CBSE Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 Extra Questions People as Resource Pdf free download are part of Extra Questions for Class 9 Social Science. Here we have given NCERT Extra Questions for Class 9 Social Science SST Economics Chapter 2 People as Resource.
Class 9 Economics Chapter 2 Extra Questions and Answers People as Resource
SOLVED QUESTION BANK
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
What is people as a resource?
People as a resource means people are an asset rather than a liability, i.e., the work population of a country.
When does population becomes human capital?
Population becomes human capital when investment is made in the form of education, training and medical care. It adds up to the productive power of a country.
What is the positive side of a large population?
A large population, from productive aspect, contributes to Gross National Product.
You can also Download NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science PDF to help you to revise complete Syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.
What is human capital? [CBSE2011]
When investment is made in the form of education, training and medical care, the quality of population improves and becomes a great asset. It is known as human capital.
How can investment be made in humans?
Investment can be made in humans by means of education, training and provision of health care facilities.
How does the society benefit from investment in humans?
The benefit of society from investment in humans is an indirect way that is the benefits of educated and healthier population spreads to those who are not educated or healthy.
How is human capital superior to other resources?
Human capital is superior to other resources because other resources can be developed only by human beings with their skills and knowledge. They can not be developed and become useful on their own.
Why do educated parents invest heavily in the education of their children?
Educated parents invest more in the health and education of their children because they are aware of the benefits of higher education.
How illiterate parents create a vicious cycle for their children?
Illiterate parents who are not aware of the advantages of education and hygiene, deprive their children of these which in turn results in their children falling in the trap of a vicious circle.
What are different types of primary activities?
Primary activities include agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, mining, quarrying and poultry farming etc.
What are tertiary activities?
Tertiary activities include services like education, health, communication, banking, trade, transport, tourism, insurance etc. These services help in the smooth functioning of primary and secondary activities.
A person is making envelopes with the help of paper. In which sector should his activity be included? [CBSE 2012]
What are economic activities?
The activities which help to earn money for the country or add value to the national income are known as economic activities.
What are non-economic activities?
Non-economic activities are those activities which do not add to the national income such as an individual performing domestic chores.
Define market activities.
Market activities are those activities for which the people, who perform these activities, are paid or have profits such as production of goods and services.
What are non-market activities?
Non-market activities are those activities which are carried out for self-consumption such as consumption and processing of primary products and own account production of fixed assets.
In which case women get paid for their work?
Women are paid for their work when they enter into the labour market.
What are the major determinants of earnings?
Education and skill are the two major determinants of earnings.
What is an unorganised sector?
It is a sector where the income of people is low and irregular. The basic facilities such as maternity leave, childcare and other social security systems are also absent in an unorganised sector.
What kinds of jobs in the organised sector attract women?
In the organised sector, teaching and medicine attract the women most.
Mention two factors on which quality of population depends.
The two factors are the literacy rate and the health of a person indicated by life expectancy and skill formation of the people.
Which factor decides the growth rate of a country?
The growth rate of a country is decided by the quality of population.
How is education useful to an individual?
Education is useful in making better use of the economic opportunities available to an individual.
What are Navodaya Vidyalayas?
Navodaya Vidyalayas are the schools started for the talented children in the rural areas.
Why have vocational streams been developed?
Vocational streams have been developed to equip large number of high school students with occupations related to knowledge and skills.
Mention the literacy rates of population in 1951 and 2010-11.
18% in 1951 and 74% in 2010-11.
What differences have been noted in literacy among different sections of the society and states?
The differences are higher between males and females, more in urban areas than rural areas and higher in Kerala than Bihar.
Even though primary schools have expanded largely in villages, mention the reasons for their diluted result?
The poor quality of schooling and high dropout rates are the reasons for their diluted results.
What do you know about Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan?
It is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years by 2010.
What is the main aim of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan?
It is a time-bound initiative of the central government in partnership with the states, the local government and the community for achieving the goals of universalisation of elementary education.
Why have mid-day meal scheme been launched by the government in the schools?
Mid-day meal scheme has been launched by the government in schools to encourage attendance and retention of children and to improve their nutritional status.
What are the strategies adopted in the 12th plan for education and literacy?
The strategies include increasing access, quality, adoption of states-specific curriculum modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology. It is also focussed on convergence of formal, non-formal, distance and IT education institutions.
Mention two things necessary for good health.
The two things which are necessary for good health are:
- Balanced and nutritious diet
- Health care facilities
What is the aim of National Health Policy of India?
The National Health Policy aims at improving the accessibility of healthcare, family welfare and nutritional services with special focus on the underprivileged segment of the population.
What is infant mortality rate? [CBSE 20151
The infant mortality rate (IMR) refers to the number of deaths of infants per thousand live births before completing one year.
