine were more tolerant to Muslims than those who came later. The early comers were properly associated with Muslims hence, there was fraternity among them. An instance of their treatment with the Muslim community has been given in this chapter extracted from Kitab al- Inbar. The author says that he had a friend Chief Theodore Sophia’s in Antioch.
He once was invited by that friend. He met a retired old knight who owned property in Antioch. Here he offered not Frankish but Muslim food to him. He heard him saying while on the dining table that he had appointed an Egyptian woman as a cook and ate never the pork meat. However, when they were strolling in the market place, a crowd of Franks collected against him to attack. That was because they mistook him for another Arab who once had killed their brother. Anyhow, his friend could cool them down by saying that the author was a businessman.
Hence, a mixed type of treatment with Muslims in territories under Franks can be concluded.
Enumerate the business and trade in the Central Islamic Lands.
The Central Islamic lands witness ample growth in business and trade particularly, the topography supported their trading maneuver. Muslim empire was spread between the Mediterranean and the Indian ocean. The Arab and Iranian traders, therefore, monopolized regularly the maritime trade between China, India, and Europe.
Two major routes of that trade were-
- The Red Sea and
- The Persian Gulf.
Spices, textile, porcelain, and gunpowder were shipped from India and China to Aden and Aydhab i.e. ports at the Mediterranean. The ports of the second route i.e. the Persian Gulf were-Siraf and Basra.
Camel caravans were used to transport the mercantile from the ports of Aden and Aydhab of the first route and Siraf Aijd Basra of the second route to the warehouses (Makhan) of Baghdad i.e. the capital of Abbasids Caliphate. Warehouses were also established in Damascus and Aleppo.
It was then disbursed for local consumption or onward transmission. Jewish merchants had handled exports to Europe from the port of Alexandria. Subsequently, Cairo emerged as a center of commerce which had increased the importance of the Red Sea route. In order to buy paper and other goods of Central Asia origin, Iranian merchants set-out from Baghdad along the Silk Route to China via the oasis cities of Bukhara and Samarqand. Bukhara and Samarqand were the cities linking commercial networks extended north to Russia and Scandinavia. For exchange of European goods (fur and slaves).
Describe the consequences of crusades conducted by Christians and Muslims during the period between 1095 and 1291.
These crusades left a lasting impact on two aspects of Christian-Muslim relations. One was the harsher attitude of the Muslim state towards its Christian subjects which resulted from the bitter memories of the conflict as well as the need for security in areas of mixed populations. The other impact was the greater influence of Italian mercantile communities from Pisa, Genoa, and Venice in the trade between the East and West even after the restoration of Muslim power.
Discuss the causes of the fall of the Caliphate?
Following reasons can be ascribed for the break-up of the Caliphate-
- Baghdad was not a central place hence, it had become difficult to maintain control over the distant provinces.
- The civil war of 810 between supporters of Amin and Mamun (sons of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid) created a new power block of Turkish slave officers (Mamluk).
- The confrontation started between Shiism and Sunnis.
- Minor dynasties such as Tahirids, Samanids, Tulunids in Khurasan, Turan, Egypt, and Syria rose and the Caliphate limited to Central Iraq and Western Iran. Baghdad also was seized by a Shiite clan of Daylam (Iran). Those were Buyids.
Thus, the Caliphate system was shattered and the sultanate system established. Fatimids also had conquered Egypt in 969.
Discuss the achievements of the Caliphate?
It was a system of polity in which the leader of the community(amir al-mining) became the deputy (Khalifa) of the
Prophet Muhammed. The objectives of the Caliphate were-
- to return control over the tribes constituting the Umma and,
- to raise resources for the state.
This system was adopted after the death of the Prophet Muhammed. The three powerful Caliphs were-Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman. The first Caliph Abu Bakr suppressed the revolts by a series of campaigns. The second Caliph Umar shaped the Umna’s policy of expansion of power. He conducted raids and conquered the lands belonging to Byzantine Empire in the West and the Sasanian empire in the east. Religious conflicts between Christians and Zoroastrians and revolts by the aristocracy weakened these two empires. The Arabs brought Syria, Iraq, Iran, and Egypt under the control of Medina.
