Here we are providing Class 11 Political Science Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 9 Peace. Political Science Class 11 Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.
Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Important Extra Questions Peace
Peace Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
What is Peace?
Peace is one of the most desired situations not only by the saints and philosophers but also by every ordinary person. Even those who get indulged in violence do the violence in search of peace. The concept of peace has been conceived and understood differently by the people of different ages. Generally, peace has been defined as the absence of war. But this definition of peace is incomplete and misleading. Peace is something mental and psychological. Peace is freedom from unnecessary tensions and worries at the individual level as well as collective level. It is also a fact that peace is a personal and relative matter. At the individual level, peace depends, how he/she takes the things!
What do you mean by structural violence?
When the conflict, exploitation and tensions are at the institutional level in perpetuation, it is called as the structural violence. In, such structural violent situation, peace will the immediate causality. For example, the traditional Indian caste system which was based on hierarchic system disclosed a group of people as untouchable and put them at the lowest ladder of the society. It naturally bred hatred, tension and conflict. Similar is the situation of colonialism, where one country dominated, exploited and subjected enter country leading to violence and revolt.
How inequality harms the cause of peace?
Inequality in any form is certainly injurious to the cause of health. Any social order based on inequalities will not have peaceful and harmonious relationship^imong the members of that society because’ these will be tension, competition, dominance and hatred.
Give the names of the system of structured violence.
There can be any system of structural violence. Following are the examples from history in which structural violence prevailed.
- Traditional Indian social order in which a group of people was declared untouchable.
- Indian family system, where women were declared inferior and incapable.
- Colonialism which institutionalised group exploitation of other countries.
- Racism, where a group of other caste and race was exploited.
- Communalism, where people of another religion were exploited.
How structural violence caused harm to peace?
Different forms of structural violence like colonialism, racism, communalism, hierarchic social order and low status of women prolonged the tension and make a particular type of psyche which institutionalised not only inequalities and exploitation but tension and conflict also. Psychological and tangible harm suffered by the victims of violence created grievances which were transmitted from generation to generation. In this way, such structural violence harmed peace for a long time to come.
How the violence can be eliminated?
It seems to be difficult if the not impossible proposition that violence can be eliminated from society totally. It needs healthy psyche, mind frame built-in a congenial and healthy environment. Several age-old spiritual principles like compassions, meditations and preachings have been playing their role in their own way to make healthy psyche and thinking of man to establish peace.
Can violence be helpful in the establishment of peace?
Although, it is generally thought that violence is used to establish peace. Particularly at the state level, it is used for establishing peace. It is because of this the army and police are maintained and is trained in the use of weapons for violence and wars, But it is all superficial view. The everlasting peace can only be achieved by the positive makeup of mind frame which can be possible with the positive environment built on the basis of harmonies and cooperative relations among the people of the society.
What are the reasons for the growing violence in our society?
There are a number of reasons for the present growing state of violence in the present-day society, but we can give some of them, which are as under
- Increasing selfishness
- Excessive view of casteism, communalism and regionalism
- Increasing culture of consumerism and naturalism
- Criminalisation of politics
- Corruption in society
- Lust for power and money
- Structural violence.
What exactly is peace? Why it is fragile in today.
Peace is in fact a state of mind free from worry, tension, hatred and fear. It is related to the framework of mind and mindset. Peace is a very positive situation in life. In today’s world, it is found to be very fragile i.e. it is in a disturbing state. The environment of societies has become violent and uncertain. There is a situation of mistrust and distrust. Most of the people are in mental tension in such situation peace has become very much unachievable.
How does the human mind help in establishing peace?
Human mind shapes the behaviour of man and behaviour of man creates peace or tension therefore mind plays a significant role in establishing peace. The Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation rightly observes “Since war begins in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed.” For this several sages and saints preached the spiritual principles of tolerance and compassion and practices of meditation were followed to make a mindset so as to establish and promote peace.
Do you agree that non-violence means weakness?
