Here we are providing Class 11 History Important Extra Questions and Answers Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution. Class 11 History Important Questions with Answers are the best resource for students which helps in class 11 board exams.

Class 11 History Chapter 9 Important Extra Questions The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
What is Industrial Revolution?
It is the transformation of industry and the economy in a country. Eg. Britain brought the first Industrial Revolution out from its thinkers, scientists (eccentric and unqualified) down in manifestation.

Question 2.
Mention the names of some new machinery and technologies.
Flying shuttle loom, spinning Jenny, water Frame, mule in the cotton textile sector, the locomotive engine in the railway sector and steam engine, Puffing Devil in the mining sector.

Question 3.
Do you think, the businessmen and inventors were ‘ wealthy and educated who had sown the seed of industrialization?
As per the further individual detail given in this theme, these people were not wealthy and educated but each of them was an exclusive or unique product of perseverance, interest, curiosity, and right time harmony of austere, intuition, and grace of Almighty described as luck, destiny, fate, a lot, etc. It was twin gems of determination intertwined with forbearance duly studded on a ring of zeal to do something new and unique.

Question 4.
Who had first used the term Industrial Revolution?
The scholars in Europe who addressed so or given names to a new trend as the Industrial Revolution were, Georges Michelet and Freidrich Engels of Germany.

Question 5.
When did the term Industrial Revolution come into use in Britain?
It was during the reign of George III and the user was a professor at Oxford University, a philosopher and economist in stature, Arnold Toynbee. He used it while describing changes that occurred in British industrial development in lectures to the college students.

Question 6.
What was the foremost factor which had made Britain the founding father of the Industrial Revolution?
We know that since the seventeenth century, England, Wales, and Scotland were integrated under the regime of Monarchy or Kingship. It was, therefore, politically stable i.e. a precedent notion to capital formation and invest/reinvest operations mandatory for R and D.

Question 7.
Write in brief the background factors resulting in the first Industrial Revolution in England.

  1. Common law,
  2. Single currency,
  3. Larger indigenous market,
  4.  Exemptions from custom Duty/octroi, tariff, etc. This all was possible in the well-organized or centralized nation under a King or ruler.

Question 8.
What was the agricultural revolution in England?
It was related to the promotion of agrarian economy or countryside development.

Question 9.
What were the percussions of the agricultural revolution?
Bigger landlords had bought up small farms near their own properties, grabbed the rural common lands, (Eq. meadows, pastures), and thus, made large estates for them. It resulted in rising of workers’ class (i.e. factory workers) in society.

Question 10.
How did payment of wages and salaries in money help the process of the Industrial Revolution?
It gave people, a wider chance for ways to spend their earnings, and thus, consumerism and commercialism sneaked in and market expansion took place.

Question 11.
What does a phenomenal increase in city population indicate?
It indicates, whatever showed in official records; gross neglect to countryside and agriculture in government policies. To survive anyhow in the cities, the rural people migrate there and thus, over-population in cities brings ailments at physical, mental, and emotional levels.

Question 12.
How did London become a triangular trade network?
Mediterranean ports of Italy and France had lost their significance as the center of global trade and it was shifted to the Atlantic ports of Holland and Britain. London became a powerful source of loans for international trade. It became the center of a triangular trade network formed in England, Africa, and the West Indies.

Question 13.
What did the rivers contribute to London’s proliferation as a center of trade?
This helped the movement of goods between markets. Coastline (indented) and sheltered bays also assisted in the process.

Question 14.
Mention the navigable length of rivers and their proximity to the factories established at different places.
It was measured in 1724 as 1, 160 miles. Factories and markets in Britain were within the range of 15 miles from rivers.

Question 15.
What were Coasters?
These were coastal ships or the ships rowed within the limits of the sea-shore.

Question 16.
What was the use of the coaster?
Every river in Britain drained in the sea hence, coasters were used in loading cargo brought by river vessels.

Question 17.
What were factors associated with Industrial Revolution in Britain?

  1. Availability of an army of poor/landless people for work in factories,
  2. The strong and nationalized banking system and
  3. A good transport network.

Question 18.
Why is there seen a gap of a few years or decades or even a century between development and its widespread application?
As the development (physical, mental and emotional) during adolescence and teen-age is manifested in a man at his youth or prime and it takes time of at least 15 years, the same way, the developments gradually step forward from planning, gestation, trial, generalization and accomplishment i.e. all scientific and usual processes. For instance, another country would follow any change when its direct advantages are observed, enquired, discussed, and generalized properly up to a certain period of time. Hence, this gap is left.