The Arab empire under Uthman witnessed control over the vast territory between the Nile and the Oxus. Soon conflicts over the distribution of resources and offices began touching climax. Blind favor to Quraysh provoked opposition in Iraq and Egypt simultaneous to the opposition in Medina which resulted from the assassination of Uthman. Thus, Ali became the fourth Caliph. Here, two sects developed i.e.Shias and Sunnis. Ali defeated Muhammed’s wife, Aisha in the battle of the Camel in 657 but could not suppress Muawiya, a kinsman of Uthaman. In the battle at Siffin (northern Mesopotamia), Ali had to resort to a truce and it split his followers. The opposite group Kharji’s assassinated Ali at Kufa. Thus, there was established Umayyad dynasty which lasted till 750 C.E.
Who were Umayyads and how did they manage the centralization of polity?
Umayyads was a prosperous clan of the Quraysh tribe and Muawiya was its first Caliph. He shifted capital at Damascus and adopted the court ceremonies and administrative institutions of the Byzantine empire. He introduced hereditary succession. These were the innovations of the Umayyads adopted by the Caliphs. They retain power for 90 years and the Abbasids for two centuries.
It was an imperial power and mainly based on statecraft and loyalty of Syrian troops. There were Christian advisers in the administration, Zoroastrian scribes, and bureaucrats. Islam provided legitimacy to the rule of the Umayyads and Abbasids. During the reign of Abd al-Malik and his successors, Arabic was accepted as the language of administration, and the introduction of an Islamic coinage was an important achievement. Dinar was the gold coin while dirham was the silver coin. Aba al-Malik also built the Dome of the Rock.
Discuss Byzantine and Iranian coins and that of Arab-Islamic coins?
Byzantine coins were called denarius while the Iranian coins were drachma. Symbols of crosses, Sine alters along with an inscription of Greek and Pchlari (the language of Iran).
Aba-al-Malik removed these symbols and language inscribed thereon but the shape and size were kept unchanged. Initially, Abd- al-Malik inscribed his portrait with name and image. Subsequently, it was made epigraphic. A Kalima was inscribed in Arabic which means–There is no god but Allah and He has no partner (Sharik). This change was made because there developed dissatisfaction subsequently representation of living beings in art and craft.
Discuss the causes and consequences of the Abbasid revolution.
It was named as Dawa movement and it brought down the Umayyads and replaced them with another family of Meccan regions, the Abbasids in 750 CE. Abbasids were the descendants of Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle. This revolution broke out in Khurasan (eastern Iran) where a mixed Arab-Iranian population was mobilized. Arab soldiers were from Iraq and resented the dominance of the Syrians. The Umayyad regime had not reduced the taxes and their demand for privileges left unaccepted. Iranian Muslims (Mawalis) were discriminated against by Arabs. Thus, Umayyad’s Caliph Marwan was defeated in a battle at the river Zab and thereafter, Abbasid Caliphate formed.
Outline the fiscal system adopted in die Central Islamic lands.
Fiscal System-Owing to the rapid growth of urban centers, cities, towns and the trade, income, and expenditure of the state had also spurt-up. This increased the importance of money in the central Islamic Lands. In order to pay for goods and services, coins of gold, silver, and copper were minted and circulated in bags sealed by money-changers.
Gold was brought from Sudan in Africa, silver from Europe (Zarafshan valley), and precious metals and coins were also brought from Europe. Demand for money inspired dead people to release their accumulated reserves and idle wealth into circulation. Credit facilities were also developed. Letter of Credit (Sakk) and bill of exchange (Suftajer) was used for the transfer of money from one place to another. Commercial papers like promissory notes, cheques, etc. freed merchants from the need to carry cash everywhere. It made their journey safer. Salaries to soldiers or rewards to poets and minstrels were paid in Sakk (cheques). Investment increased and partnership business’s opened. Thus, the fiscal system under Islamic land was approximately in modem line.
Explain the Quran and the difficulties in case of it as source material for the history of early Islam.
The Quran is a book in Arabic consisting of 114 chapters (Suras). Chapters are in descending order of length i.e. the shortest chapter is the less. Only first Sura is a short prayer (al-Fatihah. This book is considered as a collection of messages which God gave to Prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632, first in Mecca and then in Medina. It was completed in 650 CE. The verses engraved on the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and oh the coins in the seventh century are the earliest.
