Indigo Extra Questions and Answers Important Questions Class 12 English Flamingo

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Indigo Extra Questions and Answers Important Questions Class 12 English Flamingo

Indigo Extra Questions and Answers Short Answer Type

Indigo Class 12 Questions And Answers Question 1.
How did Rajkumar Shukla establish that he was resolute?
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla was a peasant from Champaran. He wanted Gandhiji to come with him to accompany him to Champaran. At that time Gandhiji was very busy. But Shukla accompanied Gandhiji everywhere. Therefore, he had been described as resolute.

Indigo Questions And Answers Question 2.
How was Gandhiji treated at Rajendra Prasad’s house?
Answer:
The servants at Rajendra Prasad knew Shukla as a peasant who pestered their master to help the indigo sharecroppers. But they thought that Gandhiji belonged to some low caste. Therefore they didn’t allow him to draw water from the well.

Indigo Short Question Answer Question 3.
What were the terms of the indigo contract between the British landlords and the Indian peasants?
Answer:
The landlords compelled all tenahts to plant three twentieths or 15 per cent of their holdings with indigo and surrender the entire indigo harvest as rent. This was done by a long-term contract.

Indigo Extract Based Questions Question 4.
What did the landlords do when they know that Germany had developed synthetic indigo?
Answer:
The landlords came to know that Germany had developed synthetic indigo. Now producing natural indigo was not profitable for them. But very cunningly they hid that fact from the peasants. They instead obtained agreements from the sharecroppers to pay ‘ them compensation for being released from the 15 per cent arrangement.

Indigo Extra Question Answer Question 5.
Why did many sharecroppers sign the agreement letters willingly? What did the others do who had not signed the letters?
Answer:
The sharecropping system was irksome to the peas-ants. They signed the agreement letters willingly. Those who resisted engaged lawyers; the landlords hired thugs.

Indigo Important Questions And Answers Pdf Question 6.
Why did Gandhiji meet Secretary of the British landlord’s association? How was he treated by him?
Answer:
Gandhiji arrived Chamaparan to get the facts. Therefore he visited the Secretary of the British landlord’s association. The secretary told him that they could give no information to an outsider.

Indigo Class 12 Extra Questions Question 7.
Why did Gandhiji go to Muzzafarapur? Where did he stay there?
Answer:
Muzzafarpur was enroute to Champaran. To obtain more information about sharecropping system he went there. He decided to stay at Professor Malkani’s house. He was a teacher in a government school.

Indigo Question Answers Question 8.
Why did Gandhiji chide the lawyers of Muzza-farpur?
Answer:
Gandhiji chided the lawyers for collecting big fee from the peasants. He said that he had come to the conclusion that they should stop going to courts. Taking such cases to the courts did little good. Where the peasants were so crushed and fear-stricken, law courts were useless. The real relief for them was to be free from fear.

Indigo Extra Questions Question 9.
How did the peasants of Champaran react when they came to know about the arrival of Gandhiji?
Answer:
The news of Gandhiji’s advent and of the nature of his mission spread quickly through Muzzafarpur and to Champaran. Sharecroppers from Champaran began arriving on foot and by conveyance to see their champion.

Indigo Chapter Class 12 Questions And Answers Question 10.
Why did Gandhiji feel that taking the Champaran case to the court was useless?
Answer:
Gandhiji felt that taking the Champaran case to the court was useless. Where the peasants were so crushed and fear-stricken, law courts were useless. The real relief for them was to be free from fear.

Indigo Important Questions Question 11.
How did Champaran peasants react when they came to know that a Mahatma had come to help them?
Answer:
When the Champaran peasants came to know that a Mahatma had come to help them and he was in trouble with the authorities they came in large numbers to Motihari. Thousands of them hold demon¬strations around the courthouse. The officials felt themselves helpless.

Indigo Class 12 Extra Questions And Answers Question 12.
What made the lieutenant-governor drop the case against Gandhiji?
Answer:
Thousands of peasants came in support of Gandhiji. The authorities felt that they could not control them and the condition of law and order could deteriorate. The pressure of the peasants was increasing. On the other hand, Gandhiji refuse to have any bail. Therefore the lieutenant-general dropped the case against Gandhiji.