What do you mean by birth rate?
The birth rate is the total number of live births per 1,000 people during a particular period of time.
Define death rate.
The death rate is the total number of people dying per 1,000 people during a particular period of time.
What are the two indicators for assessing the future of a country?
The two indicators for assessing the future of a country are increase in life expectancy and improvement in childcare.
How many medical colleges and dental colleges are in India?
There are 381 medical colleges in the country and 301 dental colleges.
What do you mean by the term ‘unemployment’?
It is a situation when people, who are willing to work at the existing wages, are not able to find jobs for themselves.
How does rural areas differ from urban areas in terms of unemployment?
In rural areas, there is seasonal and disguised unemployment whereas in urban areas, there is educated unemployment.
What is meant by seasonal unemployment? [CBSE 2015]
It is a situation when people are not able to find jobs during the particular months of a year especially in agriculture.
What is disguised unemployment?
It is a situation when people appear to be employed but in reality they are not such as in agriculture if five people are working but only three are required, then two people are disguised unemployed.
What is educated unemployment?
It means unemployment among the educated people. It usually occurs in cities where there are educated or skilled people but no job opportunities.
Mention two consequences of unemployment.
The two consequences of unemployment are:
- It leads to wastage of manpower resources.
- It tends to increase in economic overload.
‘Unemployment rate is low in India.’ Why? [HOTS]
In India, the unemployment rate is low because large number of people with low income and productivity are counted as employed.
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
Define Human capital and human capital formation. Name any two sources of human capital formation.
When investment is made in the form of education, training and medical care, the quality of population improves and becomes a great asset. It is known as human capital.
When the investment is made in the existing human resource for further development by becoming more educated and healthy is termed as human capital farmatipn.
The two sources of human capital formation are education and health.
Mention three sectors of economic activities with examples. [CBSE 2014]
The three sectors of economic activities are:
- Primary sector. It produces goods by exploiting natural resources. It includes agriculture, forestry, mining, animal husbandry and fishing.
- Secondary sector. It converts all raw material into finished goods such as manufacturing industries and construction activities.
- Tertiary sector. It includes trade, transportation, communication, education, health, tourism and insurance etc. It helps in the smooth functioning of primary and secondary sectors.
Define economic activities. Highlight the two types of economic activities. [CBSE 2014]
What is an economic activity? What are the different types of economic activities? [CBSE 2011]
Economic activities are those activities which add value to the national income. The two types of economic activities are:
- Market activities. These are those activities which involve remuneration to those who perform the activities for wages or profit.
- Non-market activities. These activities refer to production activities which are performed for self-consumption and processing of primary products and own account production of fixed assets.
Distinguish between market and non-market activities with three points of distinction.
|Market Activities||Non-market Activities|
|(a) Market activities are those activities which include the production and consumption of goods.
(b) These activities are performed for pay or profits.
(c) Example: A teacher teaching in a school and a man working in a bank.
|(a) Non-market activities include things which are not economic and comprises of exchange system.
(b) These activities are performed for self-consumption.
(c) Example: Subsistence farming and processing of primary products.
How are the children of educated parents are different from those of uneducated ones?
|Children of Educated Parents||Children of Uneducated Parents|
|(a) Children of educated parents are also educated because their parents know the value of education.
(b) They maintain high health and nutritional standards.
(c) They get better jobs because they are well educated.
(d) Educated parents are able to help their children in their self-studies.
|(a) Children of uneducated parents are also uneducated because their parents do not know the value of education.
(b) They do not maintain high nutritional standards because of lack of awareness.
(c) They are generally employed in household works as their parents fail to realise the importance of education.
(d) Uneducated parents are not able to help their children in their self-studies.
Mention any three features of National Health Policy. [CBSE 2012]
The three features of National Health Policy are:
- It aims at improving the accessibility of healthcare and family welfare.
- It aims at improving the nutritional services with special focus on under-privileged segment of the population.
- It has improved the ratio of nurses, doctors and beds in the country.
What is the health status of the population in India?
- India has built a vast health infrastructure and has also developed the manpower required at primary, secondary and tertiary sector in government, as well as, in the private sector.
- Life expectancy have been increased to over 68.3 years in 2014.
- Infant mortality rate has come down from 147 in 1951 to 37 in 2015.
- Crude birth rates have dropped to 20.8 and death rates to 6.5 within the same duration of time.
Why is health of people a matter of major concern for the Indian government?
Health is an important determinant of the quality of production and in turn affects the overall growth and development of a country. In spite of improvement in health, medical facilities, decline in infant mortality rate etc. it continues to remain a matter of concern because:
- Safe drinking water and basic amenities are still only available to one-third of the rural population.
