Here we are providing Class 11 Political Science Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 8 Local Governments. Political Science Class 11 Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 8 Important Extra Questions Local Governments
Local Governments Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is Local Government?
Local Government refers to the Government institutions at the local level which is very close to the people. Local Governments is about Government that involves the day to day life and problems of the people. The local government discusses and decides the local issues and problems with more and more involvement of the people of the area. Local governments include people friendly administration. It also involves the decentralization of powers and resources.
What is Grass-root democracy?
Grass root democracy means strengthening the democratic process at the local level.
Grass root democracy ensures the meaningful participation of the people and also promote the accountability of the administration. For this strong and vibrant local governmental institutions are made.
What is the utility of the Local Governments?
As Local governments involve the participation of the local people, therefore it ensures the solving the local problems with the involvement of the local people themselves. It is the mechanism of decentralization and efficient administration. -It gives the opportunity to the people to discuss and decide their own affairs. In this way it strong than democracy.
Who introduced the Gram Panchayat system in India?
In 1882 Lord Rippon, who was the Viceroy of India at that time took the initiative in creating local governments in India. At that time they were called the Local boards. Lord Rippon is called the pioneer of Local governments in India. He wanted more and more involvement of the local people in solving the local problems. He was also in favor of the decentralization of the administration.
How Local governments strengthen democracy?
In a democracy, the issues and problems should be given to the hands of the local people and their representatives because they are more familiar with their affairs and problems. They can have better control over the decision-makers and local administrators. We can say that strengthening local government means strengthening bf local democracy.
Discuss Mahatma Gandhi’s concept of Local government.
Mahatma Gandhi was a very strong supporter of grass-root democracy for which he advocated the organization of local governments in rural and urban areas. He wanted to achieve economic and political decentralization through there; local governments. It is because of the wish of Mahatma Gandhiji that the concept of local government was introduced in the chapter of Directive Principles of State Policy.
Write the Government structure in rural areas per Balwant Rai Mehta Committee Recommendation.
Governments of India appointed a committee under the Presidentship of Balwant Rai Mehta to go into the issue of organization and powers of the local governments in rural areas. This gave its recommendation in 1957 and suggested following a three-tier structure in rural areas.
- Village Panchayats at the village level.
- Block Samiti at Block level.
- Zila Parishad at the district level
What attention was given to local governments in the constitution?
- Local governments did not get due attention in the Constitution
- The issue of local governments was left for the State governments
- The issue of Local governments was added in the chapter of Directive Principles of State Policy which is non-justiciable and primarily advisory in nature.
- Location was considered a threat to national integration.
Give four lessons for their poor functioning.
In post-independent India, in many states, local governments were organized in rural and urban areas but they did not get the desired results became of the following reasons:
- Factional politics in the village
- Caste ridden society of the village
- Financial problems
- Bureaucratic apathy
What was the position of women and scheduled castes in local governments?
- Women were inadequately represented
- Women were discouraged in raising any local issue particularly related to the women.
- There were social taboos which became a hindrance in the participation of woman.
- Scheduled castes were also poorly represented as there was upper caste domination in rural society.
Write four main provisions of the 73rd amendment of the constitution.
- Local governments were given a constitutional base.
- Elections to the local governments were made direct.
- The tenure of these elected bodies was fixed.
- 33% seats were reserved for women and 33% seats were reserved for the scheduled castes.
What is Block Samiti and what is its function?
There is a three-tier structure in rural areas. At the village level, there is Gram Panchayats. At block, the level is the Block Samiti and at the district level, Zila Parishad works. Therefore Block Samiti stands between Village Panchayat and Zila Parishad.
The main concern and responsibility of the Block Samiti is the development of rural area block level and fulfill the agriculture needs of the people. It acts as a link between Zila Parishads and village Panchayats. It controls and supervises the village Panchayats in Block.
Write the function of Panchayats.
- To discuss the issues and problems of the village
- To maintain law and order and co-operation in the village.
- To fulfill the agriculture-based needs of the village
- To co-ordinate with the government through the Block Samitis and Zila Parishad for the development of the village.
- To get and utilize the aids from the government
- To decide the disputes of the village.
How the reservations of women in local government have improved the status of women.
The rural society is male-dominated which is why so far there is no adequate representation of women in local government. To ensure adequate representation of the women 33% reservation is made which has certainly helped in increasing the participation of women in politics and democratic institutions. Now there is a change in socio, economic status of women.
What are the powers of Local government?
The Constitutional amendments (73rd and 74th) assigned as many as 29 subjects to the local governments. All these subjects are related to functions linked to local welfare and developmental needs of the people. But still lot of work is to be done to make their local governments truly representative functional and powerful.
Local Governments Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Discuss the meaning of Local Government.
