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Class 11 Political Science Chapter 1 Important Extra Questions Political Theory: An Introduction

Political Theory: An Introduction Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is a theory?
The theory is a judgement which explains the whole thing. It consists of observation, analysis and judgement. The word theory is derived from the word (Thoria) which is a Greek word and means to beholden which means to know or to understand a thing. In other words, we can say that theory is a tested hypothesis.

Political theory is used for political science and political philosophy. The theory is a generalised statement based on study, experimentation and analysis.

Question 2.
Explain the meaning of Political Theory.
Political theory is a generalised statement, it is a generalisation, it is a judgement about political leadership, political process, political event and political system, which is based on the study, reason and analysis, and which has utility for the society and which has got support and acceptance from the society.

According to David Held, political theories are complex networks of concepts and generalisations about political life involving idea, assumptions and statements about the nature, purposes and key features of government, state and society and about political capabilities of a human being. It is also defined as an attempt to explain the attitudes and actions arising from ordinary political life.

Question 3.
What is politics?
Politics is rooted in human nature. It appears to be natural. It is the art of management and control of human behaviour. Politics is the other form of diplomacy. Politics is a method of enforcing one’s authority over others and to command obedience from others. Politics is also the mechanism of getting power.

Question 4.
Mention two important functions of Political Theory.
The theory is sort of tested direction on which a society or a nation has to march. The theory is needed for every subject which is evolved and framed by the students and researchers of that subject. It performs a leading role in the advancement and development of that subject. Since everything or aspect of society comes in the arena of politics, political theory performs a decisive role for the subject and also for the. society. We can understand it in the following areas:-

  1. Political theory formulates concepts and generalisation.
  2. Political theory gives a definite direction to society by removing the prevailing confusion and uncertainties.
  3. The political theory works as inspiration for the society.

Question 5.
What are the main stages for building a theory in any subject?
Making or building a theory is a very comprehensive process. Generally, followings are its stages:-

  • Observation
  • Explanation
  • Value judgement
  • Acceptance on the basis of its utility and relevance.

Question 6.
What should be the characteristics of a good theory?
A good theory should have the following characteristics.

  1. It should be free from subjectivity.
  2. It should be based on discussion, debate, rational thinking and facts.
  3. Preferably it should be based on empiricism.
  4. Theory must be clear and relevant.
  5. It should have social, economic, moral significance.
  6. It should be legitimate.

Question 7.
What is the role of a Political Theorist?
Political theorists clarify the meaning of political concepts which are made and built to represent certain situations, by looking at how they are understood and used in ordinary language. They also debate and examine the diverse meanings and opinions in a systematic manner. A theorist gives the new meaning to different concepts by studying and analysing the prevailing circumstances of the society. In this way, the theorist plays a very positive and responsible role for society.

Question 8.
Discuss Gandhi as a Theorist.
Gandhi played a decisive role in the liberation movement of India, but we cannot put him in the category of politicians because he never played politics for power and authority. In the liberation movement also, he experimented his concept of truth, non-violence and satyagraha. In his analysis of contemporary problems, he discussed the nature and role of the state. He explained the relevance of peace and non-violence in solving the problems of mankind at large.

Question 9.
What are the issues and subjects of a political theory?
Political theory deals with the ideas and principles that shape the constitution government and social life in a systematic manner. It clarifies the meaning of concepts such as equality, liberty, freedom, dignity, justice and secularism. A theorist and his theory are generally related to establishing the truth by a reason-based study.

Question 10.
What is the importance of politics?
Politics has assumed great importance in today’s life. It has become the synonym of power. In fact, politics is art or capacity and capability to get power and authority. It is one’s ability to command obedience by influencing the people and by shaping the behaviour of the people according to their design. Politics is an important and integral part of any society. Mahatma Gandhi once observed that politics envelops us like the coils of a snake and there is no other way out but to wrestle with it.

Question 11.
What is the function of Government?
Political theory is largely associated with the study of the number of political institutions in which the government is the main institution. Like other social organisations and institutions like family, tribes, government play an important role in the lives of the people. The government is concerned about the security and development and welfare of the man. It frames and determines our foreign policy, educational policy and economic policy. Day by day the role of the government is increasing in the welfare and development of man.

Question 12.
What is the political role of a political theory?
Political theory is related to the study of every idea and institution which has political relevance. Politics arises from the fact that we have different visions of what is just and desirable for us and our society. It involves what the government should do or should not do. It conceptualises the political issues and systems of governance which are designed to promote social development.

Question 13.
Name some thinkers and the issues with which they, had been related.

Name of thinker The subject of the theory
Plato Form of government
Aristotle Form of government
Rousseau Freedom
Karl Marx Equality
M. K. Gandhi Swaraj
B. R. Ambedkar Positive discrimination.