Problems for the use of the Quran as source material for the history of early Islam have arisen. The one is to understand it literally as the theologians believe these as the speech of God (Kalam Allah). The rationalists have given a wider interpretation of the Quran. Such dual-position raises controversy to arrive at the conclusion. The second problem is that of events not narrated by m Quran. It only refers to the events therefore, Medieval scholars have to make sense of many verses with the help of hadith. We see, there are many hadith written to help in the reading of the Quran.
Whether the thoughts of Abdul-Latif, a twelfth-century legal and medical scholar of Baghdad about an ideal student as extracted in this chapter are relevant to a student today?
We think the suggestions are all relevant to a student today provided that one could construe the meaning and implication of this extract in a positive manner. We can sum up the main points suggested as under-
- Self-conscience without the proper guidance of teachers ipso- facto is unscientific as it may be mere fiction.
- Don’t think the limitation of the teacher but take all good that he delivers as your review, introspection, and churning on the same would lead you to the facts.
- Don’t do cramming but understand the topics so better way as the physical presence of the book is no more required.
- Histories, biographies, and Geography are the subjects that introduce a man to his surroundings. Analyze and compare the cause and effects of all events and activities.
- Frame opinion after study on biographies of great men cautiously by taking your nature as innocent as a child.
- Once the conclusion has arrived, stay undeniable there even if the world criticizes you.
On the basis of the above points, the study becomes perfect and scientific for which no options remain. Here literally suggested submission before Prophet and distrust your nature but its implication leads to the scientific process of the study. We can replace prophet with. the generalization which is made after experiments done impartially. Similarly, distrust of your nature implies cleanliness of head and heart while in a study which is necessary to grasp the sense in its basic form and generalization thereafter would automatically provide with the apparent light in the matter so churned.
Conclusion-Hence, we can state that cramming and study are useless even in modem sense and curriculum and the same has been started and suggested in the aforesaid extract.
Discuss the influence of Greek philosophy, mathematics and medicine added to the curriculum of schools under the central Islamic Lands?
Study on these subjects promoted critical inquiry and had a profound influence on Islamic intellectual life. Scholars with a logical bent of mind Eg. Mutazila started using Greek logic and methods of reasoning (Kalam) to defend Islamic beliefs. Philosophers (Malaysia) posed wider questions and provided fresh answers. Books on medicines were confused like al-Qanun fil Tibb (Canon of Medicine) by Ibn Sina. The poetry of that period is called Nazm and prose is called nature. Ode (qasida) is the poetic composition by poets of the Abbasid period.
Abu Nawas composed classical poetry on themes like wine and male love. Sufi’s glorified the intoxication caused by the wine of mystical love. An Arabic vocabulary was developed. The Father of the new Persian poetry was Radaki, a court poet under Samanids. Rubai and Ghazals were composed.
The rubai is a four line-stanza in which the first two lines set the stage, the third is finely poised and the fourth delivers the point. Umarkhayyam of Bukhara was a famous poet who composed rubai. Diwans and Mathnavi (anthologies and epic poetry) were composed during the period of Mahmud of Ghazni. Firdausi composed Shahnama (Book of King) and Kitab-Al-Fihrist describes a large number of works written in prose for the moral education and amusement of readers.
Other books written during this period were Kalilawa Dimna, Stories of Alexander and Sindbad, The Thousand and One Nights, Kitab al-Bukhala, Akhlaq, Mirrors for Princes Tarikh (Ansab al-Ashraf) and Tarikh al-Rusul Wal Muluk, Rihla and Ahsan al-Taqasim, Muruj al Dhahab and Tahqiq mail-Hind.
Describe the Sufis and their new method of devotion.
Sufis were religious minded people in medieval Islam. They preached knowledge of God through asceticism (Rahbaniya) and mysticism. These people sought to renounce the world (Zuhd) and rely on God alone (Tawakkul). Mysticism attained new heights by the idea of pantheism and love. Pantheism is the idea of the oneness of God and His creation which implies that the human soul must be united with its maker. Ishq or intense love can only help in the merger of the soul with god. Sufis used musical concerts (Sama) to introduce ecstasy and stimulate emotions of love and passion. Rabia and Bayazid Bistani were some Sufis. Sufism was beyond the boundaries of caste, race, religion, and creed. According to theory, religion is more personal and less institutional.
The Central Islamic Lands Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Give a brief account of the society, its largest organization (Caliphate, Sultanate, etc.), Cultural, Vocational, literary, scientific achievements, and religion as a motive for cause and the effects in the Central Islamic Lands.
