On this page, you will find NCERT Class 8 History Chapter 11 Notes Pdf free download. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes History Chapter 11 SST The Making of the National Movement 1870s – 1947 will seemingly, help them to revise the important concepts in less time.

The Making of the National Movement 1870s – 1947 Class 8 Notes Social Science History Chapter 11

CBSE Class 8 History Chapter 11 Notes Understanding the Lesson

1. The rise of Questions: what is this country India and for whom is it meant?

2. The answers to these questions are: India, was the people of India – all the people of all class, colour, caste, creed, language or gender belong to this nation. The resources of the country were meant for all the people.

3. The gradual rise in the thinking capability of the people of India with time answered many questions and even created awareness in the minds of the people that Britishers were fiercely exercising the control over the resources and lives of the people of India.

4. Indians could not be the part of India unless and untill the control of British got diminished or vanished.

5. The beginning of consciousness was with the formation of political associations like Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, the Bombay Presidency Association, the Madras Mahajan Sabha and the Indian National Congress. Although most of these were led by the English professionals but they clearly stated in their aim to spread consciousness and sovereignity in people.

6. Sovereign can be defined as modern consciousness and key feature of nationalism. In a layman sense, it means that Indias should be empowered for taking their own decisions.

7. During 1870’s and 1880’s dissatisfaction with British rule intensified due to various reasons like Arms Act of 1878, Vernacular Press Act, and in 1883 the government was willing to introduce the Ilbert Bill.

8. These reasons of dissatisfaction created the need for an all India organisation of educated Indians since 1880 and desire for this was deepened with the controversy of Ilbert Bill.

9. In 1885, 72 delegates from all over India met at Bombay and the Indian National Congress (INC) was established.

10. The early leadership comprised of a large number from Bombay and Calcutta.

  • Naoroji worked as a guide for the younger nationalists.
  • O. Hume, a retired British official, played an important role by bringing Indians from different re­gions together.

11. For the Ist 20 years which is known as the moderate phase of Congress it demanded basically a greater voice for Indians in the government and in administration.

12. They also demanded for the civil service examination to be held in India for their will of establishing Indians in high positions in the governance.

13. Indianisation of the administration can be regarded as the part of movement against racism.

14. By declaring that the British rule had led to poverty and famines, the Congress in its early phase demanded several economic issues like reduction of taxes and revenues on various things, well treatment of labour class etc.

15. Being an elite educated body, it never discussed on behalf of any professional groups.

16. Moderates wanted the development of public awareness regarding the unjust nature of the British rule.

17. They even wanted to make the government aware about the feelings of Indians.

18. By 1890’s criticism of Congress started by questioning about the political style of Congress.

19. The critiques were the radical groups who criticised the moderates for their political prayers in front of the British government.

20. They wanted the people to rely on their own strength and improve themselves to fight for Swaraj.

21. “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it” – Slogan raised by Tilak.

22. In 1905 Lord Curzon partitioned Bengal giving the reason that dividing Bengal would help in the administrative convenience.

23. It was also believed that by dividing Bengal, British had motives to curtail the influence of Bengali politicians and to split the Bengali people.

24. Partition of Bengal was opposed by all sections of the Congress and also infuriated the people all over India.

25. The struggle against the partition of the Bengal came to be known as Swadeshi movement. The movement although happened only in India but had echoed all over India too, for example in deltaic Andhra the movement was named or known as the Vandemataram Movement.

26. Swadeshi Movement not only opposed the British rule but also encouraged the idea of self help, Swadeshi enterprise, national education and of Indian languages.

27. Radicals advocated that to fight for Swaraj there was need for mass mobilisation and boycott.

28. Some even suggested “revolutionary violence” necessary for the overthrowing of the British Rule.

29. All India Muslim League at Dacca was founded in 1906 by group of landlords and nawabs. They were

  • supportive to Swadeshi Movement.
  • demanded separate electorates for Muslims and the demand was conceded by the government in 1909.

30. Congress split in 1907.

  • Moderates opposed using Boycott as they felt that Boycott involved the use of force.
  • Split was dominated by the moderate and Tilak’s followers were functioning from outside.
  • The both groups of Congress reunited in the year 1915 again and in the next year historical Lucknow Pact was signed between the Congress and the Muslim League.

31. Struggle against the British gradually transformed into a mass movement after 1919.

32. The first world war altered not only economic but also political scenario of India. It led to huge rise in defence expenditure of the government of India, increased military expenditure and with this there was a sharp rise in prices that created unbearable difficulties for the common people of that time.

33. The World war Ist created a great profit earning situation for the business groups.

34. The World war resulted in the expansion of the British army.

35. In 1917 with the revolution in Russia, the spread of ideas of socialism was seen widely resulting in the inspiration for the Indian Nationalists.

36. Advent of Mahatma Gandhi who emerged as mass leader.

37. Arrived in 1915 from South Africa at an age of 46 years.

38. Respected leader of South Africa for the Indians there.

39. Mahatma Gandhi spent Ist year in India by travelling throughout the country, understanding the actual situation of India and the Indians under the British colonial rule.

40. Earlier intervention of Gandhiji in the local movements was seen in Champaran, Kheda and Ahmedabad.

41. Movements between 1919 – 1922 were led by Gandhiji.

42. In 1919, Satyagraha was initiated against the just passed Rowlatt Act by the British.

  • Criticizing the Act as restriction on the basic freedom.
  • 6 April 1919 was observed as day of non-violent opposition to the Rowlatt Act.
  • The Rowlatt Satyagraha turned to be the first all-India struggle against the British government.
  • The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on April 13 was also part of the repression of his satyagraha.
  • Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood expressing his anger against the British.