The main reason for increasing violence in society is a misunderstanding about non-violence. Many people equate non-violence with weakness, which is totally fallacious. In fact, weak people resort to war and violence. It is the quality of strong persons to be tolerant and non-violent. Gandhiji gave a broad meaning of non-violence. For him non¬violence meant not just refraining from causing physical harm but also includes the thought of causing physical or mental harm to anybody. It is the task of only the strong person. A weak person cannot have this quality.
How Gandhiji experimented with non-violence?
Many people think it is the violence which can bring the just ends, but it is again fallacious. The ultimate result will come only thing non-violence which is proved by Gandhi’s experiments in South Africa and India. Gandhiji made India independent only through non-violence. Violence can bring results for short devotion but .ultimate just end is brought only through the non-violence.
How the state is related to peace?
In today’s world, there are sovereign nation-states which are inspired with narrow nationalism. Each modem nation-state is organised on the basis of nationality Every nation-state behaves like a human being. As the behaviour of men is shaped by his personal interest in a similar way the behaviour of a nation is shaped on the basis of his national interest. Since the national interests of the states, a leads to differences leading to clashes and conflicts which ultimately poses threat to peace at the individual level as well as collective level. To protect its interest every state uses the force. Each state has police and army as the instrument of coercion.
What do you mean by Pacifism?
Pacifism denotes thinking which opposes war and violence for settling differences and disputes. It prefers to settle the disputes through discussion, negotiation and dialogue and not through violence or war. Pacifism is a principle which is based on pragmatism. The supporters of Pacifism believe that use of force and resort to war is morally wrong. They prefer peaceful means like the negotiation for settling the disputes than the war which, they say will never just end.
What are the main challenges to peace in the modern world?
Followings are the main challenges for peace
- Increasing consumerism.
- The criminalisation of society and polity.
Peace Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Define the concept of peace.
There has a number of persons as champions of peace. Many saints, philosophers and statesman have also championed the cause of peace. Although there have also been many philosophers, warriors and army Generals who have glorified war and did not value peace because they believed that only conflict could facilitate the growth of civilisation. Several thinkers have condemned peace and commended violence and conflict as essential vehicles of individual heroism and social vitality.
Peace is the situation of no war, no tension and no conflict of any kind. Peace is a state of mind. The essential elements of peace are justice, tolerance, truth and compassion. Peace is something eternal and pious ultimate happiness of mankind lies in the peace. There have been ardent supporters of peace such as M.K. Gandhi, Gautam Buddha etc. who denounced war and violence.
Name the factors which have been threatening international peace.
Peace at an individual level, national level and international level has been facing threats from different sides. Nation-states have been engaged in conflicts, tensions and wars like the ordinary human beings over petty issues. These issues have been posing threats to international peace.
The post-war period of the world has been marked by intense rivalry’ between two superpowers i.e. Capitalist USA and Communist USSR. There are have been a number of wars and tensions in different parts of the world which threatened international peace. Many wars on the planet have caused the destruction of human life and property.
What do you mean by structural violence? Explain with example.
Violence occurs in society at various levels in different forms. It occurs at the individual level, collective level, in an unorganised way and also organised way. An organised form of violence is called structural violence. Traditional caste system treated certain groups of people of a particular caste as untouchables, who were subjected to collective humiliation and exploitation and deprivation. Only after independence, Art. 17 of Indian Constitution abolished it but, still, we have scars of this evil till today.
Similarly, women have been treated badly in a male-dominated society. They were considered inferior and incapable and unworthy of doing any great thing. They have also b.een subjected to hard atrocities.
Another example of structural violence in colonialism which prevailed for a long time in different parts of the world. Racism and communalism were also systems of structural violence.
Discuss racism as structural violence.
Racism prevailed as the system Of oppression of an entire racial group or community in South Africa and Negro slavery in the United States of America and the slaughter of Jews in Germany. Apartheid (a policy of racial discrimination) was followed in South Africa by the white-controlled government which treated the black people of the country as second class citizens. Such structural violence continues from one generation to another generation. Continuous exploitation creates grievances that persist over generations and are provoked on slightest incident or remark.
How the violence can be eliminated?