Class 12 English Indigo Extra Questions And Answers Question 13.
Why did Gandhiji tell the court that he was involved in a ‘conflict of duties’?
Answer:
Gandhiji said in the court he was involved in ‘conflict of duties’. On the one hand, he didn’t want to set a bad example as a lawbreaker; on the other hand, he wanted to render humanitarian and national service for which he had come to Champaran.

Indigo Important Questions And Answers Question 14.
How was civil disobedience won for the first time in India?
Answer:
The judge said that he could not deliver his judgement for several days because of the overwhelming support to Gandhiji. However, he was allowed to remain at liberty. Several days later, Gandhiji received a written communication from the magistrate informing him that the Lieutenant-General had decided to drop the case against him. In this way the civil disobedience won for the first time in India.

Indigo Class 12 Short Questions And Answers Question 15.
How much did the planters ready to refund to the peasants? How did Gandhiji react to it?
Answer:
The planters wanted to prolong the dispute in some way. Therefore, they offered to refund only 25 per cent of the money they extracted illegally from the peasants. Gandhiji at once agreed to it thus breaking the deadlock.

Indigo Class 12 Important Questions Question 16.
Why did Gandhiji agree for only 25 per cent refund?
Answer:
Gandhiji knew that the planters wanted to prolong the dispute in some way or the other. But he proved too smart for them. He at once agreed to their offer of 25 per cent refund. In this way the planters had to part with some of their money and also their prestige.

Indigo Chapter Question Answer Question 17.
What social work did Gandhiji do in the villages of Champaran?
Answer:
Gandhiji opened primary schools there. Many of his disciples came to volunteer their services. Health condition of the place was miserable. Gandhiji got a doctor to volunteer his services for six months.

Indigo Lesson Short Questions And Answers Question 18.
Why was Gandhiji against taking the help of Charles Freer Andrews?
Answer:
Charles Freer Andrews became Gandhiji’s disciple at Champaran. The lawyers thought that it would be good for them if they had an Englishman with them. But Gandhiji was deadly against it. He said taking help of an Englishman would show the weakness of their heart.

Indigo Extra Questions And Answers Question 19.
Why is Rajkumar Shukla described as being ‘resolute’?
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla was a peasant from Champaran. He wanted Gandhiji to come with him to accompany him to Champaran. At that time Gandhiji was very busy. But Shukla accompanied Gandhiji everywhere. Therefore, he had been described as resolute.

Extra Questions Of Indigo Class 12 Question 20.
Why do you think that the servants thought Gandhiji to be another peasant?
Answer:
Gandhiji wore very simple clothes. His complexion was dark and he was thin. In this way, his appear-ance matched a peasant of that days. Therefore, the servants thought Gandhiji to be another peasant.

Extract Questions From Indigo Class 12 Question 21.
List the places that Gandhiji visited between his first meeting with Shukla and his arrival at Champaran.
Answer:
First of all Gandhiji went to Patna at Rajendra Prasad’s house. From there he went to Muzzafarpur to obtain more information about the sharecropping system. There he stayed at Professor Malkani’s house and from there he went to Champaran.

Indigo Short Questions And Answers Question 22.
What did the peasants pay the British land¬lords as rent? What did the British now want instead and why? What would be the impact of synthetic indigo on the prices of natural indigo?
Answer:
The peasants worked on large estates owned by the British planters. The landlords compelled all the peasants to crop three twentieths or 15 per cent of their holdings with indigo and surrender the entire indigo harvest as rent. The planters came to know that the Germany had developed synthetic indigo.

Producing natural indigo was not profitable. The price of the synthetic indigo would be much less than the natural indigo. But they hid this information from the share¬croppers. Instead they demanded compensation from the peasants to release them from this system.

Question 23.
The events in this part of the text illustrate Gandhiji’s method of working. Can you identify some instances of his method and link them to his ideas of satayagraha and non-violence?
Answer:
Gandhiji believed in the path of truth and non-vio-lence. He did nothing that is morally wrong. He fol- . lowed the path of non-violence against the British. Gandhiji’s path was the path of satayagraha, it means protest for truth by adopting non-violent methods. One of the biggest examples of it is the Dandi March.

