Here we are providing Class 12 Geography Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 2 Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences. Geography Class 12 Important Questions are the best resource for students which helps in class 12 board exams.

Class 12 Geography Chapter 2 Important Extra Questions Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences

Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
From which countries, people have been migrating to India ?
Central and Western Asia as well as South East Asia.

Question 2.
To which countries Indian traders migrate ?
Malaysia and Singapore.

Question 3.
Why did skilled labourers migrated to Middle-East ?
Due to increase in oil production.

Question 4.
Which information have been added in Census ?
Place of Birth and Place of Residence.

Question 5.
How many migrants are in India on the basis of last residence ?
31.5 crores.

Question 6.
Explain why female migration is higher from rural to rural areas in India. (Delhi 2019)
This is because of marriage of female from one village to the another village. After marriage women is to live at another village away from her parents village. That is why female migration is higher from rural to rural areas in India.

Question 7.
From which, country maximum migration has taken place ?

Question 8.
Which state has maximum migrants ?
Maharashtra—23 lakh.

Question 9.
Which state has maximum emigrants ?
Uttar Pradesh—26 lakh.

Question 10.
State two causes of migration.
Push factor and Pull factors.

Question 11.
In which state of India is the number of immigrate the largest. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Uttar Pradesh.

Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Name the two main types of I migration. Name the four main streams of migration.
The migration is of two types :
(а) Internal. Within the country.
(b) International. Out of the country.

The internal migration has four streams :
(i) Rural to rural
(ii) Rural to urban
(iii) Urban to urban
(iv) Urban to rural.

Question 2.
Differentiate between immigration and emigration. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Immigration-Migrants who move into a new place. Emigration-Migrants who move out of a place are Emigrants.

Question 3.
In Intra-state migration, from rural to urban areas males have the larger share. Why ? (C.B.S.E. 2017)
Explain why male migration is higher than, females from rural to urban areas in India. (Delhi 2019)
Men migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of work and employment. The push factors compel men to migrate.

Question 4.
In Mumbai Agglomeration, the number of migrants is the highest. Why ?
Mumbai Agglomeration is the largest town of India. The state is also large in size. Mumbai is the largest port and industrial town of India. So people migrate to this town in search of work and employment.

Question 5.
ExpIain the main reasons for the migration of. males and females separately in India. (C.B.S.E. 2014)
Males migrate mainly for work and employment. Females migrate from their parental house due to their marriage. Males move for life security while women move for medical treatment, etc.

Question 6.
Distinguish between Pull factors and Push factors affecting migration.
There are two main causes of migration:
(a) Push factors
(b) Pull factors.
(a) Push factors. These factors compel people to leave their place of residence. In India, people migrate from rural to urban areas mainly due to poverty, high population pressure on land, lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care, education, etc. Besides these, natural disaster like flood, drought, earthquakes, Tsunami, wars and local conflicts also give extra push to migrate.

(b) Pull factors. There are pull factors which attract people from rural areas to cities. The most important pull factor for majority of the rural migrants to urban areas is the better opportunities, availability of regular work and relatively higher wages. Better opportunities for education, better health facilities and sources of entertainment, etc., are also quite important pull factors.

Question 7.
Write a note on immigration from neighbouring countries.
India also experiences, immigration from and migration to neighbouring countries. Indian Census 2001 has recorded that more than 5 million persons have migrated to India from other countries. Out of these, 96 per cent came from the neighbouring countries : Bangladesh (3.0 million) followed by Pakistan (0.9 million) and Nepal (0.5 million). Included in this are 0.16 million refugees from Tibet, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Myanmar. As far as emigration from India is concerned, it is estimated that there are around 20 million people of Indian Diaspora, spread across 110 countries.

Question 8.
Distinguish between Intra-State Migration and Inter-State Migration.

Intra State-Migration Inter-State Migration
 1. If the movement of population is within remains the same State, it is called Intra­State Migration.

2. For example, migration between Agra and Bareilly (Uttar Pradesh).

1. If the movement of the population occurs beyond the boundaries of the State, it is called Inter-State Migration.

2.  For   example, migration between Agra (Uttar Pradesh) and  Bharatpur (Rajasthan).

Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Define a Migrant. On what factors does migration depend ? Explain the terms ‘Pull’ and ‘Push’ factors used in migration. (C.B.S.E. 2011)
Migration. The movement of population from one place to another is called migration. A migrant person is one who at a given census was enumerated at a place other than his/her place of birth.