It is said that war and tensions lie in the mind of man. Violence is the expression and manifestation of tensions of the human mind. Therefore if the violence is to be eliminated i.e. removed that there should be peace in mind.
The Constitution of United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation rightly observes as “Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed.” At the same time, it is also the fact that mindsets are shaped by the socio, economic and political environment of the society. Therefore to eliminate tension and violence, the healthy and positive environment has to be built up. Violence is not the product of individual psyche but is the result of group and collective psyche of the society which also needs reform for peace.
Can violence ever promote peace?
Many people think that by mean of violence we can get just ends and also we can establish peace. Many people consider violence for the establishment and promotion of peace. The state is created only on this thesis. Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau have created state to get rid of violence at a natural stage and to establish peace in which life and liberty of the people could be protected. It is argued that tyrants and oppressors can be checked and removed only by force and by using violence. In different parts of the world imperialism and colonialism have been removed by violent Liberation movements. Different terrorist organisations and militants work on this thesis that just cause of self-rule can be achieved only by violent movements.
Discuss the role of the state in establishing and maintaining peace.
It is often said that the division of the world into a large number of independent sovereign states is a big obstacle as the hindrance in realising the peace. The state is sovereign and independent identity. It has its own interest and it pursues it. The behaviour and actions of the state revolve around the national interest of the state while for the pursuit of large peace, it is necessary that one should think of larger humanity.
States make a distinction between its citizens and the regions. For the protection of the interests of its citizens, they may harm the interests of the citizens of other states which will naturally lead to clash and conflict in which the cause of peace would suffer. In this way state itself is responsible for the harming the cause of peace while initially the state cause into existence for the building of peace. The state has become an instrument of coercion and force. Peace needs a congenial atmosphere, balanced behaviour of the people for which there should be a peaceful environment.
Explain the approaches to the pursuit of peace.
There are mainly three approaches to the realisation of peace. The first approach attaches maximum importance to the states, respect their sovereignty and treats competition among them as a fact of life. It aims at the management of the competition among various people.
The second approach grants the deep-rooted nature of state rivalry. It stresses the positive presence and possible inter-dependence. It underscores the growing social and economic co-operation.
The third approach considers the system to be a passing phase of human history. It envisages the emergence of supranational order and sees the fastening of the community as the surest guarantee of peace.
Explain the philosophy of Pacifism.
Pacifism is thinking which is opposed to war-violence as a means of settlement of disputes. It advocates the settlement of disputes by negotiations and other such peaceful methods. Pacifism is a philosophy which denounces war because it considers any form of war as immoral. Pragmatic pacifism does not adhere to such an absolute principle but holds that there are bitter ways of solving the disputes. They say that war and violence have an only a negative impact and no any positive aspect. It is quite fallacious that wars settle the disputes and bring desired ends. In general, other pacifists follow the principle of non-violence. It is therefore Pacifism follows peace and non-violence and make every effort to establish and maintain peace in the world.
Explain various challenges to peace in the present-day world.
Today’s world is increasingly becoming more and more violent in which peace is the ultimate target. Peace is diminishing at the individual level, collective level, at the national level and international level. Problems like pollution, terrorism have made human behaviour vulnerable and unbalanced which results in frequent violent events. Followings are main factors which have provoked violence and wars:
- Increasing population
- Increasing materialism
- Increasing consumerism
- Lust for power
- Lust for money
- Increasing means of communication
- Prolonging of differences on a certain national and international issue.
- Religious fundamentalism.
Discuss the role of the UN in establishing peace.
UNO came into existence on 24th October 1945 after the end of the Second World War which played havoc with mankind, particularly When an atom bomb was used in Japan. Various wars of regional levels and First World War and the Second World War changed the international environment with the violence and tensions.
UNO in its charter made the foremost objective to establish the International Peace and Security Council took this sole responsibility to establish and maintain international peace. UNO through its several specialised agencies tried to transform international security through mutual co-operation. It is through the mutual co-operation, that UN has made effort to built understanding among the countries of the world so as to make the congenial atmosphere for the promotion of international peace. It is to the credit of UN that it has been able to check the out-break of Third World War and the contending parties to the disputes have agreed to come to the negotiation with the various types of efforts and decisions, the tension in international relations is reduced.