Question 19.
What natural resources had contributed to the process of mechanization of the Industrial revolution?
It was ample reserves of coal, iron ore, lead, copper, and tin i.e. the cardinal components of the Industry in Britain.

Question 20.
What was initially used for the process of smelting?
It was charcoal (from burnt timber).

Question 21.
What were the inventions made by Darbys of Shropshire in the smelting process in the quality of iron?
This were-invention of the blast furnace, conversion of pig iron into wrought iron, and rolling mill.

Question 22.
Which area was called the iron bridge?
It was Coalbrookdale at the bank of the River Severn.

Question 23.
How many coalfields were in coastal areas of Britain?
There were five coal fields.

Question 24.
Mention the areas where coal and iron were manufactured in Britain?
These areas were-Lancashire, Yorkshire, Birmingham, Swansea, Bristol, London, Wales, Leeds, Manchester Sheffield, Liverpool, and Cornwall.

Question 25.
What were the two features of the cotton industry in Britain?

  1. Import of raw cotton from colonies like India and export of finished cloth to them.
  2. To retain control over the sources of raw material and the markets.

Question 26.
What was the Miner’s Friend and who had invented it?
It was a model steam engine invented by Thomas Savery. In shallow depths, these engines worked slowly and much pressure sometimes caused a burst of the boiler.

Question 27.
What were the defects in the engine made by Thomas Newcomen in 1712?
Its condensing cylinder caused the loss of energy to a great extent.

Question 28.
What was the main purpose of digging canals?
These were dug for transportation of coal to cities.

Question 29.
What was the capacity of the Butcher constructed by George Stephenson?
It could pull weight of 30 tons up a hill at a speed of 4 miles per hour.

Question 30.
Who were the inventors of machines?
The brilliant, intuitive thinkers and people doing regular experiments were the inventors. These essences of the invention do not require special education and training because of conscience with perseverance be blended in course of inventing something.

Question 31.
Mention the contribution of print media as the evocative role in the discovery-invention of new machines and objects?
There were published dozen of scientific journals and papers of scientific societies in Britain during 1760-1800.

Question 32.
Tell something specific about inventors of machines in Britain.
John Kay and James Hargreaves were skilled in weaving and carpentry, Richard Arkwright was a barber and wig maker, Samuel Crompton was unskilled in technology and Edmund Cartwright studied literature, medicine, and agriculture but known little of mechanics.

Question 33.
Do you think a zeal for the invention can gather all means in due time?
Yes, because the wealth in the form of goods, income, services, knowledge, and productive efficiency combinedly grow with the pace of growth and a trance on the invention of the things of utility for mankind.

Question 34.
What were the percussions of the growth of cities in England from two in 1750 to twenty-nine in 1850?
It exerted pressure on adequate housing, sanitation, or clean water for the population so increased. Thus, cities became dirty and unhygienic places.

Question 35.
What is the averment of Edward Carpenter on city life?
He states that the city became gloomy and restless as if the people there are thrust into the gates of hell. There is a cluster of chimneys, emission of noxious smoke out from them. He further says that capitalist owners are prosperous while the factory workers are in piteous and critical condition.

Question 36.
What were the ill-effects of industries?

  1. The life expectancy of the workforce was reduced.
  2. People died at a younger age.
  3. Children failed to survive beyond the age of five.
  4. Air and water pollution brought epidemics like Cholera and Typhoid.
  5. There was a lack of health services in factory areas.

Question 37.
Why were women and children compelled to work in factories?
Owing to the use of machines, there were unemployment conditions increasing. The supply of labor was higher than the demand. v Owing to this, wages were not enough to sustain family expenses. Hence, women and children had to supplement the men’s meager wages. Again, the owners of factories preferred to employ women and children because they tolerated poor working conditions and accepted lower wages than men.

Question 38.
What machine was designed to be used by child workers?
It was a cotton spinning journey by James Hargreaves.

Question 39.
Why were coal mines considered dangerous places?

  1. The workers had to crawl through narrow passages with heavy loads of coal on their backs.
  2. Children were used to reaching deep coal faces.
  3. They had to dig mines by sitting on their knees.
  4. It was a gaseous chamber where an explosion was day to day feature.
  5. The coal dust and the presence of carbon-monoxide killed many workers in stifling/suffocation.

Question 40.
Do you think the increase in financial independence of women by virtue of their working in factories endowed them with happier life?
No, because owing to an emotional breakdown, tensions, and fatigue due to humiliating terms of work, they would either lost their children at birth or in early childhood and compelled to live in squalid urban slums.