Question 24.
Why did Gandhiji agree to a settlement of 25 per cent refund to the farmers?
Answer:
The British planters Wanted some excuse to prolong the dispute between them and the sharecroppers. They offered only 25 per cent refund. They thought that perhaps Gandhiji would ask for full refund. But Gandhiji agree to their offer and broke the dead lock. For him the amount of refund was not important. The landlords had been obliged to part with some of their money and also prestige. Before that they thought themselves above law. As a result, the planters abandoned their estates, which were reverted to the peasants.

Question 25.
How did the episode change the plight of the peasants?
Answer:
The episode of Chamapran had a great effect on the peasants. They saw they had rights and defenders. They learned courage. Also, the British planters abandoned their estates, which were reverted to the peasants.

Question 26.
Why do you think Gandhi considered the Champaran episode to be a turning-point in his life?
Answer:
The episode of Champaran proved that the Indians couldn’t be harassed in their own country. It gave courage to the normal Indians against the dreaded power of the British. Gandhiji thought that it to be a small problem. But due to this incident he decided to urge the departure of the British. It was here where the civil disobedience was first time succeeded. In this way the episode of Champaran proved to be a turning point in Gandhiji’s life.

Question 27.
What was the attitude of the average Indian 1 in smaller localities towards advocates of ‘home rule’?
Answer:
In smaller localities the people were afraid to show sympathy for advocates of home rule. They were so crushed and frightened by the dreaded power of the British that it was impossible for them to support even the idea of home rule.

Question 28.
How do we know that ordinary people too con-tributed to the freedom movement?
Answer:
In the given text it was only due to the support of ordinary people that the sharecroppers of Champaran could get justice. When Gandhiji was arrested in Motihari, the ordinary people flocked on the roads in large numbers, as a result, the government had to drop the case against Gandhiji. This Champaran episode was just a glimpse of the freedom movement. Thus, from this episode, we can gauge the role of ordinary people in the freedom movement.

Indigo Extra Questions and Answers Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Who was Rajkumar Shukla? What did he want from Gandhiji?
Answer:
Rajkumar Shukla was a peasant from Champaran. He visited Gandhiji in 1942 at his ashram in Sevagram, in Central India. He wanted that Gandhiji should accompany him to his village in Champaran district. He described to Gandhiji about himself and his district. He told Gandhiji the peasants of Champaran were sharecroppers. Rajkumar Shukla was illiterate but resolute.

He had came to the Congress session to complain about the injustice of the landlord system in Bihar, and somebody told him to speak to Gandhiji. At that time, Gandhiji was very busy. Shukla accompanied him everywhere in India. For weeks he never left Gandhiji’s side.

Impressed by the sharecropper’s tenacity and story Gandhiji said, “I have to be in Calcutta on such-and-such a date. Come and meet me and take me from there.” Shukla reached at the appointed spot in Calcutta when Gandhiji arrived. He waited till Gandhiji was free. Then Gandhiji went with him to Patna by train.

Question 2.
What information did Gandhiji get about the sharecropping system in Champaran?
Answer:
The chief commercial crop of Champaran was indigo. The British landlords compelled all the ten-ants to plant 15% of their holdings with indigo and surrender the entire indigo harvest as rent. This was done by a long-term contract. Then the land-lords came to know that the Germany had developed synthetic indigo. Now producing natural indigo was not at all profitable. Very cunningly the British landlords obtained agreements from the sharecroppers to pay them compensation for being released

from the 15% agreement. Many sharecroppers signed it willingly while the others engaged lawyers. The landlords hired thugs. Meanwhile, the information about synthetic indigo reached the illiterate peasants. Who had paid the compensation wanted their money back.

Question 3.
Describe Gandhiji’s visit at Muzzafarpur.
Answer:
Gandhiji decided to go to Muzzafarpur, which was en route to Champaran. He wanted to obtain more information about the conditions there. He stayed for two days in the home of Professor Malkani who was a teacher in a government school. It was not an ordinary thing those days for a government professor to harbour a man like him. In smaller localities, the Indians were afraid to show sympathy for the advocates of home-rule. The news of the advent of Gandhiji spread quickly to Champaran and Muzzafarpur. Sharecroppers in large number came to see their champion.