Society is formed of individuals and individuals are the finished product of families. Again we know that family, the first unit of Society formation, actually determines the instincts and motives that manifest before him in the shape of events either good or bad as calculated by society on its perceived goals in a fixed timeline or the phase of time.
The topography, sense of realization or religion as adopted and adapted to the contemporary society, availability of sources and resources including water, humans, minerals, soil, and their proportionate adjustment (Formation of climate, temperature, precipitation, etc.)-all determine combinedly, the account of human actions in the lap of nature. Such account constitutes the history of a particular time frame classified with certain distinctions and comparisons. We can give a summed-up account of the Central Islamic Lands as under-
A. Society-(a) Topography-We see, the central Islamic lands covered by the Mediterranean sea and Black sea at the west, the Red Sea at the south, the Arabian sea at eastern-west along with the Persian Gulf and Caspian and Aral sea at the north and north-east respectively. There are also existed rivers like Euphrates, Nile, etc.
Impact-Trade and commerce developed at the climax. Terrestrial routes like the silk route and sea routes like the Red Sea route and Persian Gulf route were invented.
Red-Sea route-Aden and Aydhab ports of this sea started receiving Indian and Chinese goods. Eg. spices, textile, porcelain, and gunpowder.
Persian Gulf Route-Goods mentioned above were carried to Siraf and Basra ports of the Persian Gulf.
Silk Route-China reached through the oasis cities of Bukhara and Samarqand. It was the terrestrial way. Camel caravans and carts were used. These two cities were also important for trading with European countries.
Structure of Society-It indicates that leaders and businessmen were the important organs of society. There were sailors, peasants, soldiers, money-changers, common people, and slaves in the society.
Religion-Islam propagated by Prophet Muhammed who was Arab by language and a merchant by profession. Before Muhammad, there was prevalent idolatry in Islamic lands. In Mecca, there was a cube-like structure called Kaba in which idols were placed and worshipped. An idol was called Sanam and the shrine in which it was placed called shrine. Arabs were polytheistic and nothing was clear for the notion of a supreme God.
They began to call it Allah, as Jewish and Christian tribes living in their midst, had faith in Jew and Jesus Christ. Muhammad declared him a rasul of God and suggested Salat for Arabs. This religion was called Islam and its followers were called Muslims. Rituals were very simple as one has to join with Salat, distribute alms to beggars and keep away himself from theft. Umma had to bear witness (Shahadat) to the existence of the religion before God as well as before members of other religious communities.
This new religion garnered the support of the mass in Mecca but the affluent section of society created problems for the propagation of this religion. Muhammad had to leave Mecca and went to Medina. This day was later adopted as the first day of the Hijri era in the Muslim calendar. In order to create a religious bound political institution, Muhammad converted Umma into a wader community to include polytheists and tv Jews of Medina under political institution. He made certain ethics and rituals matching with the demand- of society and the circumstances. Agriculture, trade, Zakat, and ghazwa were the source of survival for the community. Thus, rituals to the effect of abstaining from the theft were removed.
Initially, all were nomadic people divided into Qabilas like Quraysh. After Muhammed, there became his descendants as Umayyads, Abbasids, Mawalis, Kharjis, etc. However, they all were Muslims and followers of Islam. Shias and Sunni sects were also formed during Ali, the fourth Caliph’s regime.
B. Political Structure-Muhammed established Islam religion along with the political organization, initially of his tribe Quraysh and then conversion of Christians, Jewish, etc. into Islam. Raids on Meccan caravans and nearby oases kept alive in order to keep the populace well earned and satisfied.
As Muhammed had died intestate, Umma became powerful and its leader was accepted as Caliph or deputy of Prophet Mohammad. The Amir Almuminin did not even take care of the wife, uncle, cousins, etc. for leadership which created a rift and internal conflicts which we see as the Battle of the Camel (657), Battle at Siffin (northern Mesopotamia), the assassination of Uthman and Ali Abbasid revolution, etc.
Under the Caliphate system, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali reigned as Caliph i.e. deputy to Prophet. After Ali’s assassination, other Caliphs were the Umayyads and Abbasids. The first four Caliphs ruled from 632 to 661 (i.e. 29 years), Umayyads ruled from 662 to 750 C E. (i.e. about 90 years) and Abbasids ruled from 751 to 810 (i.e. 59 years). The Caliphate system declined gradually in 810 CE and Sultanate System came into existence.