Question 14.
Why different theories have been given on the same issues at a different point of time?
It is a fact that the same issue has been defined, theorised and understood differently at different point of time. In fact, no theory can ever be relevant. As time changes,’ its relevance may also get eroded. For example, the concept of equality has been understood differently from Plato to Marx. In the same way, justice has been defined differently by Plato and Aristotle who were otherwise Teacher and Pupil. A theorist is also the product of the age in which he or she lives. It is, therefore, they add the essentials of a concept or an institution as per the requirement of the need of the people and which may be accepted by the people of that age.

Question 15.
How a theory is built up?
Generally there three stages of the building of theory i.e. observation, analysis and judgement. Political theorists clarify the meaning of political concepts by looking at how they are understood and used in ordinary language. The debate and examine the diverse meanings and opinions in a systematic manner to reach a value judgement which is called as theory.

Political Theory: An Introduction Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Define the meaning and need of the theory.
Theory can be defined as a tested hypothesis. It is a value judgement based on study, reason, facts, observation and analysis a particular situation or an issue. It is a generalisation on a particular aspect of social life, economic life or political life. The theory is a body of rules, regulations based on certain ideology and methodology to take society in a particular direction.

The theory is needed for every discipline, area of study and also for every society. Without the existence of a theory, the study remains directionless and hypothetical. Theory removes the confusions prevailing in society. In every age, there have been theorists who have given their theories for the use of that society. Their methodology may be different. Ancient Greek thinkers like Plato and Aristotle gave their theory about the state society, justice, education and forms of Government. Marx and Gandhi gave their own theories on the prevailing problems of society. We can say that the theory is needed for every society of every time.

Question 2.
What is Political Theory?
The political theory refers to the value of judicial decisions and a generalisation about the political issues like state, government, political leadership, based on the study and analysis and which is useful for the society and which is accepted by the society. According to Zemino, Political Theory is the critical study of the principles of right order in human social existence.

The political theory attempts to explain the attitudes and actions arising from ordinary political life. The political theory is a generalised statement about political issues and political realities.

Question 3.
Explain the area of political theory.
Every political issue and action comes in the purview of the study of political theory. The political theory examines questions of political relevance systematically. These issues are like freedom, equality and justice and the institutions like state, government and the administrations. It explains the meaning and significance of these and other related concepts. It clarifies the existing definitions of these concepts by focussing on some major political thinkers of the past and present. Every political thinker has dealt with the problem of his time and gave his judgement to be followed by the society. The political theory also reexamines the meaning and definitions of the concepts and seeks to modify to the extent, it is desired. The very objective of a political theory is to train citizens to think rationally about political questions and assess the political events of the contemporary world.

Question 4.
What are the essential characteristics of a good theory?
In fact, the ideal theory is one which offers the maximum and best solutions of the contemporary problems of the social, economic and political life of the society. A good political theory should qualify the ‘ following characteristics:-

  1. The theory should not be hypothetical.
  2. It should be based on study, facts, reason and analysis.
  3. It should be specific.
  4. It should be objective.
  5. It should be relevant.
  6. It should be supported by society.
  7. The theory should be reflective of contemporary issues.
  8. The theory should be based on scientific methods.

Question 5.
Discuss the subject matter of Political Theory.
Political theory has a wide scope. In fact, the subject matter of the study of political theory is dependent on the approach which we adopt for the study of political issues.

Followings are the subject matter of political theory:-

  1. State.
  2. Government.
  3. Political concepts like equality, freedom, liberty and justice.
  4. Political institutions.
  5. Authority.
  6. Legitimacy
  7. Political parties.
  8. Pressure groups.
  9. Political process
  10. Power.
  11. Policies.
  12. Contemporary problems.

Question 6.
Discuss the utility of a political theory.
We can understand the significance and utility of a political theory in the following areas:-

  1. It offers solutions to contemporary political problems.
  2. It helps in removing the prevailing confusion of society.
  3. It gives direction to the society.
  4. It acts as an inspiration for the society.
  5. It brings a change in society.
  6. It breaks the conservative character of the society.
  7. It brings reformation in society.
  8. It brings a revolution in society.
  9. It frames the policies for the future.
  10. It offers planning for the future.
  11. It helps in studying and understanding the political realities.
  12. It helps in research and conceptualisation.

Question 7.
What is politics?
Different people have a different understanding of politics. Politics is in fact power. It is one’s capability and capacity to obtain one’s command. It is an art. It is a methodology to get the position of authority. Some of the people regard it as a kind of public service. Many people associates politics with manipulation and intrigue undertook to pursue ambitions and satisfy wants. Politics is an art to get and retain one’s power and authority over others. Politics is generally understood in a negative sense. Politics has many aspects like:

  1. Politics as a power struggle.
  2. Politics as a service to mankind.
  3. Politics as an art of domination.
  4. Politics as an art of commanding obedience.
  5. Politics as a method of controlling the political process.
  6. In Marxism sense, politics is to control economic relations.