Gandhiji talked to the lawyers about the court cases of the sharecroppers. They brief him about the cases and also reported him about the size of their fees. Gandhiji chided the lawyers for collecting big fee from the sharecroppers. He said that it was useless to go to the courts when the peasants were so crushed and fear-stricken.

Question 4.
Describe the incident related to Motihari.
Or
How can you say that the civil disobedience was succeeded first time in modern India?
Answer:
Gandhiji visited British official commissioner of Trihut division. He tried to bully Gandhiji and ordered him to leave Trihut. Gandhiji proceeded to Motihari, the capital of Champaran. A large number of people greeted him at the railway station. A report came that a peasant had been maltreated in a nearby village. Gandhiji decided to go there. Gandhji was a given a notice to leave Champaran immediately. Gandhiji signed the receipt and wrote on it that he would disobey the order.

As a result Gandhiji was ordered to present in the court the next day. The next morning a lot of peasants had gathered in the town of Motihari to support Gandhiji. The officials had to seek Gandhiji’s help to control the crowd. However they got the clear message that the Indians couldn’t be ordered in their own country. The government was baffled. They wanted to postpone the trial.

Gandhiji protested against it. He told the court that he was not a lawbreaker, but he had duties towards his countrymen. In the end the judge said he would not deliver any judgement for several days. Gandhiji was allowed to remain at liberty. After a few days the case against him was dropped. The civil disobedience was suc¬ceeded first time in modern India.

Question 5.
Why is the Champaran episode considered to be the beginning of the Indian struggle for Independence?
Answer:
Gandhiji thought that the problem of the sharecroppers could be solved within a few days. But he stayed there for months. The landlords were compelled to refund some of the money they extracted from the peasants illegally and also they had to part with their prestige. Eventually they abandoned their estates which were reverted to the peasants.

The peasants came to know that they had rights and the defender of their rights. Before that the planters had behaved as lords above the law. The government was compelled to bow before Gandhiji and the case against him was dropped. The civil disobedience was succeeded for the first time in India. Therefore the Champaran episode is considered as the beginning of the Indian struggle for Independence.

Question 6.
Gandhiji’s loyality was not a loyalty to abstractions; it was loyalty to living human beings. Why did Gandhiji continue his stay in Champaran even after indigo sharecropping disappeared?
Answer:
Gandhiji was able to win the battle of Champaran for the poor sharecroppers. They got their land back from the British landlords. But Gandhiji continued his stay there. Gandhiji saw the cultural and social backwardness in the Champaran villages and wanted to do something about it. Many of his disciples joined him in this noble cause. His youngest son and his wife also arrived there from the ashram. Primary schools were opened in six villages.

Kasturbai taught the ashram rules on personal cleanliness and community sanitation.Health conditions were miserable. Gandhiji got a doctor volunteer. He offered his services for six months. Three medicines were available castor oil, quinine and sulphur ointment. Anybody who showed a coated tongue was given a dose of castor oil; anybody with malaria fever received quinine and castor oil; anybody with skin eruptions received ointment with castor oil.

Gandhiji’s loyalty was not a loyalty to abstractions; it was a loyalty towards human beings. His politics was intertwined with the practical day-to-day problems of the millions.

Question 7.
The Champaran episode was a turning point in Gandhiji’s life. Elucidate.
Answer:
Gandhiji considered the Champaran episode a turning point in his life. His revolutionary vision inspired many people. The episode was linked with day to day problems of the poor peasants of Champaran. They were compelled by the British landlords to crop Indigo in 15% of their total holdings and surrender the whole harvest as rent. When they discovered that synthetic Indigo had been developed by Germany, they no longer needed the harvest of the peasants. But they hid this fact from the peasants.

Instead they demanded compensation from the poor peasants to release them from the 15% agreement. Some signed willingly, while others engaged lawyers. The landlords hired thugs. Gandhiji helped the poor peasants by protesting and civil disobedience. At last, he was successful in freeing the peasants from the exploitation. Many other movements took place after t that. It also meant the victory of civil disobedience for the first time in India.

Question 8.
Why was Gandhiji against taking help from Charles Freer Andrews? What values of life are conveyed by this?
Answer:
Early in the Champaran action, Charles Freer Andrews, the English pacifist became Gandhiji’s devoted follower. He came to bid Gandhiji farewell before leaving for his duty to the Fiji Islands. Gandhiji’s lawyer friends thought it would be a good idea for Andrews to stay at Champaran and help them. Andrews was willing if Gandhiji agreed.