Question 41.
What were the repressive actions by the British Government to demands of political rights made by the factory workers?
The British Government passed two combination Acts in 1795 and Corn Laws supported by landowners, manufacturers and professionals i.e. members of Parliament. They did not like giving workers political rights and making working conditions congenial in factories.

Question 42.
What did the workers do in protest to the British Government?
They went on strike and destroyed the power looms, resisted the introduction of machines in the wool knitting industry, and smashed the new threshing machines.

Question 43.
What was Luddism and what were its demands?
It was a movement led by General Ned Ludel, a prominent leader of factory workers. Its demands were-

  1. To get minimum wages fixed by the government,
  2. Prevent child and women labor,
  3. Give work to the people retrenched due to installation of machines,
  4. Give the right to form trade unions.

Question 44.
What had happened to a peaceful demonstration of as many as nineteen crore workers at St. Peter’s Fields in Manchester?
They were brutally massacred and the Parliament passed six Acts the same year which denied the workers their demands of the political right, right to hold public meetings, and freedom of the press.

Question 45.
How did the reforms take place through laws?
Initially, laws were passed in 1819 banning the employment of children below nine in factories and fixing 12 hours a day for children between the age of nine and sixteen. However, these were not implemented. Under the Act of 1833, children below nine can be employed only in silk factories, fixed hours of working for children above nine and created the posts of inspectors to ensure implementation. Finally, the Ten Hours Bill was passed and it limited the hours of work for women and children and secured to (ten) hours a day for male workers.

Question 46.
What did the Mines and Collieries Act, 1842 and Fielder’s Factory Act, 1847 do for people working in mines of Britain?
The Act of 1842 banned children under ten and women from working underground in the mine. The Act of 1847 fixed 10. hours a day for children under eighteen and women. Inspectors were appointed to ensure its implementation but they were bribed by factory managers and this Act too could not see proper implementation.

Question 47.
Do you think it is good to say Britain’s process of industrialization, a revolution?
The term revolution denotes any sudden or drastic change in any of the pattern of work or in society but we see that it took more than forty years (i.e. 1780-1820) to spread in selected cities like London, Manchester and Birmingham rather than throughout Britain. Hence, we do not agree with that logic.

Question 48.
What are the conditions that denote industrialization?

  1. The condition at when the investment gives way to rapid capital formation.
  2. When new machines are installed.
  3. When infrastructure is built.
  4. When these facilities are used efficiently and
  5. When productivity is raised.

Question 49.
What were the hindrances faced by Britain during 1760-1815 in her way to industrialization?
It was due to the bifurcation of the mind simultaneously in two directions. The first was to industrialize and the. other to defend Britain in wars against Europe, North America, and India. It is noticeable that Britain had to trapped in wars for up to 36 years continuously.

Question 50.
What period had A.E. Musson, a historian had recommended worth saying Industrial Revolution?
It was the period between 1850-1914 as it transformed the whole economy of Britain and the society much more widely and deeply than the earlier changes had done.

The Industrial Revolution Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
Discuss the developments in Britain and in other parts of the world in the eighteenth century that encouraged British industrialization.
Developments in Britain

  1. Area and population in towns were increasing rapidly.
  2. London was the largest town in Britain. It had become the center of global trade. It became the nucleus of international trade with Africa and the West Indies.
  3. The companies trading in America and Asia opened their offices in London.
  4. Banking facilities developed.
  5. New machines for the cotton textile industry, silk industry, iron industry, and coal industry were invented.
  6. The raw material was imported from the countries outside England and finished cloth was exported.
  7. Railway lines were laid and the steam engine was invented.
  8. More than 4,000 miles of canal were built during the eighteenth century.
  9. The big farmers made large estates by fencing around the meadows and pasture land as also bought the lands of smaller farmers nearby their property. They installed -factory on their estates and became rich.
  10. Landless laborers left their villages and settled in urban slums in order to work in factories there.
  11. The exploitation of men, women, and children in factories started.

Developments in other parts of the world

  1. Slaves were bought from Africa to get the work done in factories by them. British colonialism started in Africa.
  2. The raw material was imported from Asia, Africa, and America VViexeby closure of local industries there. It dwindled the economy of the countries on these continents.
  3. Goods manufactured in England on a large scale and by using machines were cheaper; more attractive and well finished than the goods produced manually in other parts of the world. It ensured the bumper sale of foreign goods and thus, money moved to England.