Question 8.
Discuss how politics operates.
Politics lies in the nature of man that is why we regard politics as natural. The interests of the people are different and they are bound to differ. All the people have different visions of what is just or what is unjust. What is desirable for us or what is undesirable for us and our- society. It involves the multiple negotiations that go on in a society through which the collective decisions are made. It is therefore regarded that politics is a mechanism of decision making for society. It is a method of evaluating the relations between the people and the government. It is also a method of influencing the decision-making process at different levels. Through politics, people try to promote social development and help to resolve common problems.

Question 9.
What is the difference between traditional political theory and modern political theory?
Political Theory is the outcome of the approach which we adopt for the political issues and political problems. There have been mainly two approaches i.e. Traditional approach and Modem approach. Following are the features of the traditional and modern approach with their difference:-
1. Traditional approach

  1. It is subjective.
  2. It is descriptive.
  3. It is hypothetical.
  4. It is value-based.
  5. It is institutional.
  6. It is philosophical, legal and reformative.

2. Modern approach

  1. It is objective.
  2. It is empirical.
  3. It is scientific.
  4. It is inter-disciplinary.
  5. It is based on facts.
  6. It is analytical.

Question 10.
Write the names of some prominent theorists with their subject matter.
Following are names of some prominent theorists with their subject matter:-

I. Kautilya Statecraft
2. Plato State, government and justice
3. Aristotle Form of government and ¡deal state slavery and citizenship
4. Rousseau State
5. Marx Economic relations Equality
6. M.K. Gandhi Truth, non-violence and satyagraha
7. BR. Ambedkar Emancipation of scheduled caste people.

Question 11.
Can you identify the political principle/value which is in the application in each of the following statements/situation?
(a) I should be able to decide which subjects I want to study in. school.
(b) The practice of untouchability has been abolished.
(c) AH Indians are equal before the law.
(d) Minorities can have their own school and colleges.
(e) Foreigners who are visiting India cannot vote in Indian elections.
(f) There should be no censorship in India or films.
(g) Students should be consulted while planning the annual day functions.
(h) Everyone must join the Republic Day celebrations.
(a) Right to freedom.
(b) Principle of equality.
(c) Equality before law.
(d) Freedom of religions.
(e) Rightofvote(Political right)
(f) Right of expression.
(g) Right of participation.
(h) Principle of nationalism.

Question 12.
What is the difference between Politicians and Political Thinkers?
A politician is associated with the power game. He is involved in party-politics. That means a politician is one who practices politics. A politician has a narrow approach. On the other hand, a political theorist offers a solution to the problems of society by studying and analysing them. Political thinkers have a broad view and given direction to the society. There is a clear cut difference between politicians and political theorists. Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru and Stalin were politicians while Marx and M.K. Gandhi were political thinkers and theorists.

Question 13.
Discuss the Marxist Theory.
Marx in his famous book ‘Das Capital’ propounded his theory in which he analysed and diagnosed the origin and development of the system of capitalism and the role of the state in such a system. His theory has the following elements:-

  1. Two class theory – In which he was that there have ever been two classes. One exploitative class and Exploited class.
  2. Theory of class struggle – There is a constant struggle between these two classes, which will ever continue.
  3. An economic interpretation of history – Marx regarded history
    as the record of the struggle between the exploitative class and exploited class and not the record of war among kings.
  4. Theory of surplus value – He proves that the gap between the capitalist and labourer is due to the surplus-value which is in fact the share of the labourer.
  5. Establishment of communism – It means the establishment of a casteless; classless and stateless society.

Question 14.
Discuss the features and characteristics of the Gandhian Theory of politics.
Gandhi is regarded as a great thinker and political theorist of his age. He has relevance even today not only in India but for the whole world. It can be said that his theory has more relevance today than ever before. Gandhi explained the hollowness of social evils like casteism. communalism and untouchability. In his approach, he was nearer to Marx. He also advocated for the removal of state because he regarded the state as a mechanical institution. He also was against the existence of the state. Gandhi’s philosophy is based on the principle of

  1. Truth
  2. Non-violence and Satyagrah. He won the Indian independence by these weapons.

Political Theory: An Introduction Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Discuss the meaning, scope and utility of the political theory.
Without a definite theory, no life, no society, no nation and no discipline can move ahead properly. The theory is a body of tested hypothesis in the form of conceptualized decisions, value judgement and useful generalisations for the society. It is based on rational discussion, debate and study and analysis. One learned political theorist has to define political theory as an attempt to explain the attitudes and actions arising from ordinary political life.

David Held says “Political Theories are complex networks of concepts and generalisations about political life involving idea, assumptions and statements about the nature, purposes and key features of government, state and society and about the political capabilities of human beings.”

Political Theory has wide scope in its meaning and application. The political theory includes in its study the concepts like equality, freedom, liberty, justice, dignity are also the process and institutions like decision-making process, state, society and form of governments. It also includes in its study, the new concepts like power, authority, legitimacy, political socialization, political modernization, political communication, and elite, etc.

Political theory plays a very significant role in understanding, studying and analysing the political ideas, political situations and political realities. It gives the relevance to the political decisions taken on the basis of reason, debate and scientific. It gives proper direction to society and brings positive transformation by removing misunderstanding and confusion.