There are four streams of migration :

  • Rural to rural
  • Rural to urban
  • Urban to urban
  • Urban to rural.

Causes of Migration :
Migration occurs due to many factors :

  • Search for jobs.
  • To get better living conditions in towns.
  • Migration due to marriages of females.
  • Social insecurity.
  • Political disturbances.

Pull factors. When migration occurs due to the attraction of a city or town, it is called ‘Pull factor’. People migrate in search of better facilities for education, recreation, health, etc. to towns.

Push factors. When people do not find means of livelihood in the villages, they move towards towns. Rural resources of land were not able to sustain any longer. They are just ‘pushed out’ to big cities. This is called Push factor.

Question 2.
Describe the economic, demographic, social and environmental consequences of Migration.(C.B.S.E. 2014)
Examine the economic and social consequences of migration in India.(C.B.S.E. 2016)
How is migration a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over a space? Explain the economic con-sequences of migration in India. (C.B.S.E. Outside Delhi 2017 Set-T)
Explain the causes and consequences of Rural Urban migration in India. (Sample Paper 2018-19)
Consequences of Migration. Migration is a response to the uneven distribution of opportunities over space. People tend to move from place of low opportunity and low safety to the place of higher opportunity and better safety. This, in turn, creates both benefits and problems for the areas, people migrate from and migrate to. Consequences can be observed in economic, social, cultural, political and demographic terms.

1. Economic Consequences. A major benefit for the source region is the remittance sent by migrants. Remittances from the international migrants are one of the major sources of foreign exchange. In 2002, India received US$ 11 billion as remittances from international migrants. Punjab, Kerala and Tamil Nadu receive very significant amount from their international migrants.

Use of Foreign Remittances.
(1) Remittances are mainly used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriages, children’s education, agricultural inputs, construction of houses etc.

(2) For thousands of the poor villages of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, etc. remittance works as life blood for their economy.

(3) Migration from rural areas of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa to the rural areas of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh accounted for the success of their green revolution strategy for agricultural development.

2. Demographic Consequences. Migration leads to the redistribution of the population within a country. Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure.

However, high out migration from Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Eastern Maharashtra have brought serious imbalances in age and sex composition in these states. Similar imbalances are also brought in the recipients states.

3. Social Consequences. Migrants act as agents of social change. The new ideas related to new technologies, family planning, girl’s education, etc. get diffused from urban to rural areas through them.
(1) Migration leads to intermixing of people from diverse cultures.

(2) It has positive contribution such as evolution of composite culture and breaking through the narrow considerations.

(3) It widens up the mental horizon of the people at large.

(4) But it also has serious negative consequences such as anonimity, which creates social vacuum and sense of dejection among individuals.

(5) Continued feeling of dejection may motivate people to fall in the trap of anti-social activities like crime and drug abuse.

4. Environmental Consequences.

  • Overcrowding of people due to rural-urban migration has put pressure on the existing social and physical infrastructure in the urban areas.
  • This ultimately leads to unplanned growth of urban settlement and formation of slums shanty colonies.
  • Apart from this, due to over-exploitation of natural resources, cities are facing the acute problem of depletion of ground water, air pollution, disposal of sewage and management of solid wastes.

5. Others.
(1) Migration (even excluding the marriage migration) affects the status of women directly or indirectly.

(2) In the rural areas, male selective out migration leaving their wives behind puts extra physical as well mental pressure on the women.

(3) Migration of ‘women’ either for education or employment enhances their autonomy and role in the economy but also increases their vulnerability.

(4) If remittances are the major benefits of migration from the point of view of the source region, the loss of human resources particularly highly skilled people is the most serious cost.

Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences Important Extra Questions HOTS

Question 1.
“The sex-ratio in Asian Urban areas remains male dominated, while in rural areas it remains female dominated.” Evaluate the statement. (Outside Delhi 2019)
Men migrate from rural areas to urban areas in search of work and employment. The push factors compel men to migrate so the sex ratio in Asian Urban areas remains male dominated and rural areas remains female dominated because of marriage. After marriage the girl is to live at another area away from her parents house.

Question 2.
Explain any three push factors that have caused rural to urban migration in India. (C.B.S.E. 2013)
Push factors compel people to leave their place of residence.

  • People migrate from rural areas to urban areas mainly due to poverty.
  • People migrate due to lack of basic infrastructural facilities like health care and education.
  • Natural disasters also force people to migrate.