Question 2.
Iron bridge George is today a major heritage site. Can you suggest why?
It is near Coalbrookdale and made up of cast iron. It’s being the first bridge built or fabricated by third Darby in 1779, it was considered today a major heritage site.

Question 3.
Discuss the effects of early industrialization on British towns and villages and compare these with similar situations in India.
Effects of early industrialization on British’s towns and villages vis-a-vis India:


  1. The population doubled between 1750 and 1800 in 11 towns of Britain.
  2. Population growth unexpectedly had burdened the public conveniences, health services, habitation, supply of water, light, food grains, and shelter. Urban slums or conglomerates were increased resulting in the spread of epidemics like Cholera, Typhoid, Tuberculosis, etc.
  3. People from villages run the mad race to migrate into towns in search of a job there.
  4. The increasing number of factories, industries, installation of heavy machines caused air and water pollution.
  5. The number of cities in England with a population of over 50,000 grew from two in 1750 to 29 in 1850.
  6. The life span of workers in cities was lower than that of any other social group in cities.


  1. The big landlords bought the lands from small farmers and made their large estates. This process was called an enclosure.
  2. The peasants became landless and compelled to shelter in towns as factory workers there.
  3. A number of villages were acquired by rich nobles and businessmen, all the members of Parliament, and installed their factories.
  4. Cottage industries in villages suffered a set-back due to the installation of new machines. Their labor was too slow to compete with machines.

Comparative Situation in India-


  1. The number of million-plus cities in India has increased from 21 in 1991 to 35 in 2001. It shows the rapid growth of the population in towns.
  2. Slum agglomeration is an ex-facie in India’s towns. These are colonies unauthorized and deprived of electricity, sanitation, and drinking water.
  3. Town people have developed unauthorized structures there causing road accidents, fire eruptions, and a number of other inconveniences.
  4. Disputes, duels, and under tensions increased day today.
  5. Thanks to the decision of the Supreme Court on the removal, of industries away from the residential areas. However, its implementation is still lingering.
  6. Anti-social elements are at rising in towns owing to the over-burdened population inhabited in them. Kidnapping, assault, eve-teasing, rape, etc. crimes added to the common affairs.

1. Neglected, manipulating policies and public funds for several development projects is misappropriated. It is done by collusion of bureaucrats and representatives at the level of local self-government. One and all types of corruption are first experimented there and only then manifest at the upper hierarchy. Ignorance, credulity, prejudices, stereo-type vices in spite of formal degrees acquired by youth, saddled in misdirected minds of country people or rural folks.

2. Lured by eye-catching exposed luxuries and comforts as also to earn their bread, the rural folks have started migrating to metros, towns, cities in bulk in the last three decades. Villages are gradually on the verge of extinction and a few still sustained are losing their identity as villages. Urbanization like England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is gathering momentum here. For instance, the census of 2001 exhibits Delhi and Chandigarh as the most populated cities.

3. Villages are not developing equally because of discrimination and avarice in mind and resilience and absenteeism at hand (i.e. work) had maddened the bureaucrats, like British feudatories during Indian’s being “nigger” in their eyes. A few villages are enjoying the status of a town while some others are sobbing under rags of a century ago. viz. remote areas in mills, tribal areas.

4. Rural people in India have now destined to line in cities working with one or another firm or factory. They are being exploited the same way as in England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Question 4.
Argue the case for and against government regulation of condition of work in industries.
Conditions of workers in Industries
1. As Edward Carpenter describes the conditions of habitation for workers in his poem-“And I saw the huge-refuse heaps writhing with children picking them over” and further Charles Dickens writes in his novel “Hard Times”. It had a black canal in it, and a river that ran purple with ill-smelling dye and vast piles of building full of windows where there were a rattling and a trembling all day long, and where the piston of the steam-engine works monotonously up and down, like the head’ of an elephant in a store of melancholy madness”-the scenes of factories and the condition of workers and their children writhing with picking refusal of the factory are prime- fade.

2. Long unbroken hours of work, no variety or change amid that more than three fourth chunk of the day and night, strict vigil, and sharp punishment even for pretty and even ridiculous gimmicks in minds of workers.