The local government refers to the institutionalized structures for governance at the local level both in rural as well as urban areas. Local governments are the mechanism of decentralized administration with the joint co-operation and co-ordination between the government’s machinery (Bu-reaucracy) and the people themselves. The concept of local government is based on the thesis that the local issues and problems of the people should be solved by the local people themselves because they know their problems better. The role of the Government should be only of facilitator and advisor.
As a part of democratic decentralization, the government should allow the local governments to raise and utilize their resources. The concept of local government aims at strengthening the people and democracy.
What is the significance of the Local government?
Local governments can play a significant role in strengthening Grass-root democracy and so the state and national democracy. Local Governments promote responsibility and accountability. These institutions provide opportunities for active participation and involvement of the local people in the decision-making process. Local government is significant in the promotion of efficiency and decentralization of administration. This institution helps in solving the local people by their cooperation. Local people get the oppor¬tunity to control the administration. ‘ ‘
Trace the development of local governments in India.
The concept and existence of Local governments are not new to India. There has been the existence of Local governments in different names in ancient India. They enjoyed good position and powers. In the course of time, ) these village bodies took the shape of Panchayats (an assembly of five persons) and there five persons solved the issues at the local level. Their role and position kept on changing at different points in time. However, in medieval periods the status and significance of the Local governments eroded due to changes in socio-economic and political scenarios.
During the British period, the significance of the Local government got the attention of Lord Rippon (Then Viceroy of India) who tried to strengthen them. During the independence movement, many leaders including Mahatma Gandhi demanded the strengthing of Local government. After Independence, we have the existence of Local governments but it is the subject of the state.
Discuss the constitutional position of the Local government.
The issue of local governments was also discussed in the Constituent Assembly but the idea of decentralization of powers did not get adequate favor because of turmoil due to the partition of India. Most of the leaders wanted a strong center. Too much localism was considered a threat to national integration. At the same time, many leaders wanted decentralized administration and the participation and involvement of the people involving the local issues. Therefore the subject of local government is added in the chapter of Directive Principles of State Policy in part in the Constitution.
Discuss the working of local government in the post-independence period.
As said earlier that local government becomes the state subject but this did not get the proper attention of the local government, so could not produce results due to the following reasons :
- Bureaucratic apathy
- Poor financial position
- Dy-functional for long times
- Poor representation of women and scheduled caste
- The dominance of upper castes
- Inadequate powers
- The dominance of anti-social elements
- Political interference
- No recognition of local initiatives
- Dependence of Local government on State and Centre.
What was Balwant Rai Mehta Committee? Report?
After the implementation of the Indian Constitution, the Indian government appointed a committee under the Chairmanship of Balwant Rai Mehta to study the issue of Local government in the light of the issue of Local government given in the IVth Part of the Constitution in the chapter of Directive Principles of State Policy and recommended the mode of structure and function of these local governments in a rural area. Balwant Rai Mehta committee studied and discussed the issue in detail and gave its recommen¬dation which included three-tier structure in a rural area as under.
- Village Panchayat at the village level
- Block Samiti at the block level
- Zila Parishad at the district level
Discuss the background of the 73rd and 64th constitutional amendments.
As the Local governments were not doing well in most of the states^ except Gujarat and Rajasthan, the issue of strengthening the focal Government by restructuring them had always invited the attention of the political leadership states as well as the center. Many times this issue was raised at different levels.
When Narshima’s Congress Government came to power in 1991, he took the issue of strengthening and restructuring the Local government seriously.
In fact, he meant business. He brought two constitutional amendments which were passed in 1992 and came into force in 1993. All the states were directed to change their laws of Local government as per the provisions of the 73rd and 74th amendments.
Write main features of 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments.
It was an exhaustive amendment and brought about far-reaching changes in the existing structure and status of the local governments. The main provisions are as under:
- The Local Governments were given constitutional status.
- Elections for these local governments were made direct.
- The tenure of these local government was fixed for five years.
- 33% reservation was made in total seats for. woman and 33% seats reserved for .the Scheduled castes.
- Provision of state Election Commissioner was made.
- Provision of the setting of state finance commission was made.
Discuss the utility of reservation of seats for women and scheduled castes and OBC in Local Government.
Before the 73rd amendment and 74th amendment, women and weaker sections did not get adequate representation in proportion to thick numerical strength in the Local government because of the socio-economic structure’ at the grass-root level.
It is because of the provision of 33% reservation for women and 33% reservation for Scheduled castes in the 73rd and 74th amendment, these people have started to get the due representation in the local government. As a result of this representation, the^ have got empowered and are actively participating in the decision-making process. It has promoted their political recruitment and also has enhanced their social and economic status.
Discuss the composition of the state finance commission.