- The per capita calories consumption is still much below the recommended levels.
“Unemployment leads to low income and low savings and hence low demand and low production. This is the identification of a depressed economy.” Support the statement with three arguments.
[CBSE 2016; HOTS]
Unemployment has negative effects on the economic development of a country in the following ways
- It is a wastage of manpower resource. It increases the economic overload and the number of dependent on population.
- The quality of life of an individual as well as the society is adversely affected. There is a feeling of hopelessness among the youth.
- The time period lost in the unemployment is an irrecoverable loss. It is the loss of productive period and the loss can not be compensated.
Thus, increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy.
Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]
In what way is human capital superior to other sources like physical capital? How a large population is turned into a productive asset? Explain. [CBSE 2014]
Human capital is superior to other sources like physical capital as it can make use of other sources like land and physical capital. Human capital can develop land and physical capital according to his skill and education because they could not develop on their own.
A large population is turned into a productive asset by the following ways:
- Proper investment in developing skills.
- Emphasis on academic and vocational aspects of students.
- Making available opportunities accessible to large section of people like technological know how.
Describe the employment scenario in the three sectors of the economy in India in recent years. [CBSE 2013] [HOTS]
Agriculture is the most labour absorbing absorbing sector sector of the economy. In recent years, there has been a decline in the dependence of population on agriculture partly because of disguised unemployment. Some of the surplus labour in agriculture has moved to secondary or tertiary sectors. Small-scale manufacturing is the most labour absorbing sector in secondary sector. The tertiary sector has seen a remarkable improvement in its employment in recent years. In this sector, various new services are now appearing such as biotechnology, information technology and so on.
Analyse the role of education in the formation of human capital formation. [CBSE 2012]
The role of education in human capital formation is as follows:
- Educated people earn more than the uneducated people.
- Literate population is an asset to an economy.
- It leads to higher productivity.
- It opens new avenues for a person.
- It provides new aspirations and develops values of life. if) It contributes to the growth of society.
- It enhances the national income, cultural richness and the efficiency of the governance.
Describe five main features of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan. [CBSE 2013]
The five main features of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan are:
- It is a significant step towards providing elementary education to all children in the age group of 6-14 years.
- It is a time-bound initiative of the central government, in partnership with the states, the local government and the community for attaining the goal of universalisation of elementary education.
- In this, bridge courses and back-to-school camps have been introduced to increase the enrolment in elementary education.
- Mid-day meal scheme has been introduced to encourage attendance in schools and increase their nutritional status.
- These type of polices of the government could add to the literate minds and further the economic development.
Describe the policy of government on higher education as per 12th Five Year Plan.
The policy of the Indian government under the 12th Five Year Plan is as follows:
- It focusses on improving the education sector.
- It focusses on increasing access, quality and adoption of state-specific curriculum, modification, vocationalisation and networking on the use of information technology.
- It focusses on distance education, convergence of formal and non-formal distance and IT education institutions.
- It aims at reducing gender gaps in literacy and to increase the literacy rates within the time period.
- It aims at increasing the enrolment in higher education of 18 to 23 years age to 25.2% by 2017-18 and to reach the target of 30% by 2020-21.
Why will a firm not like to employ a worker with ill-health? How does it affect the working environment? [CBSE 2015]
A firm will not like to employ an ill-healthy worker because:
- An unhealthy worker would not be able to contribute to the overall productivity of an organisation.
- An unhealthy worker is a liability rather than an asset for an organisation.
- An unhealthy worker cannot contribute to the growth of the organisation.
- An unhealthy worker does not work regularly and remains on leaves due to sickness.
- It creates a gloomy atmosphere in the surroundings.
Describe different types of unemployment found in India. [CBSE 2016]
The different types of unemployment found in India are:
- Disguised unemployment. This is the phenomenon where too many workers are working in a specific job. It happens in small agricultural farms where the whole family is working on the same farm but so many workers are not required to cultivate the farm efficiently.
- Seasonal unemployment. It occurs when workers can find work in a specific season. For example, agricultural workers may find work only during busy agricultural seasons when sowing, harvesting, weeding and threshing are done.
- Educated unemployment. This type of unemployment is common in urban areas. There is unemployment among the educated and technically skilled workers because they are not able to find the jobs for themselves.
Explain any five effects of unemployment on the overall growth of the economy. [CBSE 2014]
How does unemployment affect the overall growth of an economy?
The five effects of unemployment on the overall growth of an economy are:
- It leads to wastage of manpower resource.
- The people who are an asset become a liability.
- It creates a feeling of hopelessness and despair among the young people. ‘
- It increases economic overload, i.e., the dependence of unemployed on the working population.
- The quality of life of an individual gets affected.
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