How terrorism has disturbed the peace?
Terrorism is a menace which is disturbing the human psychology in a big way. The terrorism porter is emerging in the behaviour of man as well as in the behaviour of states. The rise of terrorism is partly a response to the self-serving conduct of the aggressive states. In today’s world, it is posing a maximum threat to peace. Religious fanatism and fundamentalism are the big instruments of terrorism which are found in many parts of the world. The human community has suffered a lot due to terrorist attack in different parts of the world.
Can war be justified to achieve peace?
At different quarters it is thought that to achieve the just ends, the war is a desirable weapon or a method. In the history of the world, a large number of wars have been fought on the basis of the thesis. But history bears the proof that no war has ever been produced the desired result except the destruction and tensions. Iraq and Iran fought for eleven years together for their viewpoints but no state could get anything except loss of face and destruction. Iraq invaded Kuwait and occupied its territory claiming to be it’s own but ultimately Iraq had to withdraw from Kuwait in the wake of the Gulf war in 1990 which was masterminded by the USA. Peace can only be achieved only by love, compassion, non-violence and tolerance.
Discuss the relevance of Gandhian principles for peace.
M.K. Gandhi was one of the great champions of the peace who advocated the need for establishing peace for the welfare of the whole of mankind. In preaching the peace, he was internationalist because he thought of whole mankind. He experimented with his concept of truth non-violence while giving the generalisation.
Gandhian philosophy of satyagraha and non-violence is more relevant and needed than ever before because today the whole world is in the grip of materialism and is threatened by the evils like terrorism and fanaticism. Gandhi said that truth is the ultimate reality which must be pursued by the man at every cost. It will only bring ultimate peace and inner happiness. Tolerance is a must for peace and non-violence because intolerance will lead to tensions and wars. Gandhi said that to be non¬violent does not mean weakness. In fact, it is the strengths of a man if he is tolerant.
How and why the war had been glorified by different persons?
Whereas the peace has been cherished by different philosophers, saints and thinkers, it is the war which has also been glorified at different levels by different thinkers, philosophers and the rulers. George Bernard Shah glorified war and had said that war is necessary for the sustenance of patriotism and keeping the army men and arms active.
The 19th-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche was one of those who glorified war. Nietzsche did not value peace because he believed that only conflict brings dynamism and growth of civilisation. Similarly, many other thinkers have also glorified and condemned peace. They were of the view that peace brings inaction and war brings action. Nationalist thinkers and warriors also command war:
What have been the main reasons for war in the world?
If we look and examine the history of various disputes and the wars which took place in different parts of the world we find the following factors were largely responsible for war and tensions.
- Extreme Nationalism.
- Greed of rulers
- Religious fanatism
- Religious fundamentalism
- False pride
- Non-availability of the sources
Peace Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Define the concept of peace, its forms and methods by which peace can be achieved.
Peace has ever been an important concept as many other concepts like democracy and secularism. Peace has been the ultimate object of every system. Peace is not just the end of war and tension it is something more. A just and lasting peace can be attained only by articulating and removing the hidden grievances and causes of conflict through a process of dialogue and understanding. The peace can also be understood as the absence of violent conflict of all kinds including war riot, massacre and assassination. Peace in the above definitions is partly true.
Peace is related not to just the physical world it is also related to spiritual and psychological world. It is the outcome of mental saturation and mental satisfaction. Peace is concerned more with the inner behaviour of man. Peace is related to the balanced relationship of the socio-economic environment of the society. If there are any kind of imbalances in society, peace will be elusive. Violence is certainly the negation of peace which has been in existence in the society in different forms.
In Indian society, it is found in caste hierarchy which was based on caste subordinations leading to tensions and violence among different castes.
Women as a social group had been considered inferior and were subjected to humiliation leading to tensions in social relations.
At political level imperialism, colonialism exploited the political communities leading to violent revolts. In such cases, peace has been the victim.