As per the 73rd constitutional amendment, the state government is also required to appoint a state finance commission once in five years. This commission would examine the financial position of the local government in the state. It would also review the distribution of revenue between the state and local government on one hand and between rural and urban local government on the other hand. State Finance will monitor the financial health of the local government and will ensure the proper allocation and utilization of funds. It will also use the misuse of funds at the political and bureaucratic levels.
Discuss the main provisions of the 74th amendment.
Local bodies at the urban level are organized to meet the needs of the urban areas. Since the needs of urban areas are different, their composition and functions are a bit different. 28% people in India like in urban area as per census 200%. The urban local Government is organized on the basis of population. The census of India defines an urban area as having.
- a minimum population of 5000
- 75% of the male working population engaged in non-agricultural occupations
- a density of population of a learned 400 persons per sq km.
74th amendment is a repetition of the 73rd amendment in matters of the election, tenure, reservation, transfer of subject, state Election Commissioner, and Finance Commissioner. Functions of the Local Governments have been listed in the Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution.
Discuss the implementation of the 73rd and 74th Amendments of the constitution.
Local Government has been given constitutional status therefore as per the 73rd and 74th Amendments it has become mandatory for all states to changes their laws about local Government accordingly. Today there are nearly 500 Zila Parishad, about 6000- Block Samitis, and about 2.50,000 gram panchayats in rural areas in India. There are about 100 city corporations, 1400 town municipalities, and over 2000 Nagar Panchayats in urban India. More than 32 lakh members are elected to these local bodies for five years out of this 32 lakh, 10 lakh members are women 73rd and 74th amendments have brought uniformity in urban and rural local Governments.
State the improvement in the status of women as a result of reservation in seats in Local government.
The provision of reservation for women at the Panchayat and Nagar Palika has ensured the presence of a significant number Of women in local bodies. As this provision of the reservation is also applicable for the position of Sarpanch and Presidents a large number of women elected representatives have been able to occupy these positions. This could become possible only because of the provision of reservation. There are at least 200 women Presidents in Zila Parishad another 2000 women are the Presidents of Block Samitis and more than8000 women are occupying the position of Sarpanch in Gram Panchayat.
Similarly, we have 30 women Mayors in corporations over 500 women our President of Town municipalities, and nearly 650 Nagar Panchayats are headed by women. This shows the sharp rise in the status of women as a result of reservation by the 73rd and 74th Amendments.
State the improvement in the status of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes as a result of reservation by the 73rd and 74th Amendments.
Before the 73rd and 74th amendment, certain seats were reserved for Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes in Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, and State Assemblies. There was no reservation for Scs. and Sts. in Local Government. In spite of adult Franchise, the Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes remained underrepresented due to socio-economic structure. Liberal economic and social policies also did not ensure adequate representation of scheduled castes and tribes in social government. But now due to the provision of reservation of 33% seats reserved for Scheduled caste, the situation is changed appreciably and the people of Scheduled castes and
Scheduled tribes have been able to occupy the positions in local bodies. As the Indian population has 16.2 percent Scheduled castes and 8.2 percent Scheduled tribes, about 6.6 lakh elected members in the urban and local bodies • to belong to their two communities. This shows the rise of the status of the people of their two communities as a result of the 73rd and 74th Amendments.
Assess the performance of local government after the 73rd and 74th amendments.
Local Governments are subjected not only to structure changes but wide powers are also given to them through 73rd and 74th subjects over the local resources. Now many important subjects have been brought up in the presence of local governments. Now there is real decentralization of powers and responsibility which is the result of democracy.
Now the structure of the local Government includes all the elected persons. Scheduled castes, back¬ward castes, women, bureaucratic officers, and politicians with combined opinions and co-operation of all the decisions are taken. With the addition of new subjects, the area of activities of local bodies is increased. Therefore we can say that the laws about the local governments are an important step in the direction of democratization and decentralization. We should make these provisions more and more real and practical.
Local Governments Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Discuss the main provisions of the 73rd and 74th amendments and also assess their significance.
73rd and 74th amendments regarding the local government were passed in 1992 by the Narsimha Government and they came into force in 1993. The main provisions of these amendments are as under
- Direct election to the local government at different levels.
- It also provided a three-tier structure at the rural level
- It also provided fixed and uniform tenure for local governments
- It provided 33% reservation of seats for women and 33% reservation of seats for Scheduled castes.
- Constitutional status for local bodies
- Constitution for state Election commissioner
- Composition for state Finance commissioner
- Transfer of subjects to local bodies means giving more powers
Impact of these amendments
- Due to constitutional status, all the states were made to make their laws of local governments as per the provision of the 73rd and 74th Amendments.
- Now elections are held at regular intervals in all the states and their tenure is fixed uniformly.
- Women have got adequate representation
- Scheduled caste also have got adequate representation
- The status of women and scheduled castes is improved
- The local bodies have become more function
- Grass root democracy is strengthened.
- They have become the instrument of decentralization.