3. Women under the same working conditions were also occupied in silk, lace-making, and knitting industries.

4. Children too were employed for operations on machines like Spinning Jenny. They were used to stand between the apertures of a tightly packed machine and operate it therefrom in coal mines, they were used to reach deep coal faces or cross the narrow approach path. Children employed were in the age group of 10-14 years. They were used as trappers to shut and open the doors of coal wagons. As a result of so pains inflicted upon workers, they came out with demands-

  1. Minimum wages to be fixed by the government.
  2. Give employment to the workers snatched of work by machine installation.
  3. Child and woman labor to be checked.
  4. Give the right to form trade unions in order to legally present these demands.

Response from Government-

  1. Passed two Combination Acts which had snatched their freedom of speech. To incite anyway either by speech or in writing to the people against the King shall be tantamounted as an illegal or illicit act punishable under laws of the land.
  2. The legal minimum wage was the demand of workers but it met to deaf ears in Parliament hence, refused.
  3. Aggrieved of non-hearing from the government, the workers went on strike but dispersed by police. They became aggressive and their sleuth had destroyed machines at Lancashire, Yorkshire, Derby shire and Leeds, etc. The Government crushed mercilessly this rioter turned factory workers. Some were hanged and others were deported to Australia as convicts.
  4. A huge gathering of workers around 18,19,80,000 workers was succumbed to massacre (popularly known as Peterloo Massacre) ordered by the government and the Parliament passed six Acts and thus, added more strict laws to Combination Acts of 1795.


  1. The Act of 1833 fixed the work for children in the age group under I year confined to silk factories.
  2. Fixed the hours of work for the children falling in the age group of 9-14 years.
  3. Factory inspectors were appointed to ensure the implementation of the Act.
  4. Ten Flours Bill was passed in 1847 limiting the hours of work for women and children and securing a 10 hour day for male workers.
  5. Industrialization was associated with a growing investment of the country’s wealth in capital formation, or building infrastructure and installing new machinery and raising the levels of efficient use of these facilities, and raising productivity.

Question 6.
Explain why British growth may have been faster after 1815 than before?
1. Britain tried to do two things simultaneously from 1760 to 1815 i.e.

  • to industrialize and
  • to fight wars in Europe, North, America, and India. It diverted her attention therefore, slack and slow progress was seen during this period. The capital borrowed was spent on wars.

2. Factory workers and farm laborers were recruited in Army and thus, factories suffered set-back and food grain production plummeted.

3. Money inflation took place and prices of eatables rose beyond access to poor sections of society.

4. Per capita savings were slashed rapidly and the use of consumer goods reduced to a minimum. It resulted in a decline in demand and the closure of the factories.

5. Trading routes were closed because of Napoleon’s policies.

Question 7.
How can you state that pro-use of the term Industrial before the next term “revolution” is very limited?
We can state so because the transformation was extended beyond the economic or industrial sphere and because of the major change in society as a whole. This transformation gave two classes in town and the countryside. This were-the bourgeoisie (Middle Class) and Proletariate (i.e. laborers in mills and factories)

Question 8.
Do you think the growth in cotton or iron industries or in foreign trade remained revolutionary during 1780-1820?
No, it was not revolutionary during the period in question. The virtual growth as witnessed was based on raw-materials brought from South Asian countries and the sale of finished products in their markets by twist and wrench made in-laws. Imports and Exports from Britain increased from 1780 because of the resumption of trade with North America which was earlier blocked due to the war of American independence.

Question 9.
What reforms through laws were made since 1819?

  1. Laws of 1819 prohibited the employment of children under the age of nine in factories and working hours reduced to 12 hours a day for the children between the group of 9-16 years.
  2. Act of 1833 permitted children under nine only in silk factories, limited working hours for children above sixteen years, and provided a number of factory inspectors to ensure proper implementation of the Act.
  3. Ten Hours’ Bill was passed in 1847. As per this Bill, working hours of Women and children were reduced further and secured a 10 hour day for male workers.
  4. The Mines and Collieries Act of 1842 banned children under ten and women from working underground.
  5. Fielder’s Factory Act, 1847 prohibited the employment of children under eighteen in the mills and fixed 10 hours a day for women workers.

Question 10.
What has been written by D.H. Lawrence, an essayist and novelist in Britain about the change in villages nearby the mines?
He states that a village namely East Wood was a small place of the cottage and a dilapidated row of buildings for miners’ dwellings. Those all were colliers during the early nineteenth century but with the installation of new machinery for coal digging, the dwelling places were pulled downs and little shops and new buildings were built for minors’ dwelling on the downslope. These were surrounded by roads.