43. Khilafat agitation and the Non-cooperation Movement have gained momentum.

  • As in 1920 Khilafat issue got in front of the world.
  • British in 1920 imposed treaty on Khalifa.
  • Leaders of Khilafat agitation Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali supported Gandhiji, urged the Congress to campaign against Jallianwala Massacre, the Khilafat issue and also to demand Swaraj.
  • With the peak in the Non-cooperation movement complete boycott of British was seen.

44. The National Movement started to be linked with the local grievances by the people. In many forest villages peasants even proclaimed Swaraj and started believing about the establishment of the Gandhi Raj.

45. Khilafat – non-cooperation alliance gave enormous communal unity with the strenghtning of national movement.

46. In Punjab – Akali agitation of Sikhs was seen, in Assam tea garden labourers’ demand for increasing wages was raised. They all were seen as part of non-cooperation only.

47. Gandhiji was seen as a kind of Messiah by some people.

  • Ordinary people credited Gandhiji for their own achievements.

48. Mahatma Gandhi was strong opposer of violent movement. This resulted in calling off of the non­cooperation movement after crowd of peasants set police station in Chauri Chaura on fire in 1922.

49. In order to influence government policies it was stressed by some leaders that Congress should fight elections to the councils.

50. In the mid of 1920’s the two important development were seen in the form of formation of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and the Communist Party of India (CPI).

51. Revolutionary nationalist Shri Shaheed Bhagat Singh was too active during the period of mid 1920’s.

52. The “Independence Day” was observed on 26th January 1930 as under the Presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru. Congress fought in the 1920’s decade for the objective of complete independence (ie. Poorna Swaraj).

53. In 1930, Mahatma Gandhi broke the salt law. Marching with 20 followers Gandhiji marched 240 miles from Sabarmati to the coastal town of Dandi.

54. Combined struggles of Indian people resulted in Government of India Act 1935 prescribing about provincial autonomy and announcing elections for the provincial legislatures in 1937. Congress won 7 out of 11 provinces.

55. In September 1939, with outbreak of IInd world war, Congress leaders got ready to support the British but in return demanded independence after the war which was refused by the British. In return Congress Ministries resigned as protest against the refusal.

56. Mahatma Gandhi initiated a new phase of movement against the British in middle of IInd world war, he said people to “do or die” to fight the British but with non-violence.

  • This movement attracted specially the peasants and youths.
  • The British Rai was brought to its knees.

57. In 1940, Muslim League moved resolution demanding “Independent States” for Muslims in north-west and east part of India.

58. From 1930’s Muslims were viewed as separate nation from the Hindu concluding with the history of tension.

59. Congress failed in mobilising Muslim masses and in 1930 this condition allowed Muslim League to widen its social support.

60. Muslim League persisted with its demand for Pakistan.

  • In March 1946, British cabinet sent 3 member mission to examine the demand of Pakistan.
  • The mission suggested that Indians should remain united and constitute itself as a loose confederation giving some autonomy for Muslim majority areas.
  • The Congress and the Muslim League did not agree on the details of proposal resulting in the more inevitability of the partition.
  • Failure of cabinet mission led to mass agitation of Muslim League for the demand of Pakistan.
  • 16th August 1946 was announced as “Direct Action Day”. Riots broke in Calcutta and by March 1947 violence spread to different parts of Northern India.

61. With the brutality against several innocent people of both the countries, Pakistan was bom and joy of country’s Independence from British rule came mixed with pain and violence of partition.

The Making of the National Movement 1870s – 1947 Class 8 CBSE Notes Important Terms

Sovereign: The capacity to act independently without outside interference.

Publicist: Someone who publicises an idea by circulating information, writing reports, speaking at meetings.

Repeal: To undo law to officially end the validity of something such as law.

Revolutionary violence: The use of violence to make a radical change within society.

Council: An appointed or elected body of people with an administrative, advisory or representative function.

Knighthood: An honour granted by the British Crown for exceptional personal achievement on public service.

Picket: People protesting outside a building or shop to prevent others from entering.

Mahants: Religious functionaries of Sikh gurdwaras.

Illegal eviction: Forcible and unlawful throwing out of tenants from the land they rent.

Provincial autonomy: Capacity of the provinces to make relatively independent decisions while remaining within a federation.

General constituencies: Election districts with no reservations for any religious or other community.

Pooma swaraj: Complete independence.

RSS: Hindu ideological group. RSS Stands for Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh.

Notes of History Class 8 Chapter 11 Time Period

1878: Arms Act was passed which disallowing Indians from possessing arms.

1885: Formation of ‘Indian National Congress’ at Bombay.

1905: Viceroy Curzon partitioned Bengal.

1906: Formation of ‘All India Muslim League’ at Dacca.

1907: Congress split in two groups.

1915: (i) Gandhiji arrived in India from South Africa.

(ii) Both group of Congress reunited.

1917: Revolution of Russia took place.

1919: (i) Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act called by Gandhiji.

(ii) JallianwalaBagh atrocities (13 April)

1920: The Non-Cooperation Movement started.

1928: Formation of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association by Bhagat Singh and his comrades at FerozeshahKotla in Delhi.

1929: Demand of PurnaSwaraj by Congress.

1930: (i) Independence Day was observed all over the Country (26 January).

(ii) ‘Dandi March’ launched by Gandhiji.

1942: The Quit India Movement started (in August).

1947: India got independence from British Rule & a new country formed known as Pakistan.