The first Turk was Mamluk. He had to tackle Buyids (Iranian title holders of Shahanshah), Fatimids, Tahirids, Samanids, and Tulumids. Thus, Central Islamic Lands witnessed a number of rulers as Caliph coincide the Turk dynasty from 810 to 961 C E when Alptegin, father of Mahmud of Ghazni established Ghaznavid Sultanate. Thereafter, Seljuq Turks i.e. Tughril and Chaghri Beg, two brothers ruled as Sultan when this title was given to him by the Caliph al-Qaim.
Crusades took place during the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries. Christians wanted Palestine but could not achieve success even after the three crusades they conducted. Finally, the Mamluks (Sultan) drove them under a Jihad started first by Salah al-Din (Saladin) his predecessor.
We can state that the Central Islamic land had witnessed a blend of governing systems under the Caliphate and Sultanate.
C. Agriculture-Three kind of landholding i.e.
- big and
- the large estates.
The state had overall control on agricultural land and a large chunk of coffer was contributed by the land revenue. Revenue for land was named Kharaj which varied from half to a fifth of the produce- Muslims were given concession as only Ushr (One-tenth of the produce) was charged as tax r Kharaj from them. Immigration facilities were given extra heed and care by the Caliphs and other rulers. We see Iqta System was adopted from the tenth century onward’s. Crops like cotton, oranges, bananas, watermelons, spinach, and brinjals were grown and exported to Europe.
D. Culture-Tafsir, Judith, Sharia, Mazhab, etc. were consolidated and society followed the rules under Sharia. Reasoning (Qiyas) was also given importance while writing Sharia for the Muslims. Owing to differences in the interpretation of sources and methods of jurisprudence, four schools of law were formed. These were-Maliki, Hanafi, Safii, and Hanbali schools knew in the name of their propounders of the jurists.
A group of religious-minded people was known as Sufis. They were believers in Rahabaniya and mysticism. They were like sadhus in Hinduism. Sufis sought to renounce the world and rely on God alone. Does this settle society influence by the ideas of pantheism and? love. Rabia of Basra, Bayazid Bistami of Iran and Dhulnan Mistri, etc. were the Saints or Sufis:
Greek philosophy, mathematics, and medicine were the subjects taught in schools that coincide with other Arabic subjects of the central Islamic lands. These new subjects promoted critical inquiry and had a profound influence on, Islamic intellectual life. The logic was used to, defend Islamic beliefs. A number of books were written on medicine, law, and humanities. Prose and poetry saw exquisite growth. Poets of Persian origin revitalized and reinvented Arabic poetry and challenged the cultural hegemony of the Arabs. Pahlavi, the Iranian language t suffered a setback: Its version was prepared and it Was named New Persian. This language was preferred by all Caliphate and other rulers of Sultanate during that phase of the time. Rudaki was considered the father of New Persian poetry and UmarKhayyam brought rubai : (Persian poem) to the climax. A number of books in history, geography, humanities (storied, fables, etc.) were written in this period of history.
- Urbanization took place and garrison cities, port cities, and capital cities were established. These were in Kufa, Basra, Baghdad, Damascus, Aleppo, Alexandria, Daylam, Samarkand. Samaria, Antioch, and Tripoli.
- Goins of gold, silver, and copper were minted. Bags filled with coins were sealed by money changers. Gold was brought from Sudan (Africa) and silver from Zarafsan valley in Central Asia. Precious metals and corns came from Europe.
- Letters of Credit and bill of exchange etc. methods of payment were adopted.
- Family businesses set-up everywhere. Businesses were also run through employees like firms. and companies of modem period. When rib was declared unlawful, the people adopted hiya i.e. earning of interest on transactions unfair way.
- Ample supply of coins and trade promotion developed the trend of investment. People began releasing their accumulated reserves and idle wealth into circulation.
Conclusion-Thus, on the basis of the above parameters, discussed,
we can conclude that nomadic tribes of the Central Islamic Lands gradually formed political institutions mainly on the Aristocracy line and d a blend of religion and politics is witnessed from the sixth to thirteenth centuries. Several Caliphates and Sultanates were formed and declined during the period of seven hundred years. Civil wars, crusades in varied colors and forms were fought one after another. In the fields of language, literature, architecture, and economy we observe, certain progress had been achieved.