Question 11.
What kind of description of factories made by Charles Dickens in his novel Hard Times?
He tells that the face of the industrial town is unnatural red and black like the painted face of a savage. There are machinery and tall chimneys out of which interminable serpents of smoke trailed themselves forever and ever, and never got uncoiled. There were a black canal and river carrying ill-smelling dye with them. Buildings rattle and tremble all over the day and the piston of the steam engine worked up and down like the head of an elephant in a state of melancholy madness.

The Industrial Revolution Important Extra Questions Long Answer Type

Question 1.
Write an essay on the Industrial Revolution which started from Britain along with the background of genesis, the developments, and percussions.
Background-Industrial Revolution started in Britain because

  1. England, Wales, and Scotland were unified under a monarchy hence, a stable government.
  2. Common laws, single currency, common taxation on entire land facilitated the capital formation and investment in the manufacturing sector.
  3. Money was used as a medium of exchange and a large section of the people received their income in the form of wages and salaries, not in goods.
  4. Demand for consumer goods increased because national savings got a boost.
  5. Under the agricultural revolution, bigger landlords had bought up small farms and enclosed the common land of the village (i.e. pastures). Thus, large estates were made and opened their factories.
  6. Towns were grown in area and population. These were- New castles, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield including London.
  7. There were rivers used for navigation because all of them drained into the sea. There were 1,160 miles of navigable water.
  8. There was a banking facility in each town. There were 600 banks in provinces and 100 banks in London.

Developments-Developments under the industrial revolution can be described as under-
(a) Coal and Iron-England had an immense treasure of minerals like coal, iron ore, lead, copper, and tin. Iron was extracted through the smelting process in the ore. Charcoal was used initially buLeoke came into use when the blast furnace was invented by Abraham Darby. This coke was extracted from coal by removing the sulfur and other impurities. Wrought-iron was developed from pig-iron.

(b) Cotton spinning and Weaving-Invented spinning and weaving machines were-the flying shuttle loom by John Kay, the spinning Jenny by James Hargreaves, the water frame by Richard Arkwright, the Mule by Samuel Crompton, and power loom by Edmund Cartwright. These machines fanned up production on a large scale. Raw cotton was imported from South Asian countries including India and finished product from Britain was exported to the markets of those countries by making twists in tariff and custom rules.

Stream Power-It was used first in moving industries with the increase in demand for coal and metals, efforts to use steam power in deeper mines were made. Thomas Savery built Mariner Friend (a model steam engine) to drain mines. Another engine was built by Newcomen in 1712. James Watt invented the Steam engine in 1769. After 1800, steam engine technology was further developed with the use of lighter, stronger metals, the manufacture of more accurate machine tools, and the spread of better scientific knowledge.

Canals and Railways-Carrying coal from the mill sites to cities was the purpose behind canal construction. Eg. Worsley Canal by James Brindley carrying coal to Manchester. Canal mania sustained from 1788 to 1796 and 6000 miles lengthy canals were built.

Rocket, the stream locomotive by Stephenson started running on rail-road in 1814. Richard Trevithick invented the Puffing Devil i.e. locomotive engine in 1810 and The Butcher was made by George Stephenson. Under railway mania between 1833-37,1400 miles of line and between 1844-47 another 1,500 miles of line was^sanctioned and built.

The Workers-Problems of workers was increased during this period. Machines spread unemployment, pollution, ailments and it resulted in a sharp reduction in the workers’ population. Wages declined and all family members including children and women had to work in factories in order to arrange bread at two breaks. Epidermic due to insanitation and unhygienic living conditions of workers spread. These took a toll ‘on several millions of people. Child labor and women employment in factories, uncertain working hours, less wage, etc. became major issues for protest.

Parliament was constituted by nobles, landlords, wealthy merchants, and traders. Hence, a number of laws were passed from time to time in order to sustain the exploitation of workers. Only in 1847 some laws, after several movements, food riots, and demonstrations; were passed prohibiting child labor and fixed hours of working for men and women. Thus, we can state that the industrial revolution had increased the pains of workers, small industries, handicrafts, and other small-scale vocations.

Conclusion: It was not a revolution because-

  1. Industrialization took a period of forty years in its developments i.e. 1780-1820.
  2. Spurt in cotton and textile trade and iron industry was due to the import of raw material from Britain’s colonies in South Asia including India and exports to their indigenous markets.
  3. A survey made in 1850 revealed that handicraft industries were running parallel to the factories.
  4. Capital formation remained barred due to England’s continuous wars in Europe, North America, and India for 36 years from 1760 ahead.
  5. French Revolution and Napoleonic wars disrupted the progress of the industrial revolution.

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