But Gandhiji strongly opposed it. He said to have Mr. Andrews on their side only because he happened to be an Englishman is wrong. It would show only the weakness of their spirit. They were fighting for a just cause and they should believe in their strength. This incident showed that self-reliance and self-help are most important to achieve any goal.

Question 9.
How was Gandhi able to influence lawyers? Give instances.
Answer:
Gandhiji was able to influence the lawyers in several ways. First he came to know about the size of fee they collected from the peasants to fight their cases in court. He chided them for that. He told them that taking such cases to courts were not good when the peasants were so crushed and fear-stricken. When it was feared that Gandhiji might be put to prison they consulted among themselves.

They realised that if Gandhiji who was totally stranger, and yet ready to go to prison for the sake of peasants; it would be shameful for them to go homes since they were not only the residents of the adjoining districts but also had claimed to help the peasants. Therefore they decided to follow Gandhiji in jail in pairs. In Champaran an Englishman, Charles Freer Andrews became Gandhiji’s disciple.

The lawyers throught that it would be of great help to them if Andrews supported them. But Gandhiji told that it would show only the weakness of their soul to seek help of Mr Andrews only because he happened to be an Englishman. They should learn to be self-reliant.

Question 10.
“Freedom from fear is more important than legal justice for the poor”. Do you think that the poor of India are free from fear after Independence?
Answer:
The episode of Champaran represents the exploitation of the poor Indian peasants by the British planters. At that time India was under British rule. But even after seventy years of Independence there is Champaran everywhere in India. The poor are still exploited by the bureaucrats, moneylenders and politicians. The moneylenders charge unimaginably high rates of interest from the farmers.

No wonder the incidents of suicides by the farmers are on the rise. Our constitution has given equal rights to all Indians. But in fact the poor can’t enjoy any of the rights given to them by the constitution. They are remembered only at the time of elections. Though they had got political freedom yet this freedom is shameful.

Indigo Extra Questions and Answers Extract Based

Read, the following paragraph and answer the questions that follow:

(Para-1)

Under an ancient arrangement, the Champaran peas-ants were sharecroppers. Rajkumar Shukla was one of them. He was illiterate but resolute. He has come to the Congress session to complain about the injustice of the landlord system in Bihar, and somebody had probably said, “Speak to Gandhi.”

Questions :
(a) What was an ancient arrangement ?
(b) Who was Rajkumar Shukla ?
(c) Why Rajkumar Shukla had come to Congress session ?
(d) What, somebody had said to Rajkumar Shukla ?
Answers:
(a) An ancient arrangement was sharecropping. The Champaran peasants were share croppers.
(b) Rajkumar Shukla was an illiterate but resolute peasant from Champaran, Bihar.
(c) Rajkumar Shukla had come to Congress session to complain about the injustice of the landlord system in Bihar.
(d) Somebody had said to Rajkumar Shukla, “Speak to Gandhi.”

(Para-2)

The news of Gandhi’s advent and of the nature of his mission spread quickly through Muzzafarpur and to Champaran. Sharecroppers from Champaran began arriv-ing on foot and by conveyance to see their Champion. Muzzafarpur lawyers called on Gandhi to brief him; they frequently represented peasant groups in court; they told him about their cases and reported the size of their fee.

Questions :
(a) What was the news at Muzzafarpur ?
(b) How and why did the sharecroppers reach from Champaran ?
(c) What was the role of Muzzafarpur’s lawyers ?
(d) Name the chapter and the writer.
Answers:
(a) The news of Gandhi’s advent and of the nature of his mission was the news at Muzzafarpur.
(b) Sharecroppers from Champaran reached on foot and by Conveyance to see their Champion.
(c) Muzzafarpur’s lawyers were frequently representating peasant groups in court.
(d) ‘Indigo’ is the chapter written by ‘Louis Fischer’.

(Para-3)

A report came in that a peasant had been maltreated in a nearby village. Gandhi decided to go and see; the next morning he started out on the back of an elephant. He had not proceeded far when the police supritendent’s messanger overtook him and ordered him to return to town in his carriage. Gandhi complied. The messenger drove Gandhi home where he served him with an official notice to quit Champaran immediately. Gandhi signed a receipt for the notice and wrote on it that he would disobey the order.
The consequence, Gandhi received a summons of appear in court the next day.

Questions :
(a) What report came and what did Gandhi decide ?
(b) What happened when Gandhi was on the way to the nearby village ?
(c) What did the messenger do with Gandhi ?
(d) What was Gandhi’s reaction to the notice and what consequence had he to face ?
Answers:
(a) A report came in that a peasant had been maltreated in a nearby village. Gandhi decided to go and see.
(b) When Gandhi was on the way to the nearby village, the police supertendent’s messenger overtook him and ordered him to return to town in his carriage.
(c) The messenger served Gandhi with an official notice to quit Champaran immediately.
(d) Gandhi signed a receipt for the notice and wrote on it that he would disobey the order. In consequence, Gandhi received a summons to appear in court the next day.

(Para-4)

What about the injustice to the sharecroppers, Gandhi demanded. The lawyers withdrew to consult. Rajendra Prasad has recorded the upshot of their consultations : “They thought, amongst themselves, that Gandhi was totally a stranger, and yet he was prepared to go to prision for the sake of the peasants : If they, on the other hand, being not only residents of the adjoining districts but also those who claimed to have served these peasants, should go home, it would be shameful desertion.”

Questions :
(a) What did Gandhi demand to the lawyers ?
(b) What was the reaction of the lawyers ?
(c) What was the conclusion of their consultations ?
(d) What would be- shameful desertion ?
Answers:
(a) Ghandi demanded the lawyers about the injustice to the sharecroppers.
(b) The lawyers withdrew to consult.
(c) According to their consultations : they, if would go home being local residents, would surely be shameful and a defeat to them in that war of injustice.
(d) If they should go home, claiming to have served those peasants, it would be shameful desertion.

(Para-5)

They thought he would demand repayment in full of the money which they had illegally and deceitfully extorted from the sharecroppers. He asked only 50 per cent. “There he seemed adamant,” writes Reverend J.Z. Hodge, a British missionary in Champaran who observed the entire episode at close range. “Thinking probably that he would not give way, the representative of the planters offered to refund to the extent of 25 per cent, and to his amazement Mr. Gandhi took him at his word, thus breaking the deadlock.”

Questions :
(a) What landlords had done with the sharecroppers ?
(b) Who was Reverend J. Z. Hodge ?
(c) What did the representative of the planters offer to refund ?
(d) How did Mr. Gandhi break the deadlock ?
Answers:
(a) Landlords had illegally and deceitfully extorted money from the sharecroppers.
(b) Reverend J. Z. Hodge was a British missionary in Champaran who observed the entire episode at close range.
(c) Representative of the planters offered to refund to the extent of 25 per cent only.
(d) Mr. Gandhi broke the deadlock by getting agree to the offer of 25 per cent refund by British planters.

(Para-6)

Gandhi never contented himself with large political or economic solutions. He saw the cultural and social backwardness in the Champaran villages and wanted to do something about it immediately. He appealed for teachers. Mahadev Desai and Narhari Parikh, two young men who had just joined Gandhi as disciples, and their wives, volunteered for the work. Several more came from Bombay, Poona and other distant parts of the land. Devdas, Gandhi’s youngest son, arrived from the ashram and so did Mrs. Gandhi. Primary schools were opened in six villages. Kasturbai taught the ashram rules on personal cleanliness and community sanitation.

Questions :
(a) What did Gandhi observe in the Champaran villages ?
(b) Whom did Gandhi appeal and why ?
(c) From Gandhi’s family, who came to Champaran ?
(d) What did Kasturbai do to the people of Champaran ?
Answers:
(a) Gandhi, in Champaran villages observed the cultural and social backwardness and wanted to do something immediately
(b) Gandhi appealed Mahadev Desal and Narhari Parikh, two young teachers, to volunteer for the work.
(c) Devdas, Gandhi’s youngest son and Mrs. Gandhi Casturbai came to Champaran.
(d) Kasturbal, Gandhi’s wife taught the ashram rules on personal cleanliness and community sanitation to the people of Champaran.

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